Previous Page
  Next Page
 
Evokation
 
 
Index
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
=
1
-
5
ADDED
18
18
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
T
=
2
-
2
TO
35
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
A
=
1
-
3
ALL
25
7
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
M
=
4
-
5
MINUS
76
22
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
N
=
5
-
4
NONE
48
21
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
S
=
1
-
6
SHARED
55
28
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
B
=
2
-
2
BY
27
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
E
=
5
-
10
EVERYTHING
133
61
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
M
=
4
-
9
MULTIPLED
121
49
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
I
=
9
-
2
IN
23
14
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
9
ABUNDANCE
65
29
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
35
-
57
First Total
995
266
59
-
1
2
3
8
5
6
14
8
18
-
-
3+5
-
5+7
Add to Reduce
9+9+5
2+6+6
5+9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+4
-
1+8
-
-
8
-
12
Second Total
23
14
14
-
1
2
3
8
5
6
5
8
9
-
-
-
-
1+2
Reduce to Deduce
2+3
1+4
1+4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
3
Essence of Number
5
5
5
-
1
2
3
8
5
6
5
8
9

 

 

26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
-
-
5
6
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
+
=
43
4+3
=
7
=
7
=
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
-
-
14
15
-
-
-
19
-
-
-
-
24
-
26
+
=
115
1+1+5
=
7
=
7
=
7
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
-
1
2
3
4
-
-
7
8
9
-
2
3
4
5
-
7
-
+
=
83
8+3
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
-
10
11
12
13
-
-
16
17
18
-
20
21
22
23
-
25
-
+
=
236
2+3+6
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
+
=
351
3+5+1
=
9
=
9
=
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
+
=
126
1+2+6
=
9
=
9
=
9
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
1
occurs
x
3
=
3
=
3
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
2
occurs
x
3
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
3
occurs
x
3
=
9
=
9
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
+
=
4
occurs
x
3
=
12
1+2
3
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
+
=
5
occurs
x
3
=
15
1+5
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
+
=
6
occurs
x
3
=
18
1+8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
+
=
7
occurs
x
3
=
21
2+1
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
+
=
8
occurs
x
3
=
24
2+4
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
9
occurs
x
2
=
18
1+8
9
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
45
-
-
26
-
126
-
54
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4+5
-
-
2+6
-
1+2+6
-
5+4
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
9
-
-
8
-
9
-
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
9
-
-
8
-
9
-
9

 

 

17Then Daniel answered and said before the king, Let thy gifts be to thyself, and give thy rewards to another; yet I will read the writing unto the king, and make known to him the interpretation. 18O thou king, the most high God gave Nebuchadnezzar thy father a kingdom, and majesty, and glory, and honour: 19And for the majesty that he gave him, all people, nations, and languages, trembled and feared before him: whom he would he slew; and whom he would he kept alive; and whom he would he set up; and whom he would he put down. 20But when his heart was lifted up, and his mind hardened in pride, he was deposed from his kingly throne, and they took his glory from him: 21And he was driven from the sons of men; and his heart was made like the beasts, and his dwelling was with the wild asses: they fed him with grass like oxen, and his body was wet with the dew of heaven; till he knew that the most high God ruled in the kingdom of men, and that he appointeth over it whomsoever he will. 22And thou his son, O Belshazzar, hast not humbled thine heart, though thou knewest all this; 23But hast lifted up thyself against the Lord of heaven; and they have brought the vessels of his house before thee, and thou, and thy lords, thy wives, and thy concubines, have drunk wine in them; and thou hast praised the gods of silver, and gold, of brass, iron, wood, and stone, which see not, nor hear, nor know: and the God in whose hand thy breath is, and whose are all thy ways, hast thou not glorified: 24Then was the part of the hand sent from him; and this writing was written.

25And this is the writing that was written, MENE, MENE, TEKEL, UPHARSIN. 26This is the interpretation of the thing: MENE; God hath numbered thy kingdom, and finished it. 27TEKEL; Thou art weighed in the balances, and art found wanting. 28PERES; Thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and Persians.

29Then commanded Belshazzar, and they clothed Daniel with scarlet, and put a chain of gold about his neck, and made a proclamation concerning him, that he should be the third ruler in the kingdom.

30In that night was Belshazzar the king of the Chaldeans slain. 31And Darius the Median took the kingdom, being about threescore and two years old.

 

 

M
=
4
-
4
MENE
37
19
1
M
=
4
-
4
MENE
37
19
1
T
=
2
-
5
TEKEL
53
17
8
U
=
3
-
8
UPHARSIN
106
43
7
-
-
13
Q
21
First Total
233
98
17
-
-
1+3
-
2+1
Add to Reduce
2+3+3
9+8
1+7
-
-
4
-
3
Second Total
8
17
8
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
-
1+7
-
-
-
4
-
3
Essence of Number
8
8
8

 

 

-
21
M
E
N
E
-
M
E
N
E
-
T
E
K
E
L
-
U
P
H
A
R
S
I
N
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
=
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
1
9
5
+
=
33
3+3
=
6
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
-
14
-
-
-
-
14
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
19
9
14
+
=
78
7+8
=
15
1+5
6
=
6
-
21
M
E
N
E
-
M
E
N
E
-
T
E
K
E
L
-
U
P
H
A
R
S
I
N
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
=
-
-
4
5
-
5
-
4
5
-
5
-
2
5
2
5
3
-
3
7
-
1
9
-
-
-
+
=
65
6+5
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
-
-
13
5
-
5
-
13
5
-
5
-
20
5
11
5
12
-
21
16
-
1
18
-
-
-
+
=
155
1+5+5
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
-
21
M
E
N
E
-
M
E
N
E
-
T
E
K
E
L
-
U
P
H
A
R
S
I
N
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
=
-
-
13
5
14
5
-
13
5
14
5
-
20
5
11
5
12
-
21
16
8
1
18
19
9
14
+
=
233
2+3+3
=
8
=
8
=
8
-
-
4
5
5
5
-
4
5
5
5
-
2
5
2
5
3
-
3
7
8
1
9
1
9
5
+
=
98
9+8
=
17
1+7
8
=
8
-
21
M
E
N
E
-
M
E
N
E
-
T
E
K
E
L
-
U
P
H
A
R
S
I
N
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
occurs
x
2
=
2
=
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
occurs
x
2
=
4
=
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
occurs
x
2
=
6
=
6
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
occurs
x
2
=
8
=
8
-
-
-
5
5
5
-
-
5
5
5
-
-
5
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
5
occurs
x
9
=
45
4+5
9
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
SIX
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
occurs
x
1
=
7
=
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
occurs
x
1
=
8
=
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
9
-
-
-
9
occurs
x
2
=
18
1+8
9
6
21
M
E
N
E
-
M
E
N
E
-
T
E
K
E
L
-
U
P
H
A
R
S
I
N
-
-
39
-
-
21
-
98
-
53
-
2+1
-
5
5
5
-
-
5
5
5
-
-
5
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
9
5
-
-
3+9
-
-
2+1
-
9+8
-
5+3
6
3
M
E
N
E
-
M
E
N
E
-
T
E
K
E
L
-
U
P
H
A
R
S
I
N
-
-
12
-
-
3
-
17
-
8
-
-
4
5
5
5
-
4
5
5
5
-
2
5
2
5
3
-
3
7
8
1
9
1
9
5
-
-
1+2
-
-
-
-
1+7
-
-
6
3
M
E
N
E
-
M
E
N
E
-
T
E
K
E
L
-
U
P
H
A
R
S
I
N
-
-
3
-
-
3
-
8
-
8

 

 

21
M
E
N
E
-
M
E
N
E
-
T
E
K
E
L
-
U
P
H
A
R
S
I
N
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
=
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
1
9
5
+
=
33
3+3
=
6
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
14
-
-
-
-
14
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
19
9
14
+
=
78
7+8
=
15
1+5
6
=
6
21
M
E
N
E
-
M
E
N
E
-
T
E
K
E
L
-
U
P
H
A
R
S
I
N
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
=
-
4
5
-
5
-
4
5
-
5
-
2
5
2
5
3
-
3
7
-
1
9
-
-
-
+
=
65
6+5
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
-
13
5
-
5
-
13
5
-
5
-
20
5
11
5
12
-
21
16
-
1
18
-
-
-
+
=
155
1+5+5
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
21
M
E
N
E
-
M
E
N
E
-
T
E
K
E
L
-
U
P
H
A
R
S
I
N
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
=
-
13
5
14
5
-
13
5
14
5
-
20
5
11
5
12
-
21
16
8
1
18
19
9
14
+
=
233
2+3+3
=
8
=
8
=
8
-
4
5
5
5
-
4
5
5
5
-
2
5
2
5
3
-
3
7
8
1
9
1
9
5
+
=
98
9+8
=
17
1+7
8
=
8
21
M
E
N
E
-
M
E
N
E
-
T
E
K
E
L
-
U
P
H
A
R
S
I
N
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
occurs
x
2
=
2
=
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
occurs
x
2
=
4
=
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
occurs
x
2
=
6
=
6
-
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
occurs
x
2
=
8
=
8
-
-
5
5
5
-
-
5
5
5
-
-
5
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
5
occurs
x
9
=
45
4+5
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
occurs
x
1
=
7
=
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
occurs
x
1
=
8
=
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
9
-
-
-
9
occurs
x
2
=
18
1+8
9
21
M
E
N
E
-
M
E
N
E
-
T
E
K
E
L
-
U
P
H
A
R
S
I
N
-
-
39
-
-
21
-
98
-
53
2+1
-
5
5
5
-
-
5
5
5
-
-
5
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
9
5
-
-
3+9
-
-
2+1
-
9+8
-
5+3
3
M
E
N
E
-
M
E
N
E
-
T
E
K
E
L
-
U
P
H
A
R
S
I
N
-
-
12
-
-
3
-
17
-
8
-
4
5
5
5
-
4
5
5
5
-
2
5
2
5
3
-
3
7
8
1
9
1
9
5
-
-
1+2
-
-
-
-
1+7
-
-
3
M
E
N
E
-
M
E
N
E
-
T
E
K
E
L
-
U
P
H
A
R
S
I
N
-
-
3
-
-
3
-
8
-
8

 

 

21
M
E
N
E
M
E
N
E
T
E
K
E
L
U
P
H
A
R
S
I
N
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
=
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
1
9
5
+
=
33
3+3
=
6
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
14
-
-
-
14
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
19
9
14
+
=
78
7+8
=
15
1+5
6
=
6
21
M
E
N
E
M
E
N
E
T
E
K
E
L
U
P
H
A
R
S
I
N
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
=
-
4
5
-
5
4
5
-
5
2
5
2
5
3
3
7
-
1
9
-
-
-
+
=
65
6+5
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
-
13
5
-
5
13
5
-
5
20
5
11
5
12
21
16
-
1
18
-
-
-
+
=
155
1+5+5
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
21
M
E
N
E
M
E
N
E
T
E
K
E
L
U
P
H
A
R
S
I
N
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
=
-
13
5
14
5
13
5
14
5
20
5
11
5
12
21
16
8
1
18
19
9
14
+
=
233
2+3+3
=
8
=
8
=
8
-
4
5
5
5
4
5
5
5
2
5
2
5
3
3
7
8
1
9
1
9
5
+
=
98
9+8
=
17
1+7
8
=
8
21
M
E
N
E
M
E
N
E
T
E
K
E
L
U
P
H
A
R
S
I
N
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
occurs
x
2
=
2
=
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
occurs
x
2
=
4
=
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
occurs
x
2
=
6
=
6
-
4
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
occurs
x
2
=
8
=
8
-
-
5
5
5
-
5
5
5
-
5
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
5
occurs
x
9
=
45
4+5
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
occurs
x
1
=
7
=
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
occurs
x
1
=
8
=
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
9
-
-
-
9
occurs
x
2
=
18
1+8
9
21
M
E
N
E
M
E
N
E
T
E
K
E
L
U
P
H
A
R
S
I
N
-
-
39
-
-
21
-
98
-
53
2+1
-
5
5
5
-
5
5
5
-
5
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
9
5
-
-
3+9
-
-
2+1
-
9+8
-
5+3
3
M
E
N
E
M
E
N
E
T
E
K
E
L
U
P
H
A
R
S
I
N
-
-
12
-
-
3
-
17
-
8
-
4
5
5
5
4
5
5
5
2
5
2
5
3
3
7
8
1
9
1
9
5
-
-
1+2
-
-
-
-
1+7
-
-
3
M
E
N
E
M
E
N
E
T
E
K
E
L
U
P
H
A
R
S
I
N
-
-
3
-
-
3
-
8
-
8

 

 

The writing on the wall - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_writing_on_the_wall

In John Cheever's short story "Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin," the narrator encounters graffiti (one example running several pages) in various public washrooms.

 

 

Belshazzar's feast - Historical criticism - Jewish interpretations - English idiom

MENE, MENE, TEKEL, UPHARSIN - JewishEncyclopedia.com
www.jewishencyclopedia.com/.../10678-mene-mene-tekel-upharsin

Views of Modern Scholars. Words written by a mysterious hand on the wall of Belshazzar's palace, and interpreted by Daniel as predicting the doom of the king ...

 

 

Daniel 5 NIV - The Writing on the Wall - King - Bible Gateway
www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Daniel+5&version=NIV

25 “This is the inscription that was written: mene, mene, tekel, parsin. 26 “Here is what these words mean: Mene: God has numbered the days of your reign and ...

 

 

MENE MENE TEKEL UPHARSIN(Parsin) Prophecy - Daniel chapter 5

www.bibleinsight.com/menep1.html

Understand the Daniel chapter 5 prophecy, mene mene tekel upharsin(or parsin). Understand Ezekiel 45:12.

MENE MENE TEKEL UPHARSIN(PARSIN)

 

The prophecy is found in Daniel chapter 5 and the surface meaning of the
handwriting of God incident is provided in the verses Daniel 5:25-28.

Dan 5:25 And this is the inscription that was written:

MENE, MENE, TEKEL, UPHARSIN.

:26 This is the interpretation of each word.
MENE: God has numbered your kingdom, and finished
it;
:27 TEKEL: You have been weighed in the balances, and
found wanting;
:28 PERES: Your kingdom has been divided, and given to
the Medes and Persians.

 

 

Bookworm Room » Mene, mene, tekel, upharsin

www.bookwormroom.com/2011/05/29/mene-mene-tekel-upharsin/

29 May 2011 – I've often heard people use the expression “he saw the handwriting on the wall.” I wonder, though, how many know that it originates in the Book ...

 

 

Bible Codes: Daniel 5, "The Writing on the Wall."

www.bible-codes.org/Daniel-5-word-interpreted-pictures-Bible_code...

The Mene-Tekel Bible-Code. "Belshazzar" by .... 25 And this is the writing that was inscribed: MENE, MENE, TEKEL, UPHARSIN. 26 This is the interpretation of ...

Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin

 

 

c4ss.org/content/9282

25 Dec 2011 – Kevin Carson, Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin, Hernando [Florida] Today, 12/30/ ... He read it as "mene, mene, tekel, upharsin," which apparently...

 

MENE, MENE, TEKEL, UPHARSIN

M555, M555, T5K5L, UPHARSI5

MENE, MENE, TEKEL, UPHARSIN

 

 

Eeny, meeny, miny, moe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eeny,_meeny,_miny,_moe

"Eeny, meeny, miny, moe", which can be spelled a number of ways, is a children's counting rhyme, used to select a person to be "it" for games (such as tag) and ...

Current versions - Origins - Controversial version - Variations

Eeny, meeny, miny, moe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For the Sean Kingston and Justin Bieber song, see Eenie Meenie.

"Eeny, meeny, miny, mo"
Roud #18267

Written by

Traditional

Language

English

Form

Nursery rhyme and counting-out game

"Eeny, meeny, miny, moe", which can be spelled a number of ways, is a children's counting rhyme, used to select a person to be "it" for games (such as tag) and similar purposes such as counting out a child that has to be stood down from a group of children as part of a playground game. It is one of a large group of similar 'Counting-out rhymes' where the child pointed-to by the chanter on the last syllable is 'counted out'. The rhyme has existed in various forms since well before 1820,[1] and is common in many languages including German forms, with similar-sounding nonsense syllables.

Since many similar counting rhymes existed earlier, it is difficult to ascertain this rhyme's exact origin.

 

EENY MEENY MINY MOE

555Y M555Y MI5Y MO5

EENY MEENY MINY MOE

 

 

F
6
-
-
FLOWERS
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
F+L
18
9
9
-
-
-
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
-
1
W
23
5
5
-
-
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
1
S
19
10
1
F
6
-
7
FLOWERS
98
44
35
-
-
-
=
-
9+8
4+4
3+5
F
6
-
7
FLOWERS
17
8
8
-
-
-
=
-
1+7
1+2
=
F
6
-
7
FLOWERS
8
8
8

 

WHERE HAVE ALL THE FLOWERS GONE

 

S
1
-
-
SEEDS
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
S
19
10
1
-
-
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
1
D+S
23
14
5
S
1
-
7
SEEDS
52
34
16
-
-
-
=
-
5+2
3+4
1+6
S
1
-
7
SEEDS
7
7
7

 

 

W
5
-
-
WEEDS
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
W
23
5
5
-
-
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
2
D+S
23
14
5
W
5
-
5
WEEDS
56
29
20
-
-
-
=
-
5+6
2+9
2+0
W
5
-
5
WEEDS
11
11
2
-
-
-
=
-
1+1
1+1
=
W
5
-
5
WEEDS
2
2
2

 

 

F
6
-
-
FEEDS
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
2
D+S
23
14
5
F
6
-
5
FEEDS
39
30
21
-
-
-
=
-
3+9
3+0
2+1
F
6
-
5
FEEDS
12
3
3
-
-
-
=
-
1+2
3+4
=
F
6
-
5
FEEDS
3
3
3

 

 

N
5
-
-
NEEDS
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
2
D+S
23
14
5
N
5
-
5
NEEDS
47
29
20
-
-
-
=
-
4+7
2+9
2+0
N
5
-
5
NEEDS
11
11
2
-
-
-
=
-
1+1
1+1
=
N
5
-
5
NEEDS
2
2
2

 

 

D
4
-
-
DEEDS
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
D
4
4
4
-
-
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
2
D+S
23
14
5
D
4
-
5
DEEDS
37
28
19
-
-
-
=
-
3+7
2+8
1+9
D
46
-
5
DEEDS
10
10
10
-
-
-
=
-
1+0
1+0
1+0
D
4
-
5
DEEDS
1
1
1

 

BY THEIR DEEDS YE SHALL KNOW THEM

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
B
=
2
-
2
BY
27
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
T
=
2
-
5
THEIR
60
33
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
D
=
4
-
5
DEEDS
37
19
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Y
=
7
-
2
YE
30
12
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
S
=
1
-
5
SHALL
52
16
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
K
=
2
-
4
KNOW
63
18
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
T
=
2
-
4
THEM
46
19
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
20
-
27
Add to Reduce
315
126
36
-
2
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
18
-
-
2+0
-
2+7
Reduce to Deduce
3+1+5
1+2+6
3+6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+8
-
-
2
-
9
Essence of Number
9
9
9
-
2
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

 

 

JUST SIX NUMBERS

Martin Rees

1
999

OUR COSMIC HABITAT

PLANETS STARS AND LIFE

Page 24

A

proton

is

1,836 times heavier than an electron, and the number 1,836

would have the same connotations to any 'intelligence'

 

 

THE HOURS OF THE HORUS HATH ARRIVED

HURRAH FOR RAH FOR RAH HURRAH

AMEN ALL MEN AMEN ALL WOMEN

 

 

Shakespeare Quotes - Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made on.
www.enotes.com/shakespeare-quotes/we-such-stuff-dreams-made

The Tempest Act 4, scene 1, William Shakespeare

Prospero:
Our revels now are ended. These our actors,
As I foretold you, were all spirits, and
Are melted into air, into thin air:
And like the baseless fabric of this vision,
The cloud-capp'd tow'rs, the gorgeous palaces,
The solemn temples, the great globe itself,
Yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve,
And, like this insubstantial pageant faded,
Leave not a rack behind. We are such stuff
As dreams are made on; and
our little life
Is rounded with a sleep.

 

William Shakespeare ( 26 April 1564 (baptised) – 23 April 1616)
was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English ...

 

W
=
5
-
2
WE
28
10
1
A
=
1
-
3
ARE
24
15
6
S
=
1
-
4
SUCH
51
15
6
S
=
1
-
5
STUFF
72
18
9
A
=
1
-
2
AS
20
2
2
D
=
4
-
6
DREAMS
60
24
6
A
=
1
-
3
ARE
24
15
6
M
=
4
-
4
MADE
23
14
5
O
=
6
-
2
ON
15
6
6
A
=
1
-
3
AND
19
10
1
O
=
6
-
3
OUR
54
18
9
L
=
3
-
6
LITTLE
78
24
6
L
=
3
-
4
LIFE
32
23
5
I
=
9
-
2
IS
28
10
1
R
=
9
-
7
ROUNDED
81
36
9
W
=
5
-
4
WITH
60
24
6
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
S
=
1
-
5
SLEEP
57
21
3
-
-
62
Q
66
First Total
741
291
84
-
-
6+2
-
6+6
Add to Reduce
7+4+1
2+9+1
8+4
-
-
8
-
12
Second Total
12
12
12
-
-
-
-
1+2
Reduce to Deduce
1+2
1+2
1+2
-
-
8
-
3
Essence of Number
3
3
3

 

 

T
=
2
-
3
THE
33
15
6
R
=
9
-
7
REALITY
90
36
9
W
=
5
-
6
WITHIN
83
38
2
T
=
2
-
3
THE
33
15
6
P
=
7
-
7
PATTERN
94
31
4
-
-
25
Q
26
Add to Reduce
333
135
27
-
-
2+5
-
2+6
Reduce to Deduce
3+3+3
1+3+5
2+7
-
-
7
-
8
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

L
3
-
-
LEVEL
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
L
12
3
3
-
-
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
1
V
22
4
4
-
-
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
1
L
12
3
3
L
3
-
5
LEVEL
56
20
20
-
-
-
=
-
5+6
2+0
2+0
L
3
-
5
LEVEL
11
2
2
-
-
-
=
-
1+1
-
-
L
3
-
5
LEVEL
2
2
2

 

 

-
5
L
E
V
E
L
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
5
4
5
3
+
=
20
2+0
=
2
0+0
0
=
1
-
-
12
5
22
5
12
+
=
56
5+6
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
-
5
L
E
V
E
L
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
5
4
5
3
+
=
20
2+0
=
2
0+0
0
=
1
-
-
12
5
22
5
12
+
=
56
5+6
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
-
5
L
E
V
E
L
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
12
5
22
5
12
+
=
56
5+6
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
-
-
3
5
4
5
3
+
=
20
2+0
=
2
=
2
=
2
-
5
L
E
V
E
L
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
ONE
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
TWO
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
3
occurs
x
2
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
4
occurs
x
1
=
4
=
4
-
-
-
5
-
5
-
-
-
5
occurs
x
2
=
10
1+0
1
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
SIX
6
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
SEVEN
7
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
EIGHT
8
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
EIGHT
9
-
-
-
-
-
33
5
L
E
V
E
L
-
-
12
-
-
5
-
20
-
11
3+3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+2
-
-
-
-
2+0
-
1+1
6
5
L
E
V
E
L
-
-
3
-
-
5
-
2
-
2
-
-
3
5
4
5
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
5
L
E
V
E
L
-
-
3
-
-
5
-
2
-
2

 

 

-
5
L
E
V
E
L
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
5
4
5
3
+
=
20
2+0
=
2
0+0
0
=
1
-
-
12
5
22
5
12
+
=
56
5+6
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
-
5
L
E
V
E
L
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
5
4
5
3
+
=
20
2+0
=
2
0+0
0
=
1
-
-
12
5
22
5
12
+
=
56
5+6
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
-
5
L
E
V
E
L
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
12
5
22
5
12
+
=
56
5+6
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
-
-
3
5
4
5
3
+
=
20
2+0
=
2
=
2
=
2
-
5
L
E
V
E
L
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
3
occurs
x
2
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
4
occurs
x
1
=
4
=
4
-
-
-
5
-
5
-
-
-
5
occurs
x
2
=
10
1+0
1
33
5
L
E
V
E
L
-
-
12
-
-
5
-
20
-
11
3+3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+2
-
-
-
-
2+0
-
1+1
6
5
L
E
V
E
L
-
-
3
-
-
5
-
2
-
2
-
-
3
5
4
5
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
5
L
E
V
E
L
-
-
3
-
-
5
-
2
-
2

 

 

C
3
-
-
CONSONANT
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
C+O
18
9
9
-
-
-
2
N+S
33
6
6
-
-
-
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
-
2
N+A
15
6
6
-
-
-
1
T+S
39
12
3
C
3
-
9
CONSONANTS
120
39
30
-
-
-
=
-
1+2+0
3+9
3+0
C
3
-
9
CONSONANTS
3
12
3
-
-
-
=
-
1+0
1+2
=
C
3
-
9
CONSONANTS
3
3
3

 

 

Consonant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consonant

In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are [p], pronounced with ...

List of consonants - Consonant cluster - Click consonant - Consonant (band)

Our updated Terms of Use will become effective on May 25, 2012. Find out more.


Consonant

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

For the alternative rock group, see Consonant (band).

Not to be confused with the musical concept of consonance

Places of
articulation

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Labial

Bilabial

Labial–velar

Labial–coronal

Labiodental

Dentolabial

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bidental

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Coronal

Linguolabial

Interdental

Dental

Denti-alveolar

Alveolar

Postalveolar

Palato-alveolar

Alveolo-palatal

Retroflex

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Dorsal

Palatal

Labial–palatal

Velar

Uvular

Uvular–epiglottal

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Radical

Pharyngeal

Epiglotto-pharyngeal

Epiglottal

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Glottal

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Peripheral
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Tongue shape

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Apical

Laminal

Subapical

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lateral

Sulcal

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Palatal

Pharyngeal

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

See also: Manner of articulation

This page contains phonetic information in IPA, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

view ·
talk ·
edit

In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are [p], pronounced with the lips; [t], pronounced with the front of the tongue; [k], pronounced with the back of the tongue; [h], pronounced in the throat; [f] and [s], pronounced by forcing air through a narrow channel (fricatives); and [m] and [n], which have air flowing through the nose (nasals). Contrasting with consonants are vowels.

Since the number of possible sounds in all of the world's languages is much greater than the number of letters in any one alphabet, linguists have devised systems such as the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to assign a unique and unambiguous symbol to each attested consonant. In fact, the English alphabet has fewer consonant letters than English has consonant sounds, so digraphs like "ch", "sh", "th", and "zh" are used to extend the alphabet, and some letters and digraphs represent more than one consonant. For example, the sound spelled "th" in "this" is a different consonant than the "th" sound in "thin". (In the IPA they are transcribed [ð] and [θ], respectively.)

Contents
[hide] 1 Terminology
2 Letters
3 Consonants versus vowels
4 Features
5 Examples 5.1 Most common

6 Audio samples
7 See also
8 References
9 External links
10 References

[edit] Terminology

The word consonant comes from Latin oblique stem cōnsonant-, from cōnsonāns (littera) "sounding-together (letter)", a calque of Greek σύμφωνον sýmphōnon (plural sýmphōna).[1][2]

Dionysius Thrax calls consonants sýmphōna "pronounced with" because they can only be pronounced with a vowel.[3] He divides them into two subcategories: hēmíphōna, semivowels ("half-pronounced"),[4] which correspond to continuants, not semivowels,[5] and áphōna, mute or silent consonants ("unvoiced"),[6] which correspond to plosives, not voiceless consonants.[7]

This description does not apply to some human languages, such as the Salishan languages, in which plosives sometimes occur without vowels (see Nuxálk), and the modern conception of consonant does not require cooccurrence with vowels.

[edit] Letters

Main article: Writing system

The word consonant is also used to refer to a letter of an alphabet that denotes a consonant sound. Consonant letters in the English alphabet are B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, X, Z, and usually W and Y: The letter Y stands for the consonant [j] in "yoke", the vowel [ɪ] in "myth" and the vowel [i] in "funny", and "yummy" for both consonant and vowel, for examples; W is almost always a consonant except in rare words (mostly loanwords from Welsh) like "crwth" "cwm". There are 21 letters that are consonants.

[edit] Consonants versus vowels

Consonants and vowels correspond to distinct parts of a syllable: The most sonorous part of the syllable (that is, the part that's easiest to sing), called the syllabic peak or nucleus, is typically a vowel, while the less sonorous margins (called the onset and coda) are typically consonants. Such syllables may be abbreviated CV, V, and CVC, where C stands for consonant and V stands for vowel. This can be argued to be the only pattern found in most of the world's languages, and perhaps the primary pattern in all of them. However, the distinction between consonant and vowel is not always clear cut: there are syllabic consonants and non-syllabic vowels in many of the world's languages.

One blurry area is in segments variously called semivowels, semiconsonants, or glides. On the one side, there are vowel-like segments that are not in themselves syllabic but that form diphthongs as part of the syllable nucleus, as the i in English boil [ˈbɔɪ̯l]. On the other, there are approximants that behave like consonants in forming onsets but are articulated very much like vowels, as the y in English yes [ˈjɛs]. Some phonologists model these as both being the underlying vowel /i/, so that the English word bit would phonemically be /bit/, beet would be /bii̯t/, and yield would be phonemically /i̯ii̯ld/. Likewise, foot would be /fut/, food would be /fuu̯d/, wood would be /u̯ud/, and wooed would be /u̯uu̯d/. However, there is a (perhaps allophonic) difference in articulation between these segments, with the [j] in [ˈjɛs] yes and [ˈjiʲld] yield and the [w] of [ˈwuʷd] wooed having more constriction and a more definite place of articulation than the [ɪ] in [ˈbɔɪ̯l] boil or [ˈbɪt] bit or the [ʊ] of [ˈfʊt].

The other problematic area is that of syllabic consonants, segments articulated as consonants but occupying the nucleus of a syllable. This may be the case for words such as church in rhotic dialects of English, although phoneticians differ in whether they consider this to be a syllabic consonant, /ˈtʃɹ̩tʃ/, or a rhotic vowel, /ˈtʃɝtʃ/: Some distinguish an approximant /ɹ/ that corresponds to a vowel /ɝ/, for rural as /ˈɹɝl/ or [ˈɹʷɝːl̩]; others see these as a single phoneme, /ˈɹɹ̩l/.

Other languages use fricative and often trilled segments as syllabic nuclei, as in Czech and several languages in Democratic Republic of the Congo, and China, including Mandarin Chinese. In Mandarin, they are historically allophones of /i/, and spelled that way in Pinyin. Ladefoged and Maddieson[8] call these "fricative vowels" and say that "they can usually be thought of as syllabic fricatives that are allophones of vowels." That is, phonetically they are consonants, but phonemically they behave as vowels.

Many Slavic languages allow the trill [r̩] and the lateral [l̩] as syllabic nuclei (see Words without vowels). In languages like Nuxalk, it is difficult to know what the nucleus of a syllable is, or if all syllables even have nuclei. If the concept of 'syllable' applies in Nuxalk, there are syllabic consonants in words like /sx̩s/ (/s̩xs̩/?) 'seal fat'. Miyako in Japan is similar, with /f̩ks̩/ 'to build' and /ps̩ks̩/ 'to pull'.


Each spoken consonant can be distinguished by several phonetic features:
The manner of articulation is how air escapes from the vocal tract when the consonant or approximant (vowel-like) sound is made. Manners include plosives, fricatives, and nasals.
The place of articulation is where in the vocal tract the obstruction of the consonant occurs, and which speech organs are involved. Places include bilabial (both lips), alveolar (tongue against the gum ridge), and velar (tongue against soft palate). In addition, there may be a simultaneous narrowing at another place of articulation, such as palatalisation or pharyngealisation.
The phonation of a consonant is how the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. When the vocal cords vibrate fully, the consonant is called voiced; when they do not vibrate at all, it is voiceless.
The voice onset time (VOT) indicates the timing of the phonation. Aspiration is a feature of VOT. * The airstream mechanism is how the air moving through the vocal tract is powered. Most languages have exclusively pulmonic egressive consonants, which use the lungs and diaphragm, but ejectives, clicks, and implosives use different mechanisms. * The length is how long the obstruction of a consonant lasts. This feature is borderline distinctive in English, as in "wholly" [hoʊlli] vs. "holy" [hoʊli], but cases are limited to morpheme boundaries. Unrelated roots are differentiated in various languages such as Italian, Japanese, and Finnish, with two length levels, "single" and "geminate". Estonian and some Sami languages have three phonemic lengths: short, geminate, and long geminate, although the distinction between the geminate and overlong geminate includes suprasegmental features.
The articulatory force is how much muscular energy is involved. This has been proposed many times, but no distinction relying exclusively on force has ever been demonstrated.

All English consonants can be classified by a combination of these features, such as "voiceless alveolar plosive" [t]. In this case, the airstream mechanism is omitted.

Some pairs of consonants like p::b, t::d are sometimes called fortis and lenis, but this is a phonological rather than phonetic distinction.

Consonants are scheduled by their features in a number of IPA charts:

Where symbols appear in pairs, left—right represent the voiceless—voiced consonants.

Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged to be impossible.

* Symbol not defined in IPA.

[edit] Examples

The recently extinct Ubykh language had only 2 or 3 vowels but 84 consonants;[9] the Taa language has 87 consonants under one analysis, 164 under another, plus some 30 vowels and tone.[10] The types of consonants used in various languages are by no means universal. For instance, nearly all Australian languages lack fricatives; a large percentage of the world's languages, for example Mandarin Chinese, lack voiced plosives as phonemes such as [b], [d], and [ɡ]. Most languages, however, do include one or more fricatives, with [s] being the most common, and a liquid consonant or two, with [l] the most common. The approximant [w] is also widespread, and virtually all languages have one or more nasal stops, though a very few, such as the Central dialect of Rotokas, lack even these. This last language has the smallest number of consonants in the world, with just six.

[edit] Most common

The most common consonants around the world are the three voiceless plosives [p], [t], [k], and the two nasals [m], [n]. However, even these common five are not universal. Several languages in the vicinity of the Sahara Desert, including Arabic, lack [p]. Several languages of North America, such as Mohawk, lack both of the labials [p] and [m]. The Wichita language of Oklahoma and some West African languages such as Ijo lack the consonant /n/ on a phonemic level, but do use it as an allophone of another consonant (of /l/ in the case of Ijo, and of /ɾ/ in Wichita). A few languages on Bougainville Island and around Puget Sound, such as Makah, lack both of the nasals [m] and [n]. The 'click language' Nǁng lacks [t],[11] and colloquial Samoan lacks both alveolars, [t] and [n].[12] Despite the 80-odd consonants of Ubykh, it lacks the plain velar /k/ in native words, as do the related Adyghe and Kabardian languages. But with a few striking exceptions, such as Xavante and Tahitian - which have no dorsal consonants whatsoever - nearly all other languages have at least one velar consonant: the few languages that do not have a simple [k] usually have a consonant that is very similar.[13] For instance, an areal feature of the Pacific Northwest coast is that historical *[k] has become palatalized in many languages, so that Saanich for example has [tʃ] and [kʷ] but no plain [k];[14][15] similarly, historical *[k] in the Northwest Caucasian languages became palatalized to /kʲ/ in Ubykh and /tʃ/ in most Circassian dialects.[16]

The most frequent consonant (that is, the one appearing most often in speech) in many languages is [k].[citation needed]

Where symbols appear in pairs, left—right represent the voiceless—voiced consonants

[edit] See also
Articulatory phonetics
List of consonants
List of phonetics topics
Words without vowels

[edit] References

1.^ σύμφωνος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at Perseus Project
2.^ Robert K. Barnhart, ed., Chambers Dictionary of Etymology, Previously published as The Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology, originally ©1988 The H.W. Wilson Company; Edinburgh, reprinted 2001: Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd., p. 210.
3.^ Dionysius Thrax. τέχνη γραμματική (Art of Grammar), ς´ περὶ στοιχείου (6. On the Sound): σύμφονα δὲ τὰ λοιπὰ ἑπτακαίδεκα· β γ δ ζ θ κ λ μ ν ξ π ρ σ τ φ χ ψ. σύμφοναι δὲ +λέγονται+, ὅτι αὐτὰ μὲν καθ᾽ ἑαυτὰ φωνὴν οὐκ ἔχει, συντασσόμενα δὲ μετὰ τῶν φωνηέντων φωνὴν ἀποτελεῖ. The remaining seventeen are consonants: b, g, d, z, th, k, l, m, n, x, p, r, s, t, ph, ch, ps. They are called consonants because they do not have a sound on their own, but, when arranged with vowels, they produce a sound.
4.^ ἡμίφωνος in Liddell and Scott
5.^ Dionysius Thrax: τούτων ἡμίφωνα μέν ἐστιν ὀκτώ· ζ ξ ψ λ μ ν ρ σ. ἡμίφωνα δὲ λέγεται, ὅτι παρ᾽ ὅσον ἧττον τῶν φωνηέντων εὔφωνα καθέστηκεν ἔν τε τοῖς μυγμοῖς καὶ σιγμοῖς. Of these, eight are semivowels [half-pronounced]: z, x, ps, l, m, n, r, s. They are called semivowels, because, though a little weaker than the vowels, they are still harmonious [well-sounding] in their moaning and hissing.
6.^ ἄφωνος in Liddell and Scott
7.^ Dionysius Thrax: ἄφωνα δέ ἐστιν ἐννέα· β γ δ κ π τ θ φ χ. ἄφωνα δὲ λέγεται, ὅτι μᾶλλον τῶν ἄλλων ἐστὶν κακόφωνα, ὥσπερ ἄφωνον λέγομεν τὸν τραγωιδὸν τὸν κακόφωνον. Nine are silent [unpronounced]: b, g, d, k, p, t, th, ph, ch. They are called silent, because, more than the others, they are discordant [ill-sounding], just as we call the ill-sounding tragedy "silent".
8.^ Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.
9.^ Georges Dumézil and Tevfik Esenç, 1975, Le verbe oubykh: études descriptives et comparatives. Adrien Maisonneuve: Paris.
10.^ Naumann, Christfied (2008). "The Consonantal System of West !Xoon". 3rd International Symposium on Khoisan Languages and Linguistics. Riezlern.
11.^ Nǀu has a [ts] instead. Hawaiian is often said to lack a [t], but it actually has a consonant that varies between [t] and [k].
12.^ Samoan words written with the letters t and n are pronounced with [k] and [ŋ] except in formal speech. However, Samoan does have an alveolar consonant, [l].
13.^ The Niʻihau–Kauaʻi dialect of Hawaiian is often said to have no [k], but as in other dialects of Hawaiian it has a consonant that varies between [t] and [k], with [t] before [i] but [k] at the beginnings of words, though they are often in free variation.
14.^ Ian Maddieson and Sandra Ferrari Disner, 1984, Patterns of Sounds. Cambridge University Press
15.^ The World Atlas of Language Structures Online: Absence of Common Consonants
16.^ Viacheslav A. Chirikba, 1996, Common West Caucasian: the reconstruction of its phonological system and parts of its lexicon and morphology, p. 192. Research School CNWS: Leiden.

[edit] References

Ian Maddieson, Patterns of Sounds, Cambridge University Press, 1984. ISBN 0-521-26536-3

v ·
t ·
e

International Phonetic Alphabet

Languages

Afrikaans
Alemannisch
العربية
Arpetan
Asturianu
বাংলা
Беларуская
Български
བོད་ཡིག
Brezhoneg
Català
Чӑвашла
Česky
Cymraeg
Dansk
Deutsch
Eesti
Ελληνικά
Español
Esperanto
Euskara
فارسی
Français
Frysk
Gaelg
Gàidhlig
Galego
한국어
हिन्दी
Hrvatski
Ido
Bahasa Indonesia
Íslenska
Italiano
עברית
Basa Jawa
ಕನ್ನಡ
ქართული
Қазақша
Kernowek
Kiswahili
Kreyòl ayisyen
Kurdî
ລາວ
Latina
Latviešu
Lietuvių
Lingála
Lumbaart
Magyar
മലയാളം
मराठी
Bahasa Melayu
Nederlands
日本語
‪Norsk (bokmål)‬
‪Norsk (nynorsk)‬
Polski
Português
Română
Runa Simi
Русский
Simple English
Slovenčina
Slovenščina
Српски / Srpski
Srpskohrvatski / Српскохрватски
Suomi
Svenska
தமிழ்
ไทย
Українська
Tiếng Việt
Walon
Winaray
粵語
中文

This page was last modified on 7 May 2012 at 11:25

 

 

C
3
-
-
CONSONANT
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
C+O
18
9
9
-
-
-
2
N+S
33
6
6
-
-
-
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
-
2
N+A
15
6
6
-
-
-
1
T+S
39
12
3
C
3
-
9
CONSONANTS
120
39
30
-
-
-
=
-
1+2+0
3+9
3+0
C
3
-
9
CONSONANTS
3
12
3
-
-
-
=
-
1+0
1+2
=
C
3
-
9
CONSONANTS
3
3
3

 

 

S
1
-
-
SPELLING
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
S
19
10
1
-
-
-
2
P+E
21
12
3
-
-
-
1
L
12
3
3
-
-
-
2
L
12
3
3
-
-
-
2
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
1
N+G
21
12
3
S
1
-
9
SPELLING
94
49
22
-
-
-
=
-
9+4
4+9
2+2
S
1
-
9
SPELLING
13
13
4
-
-
-
=
-
1+3
1+3
=
S
1
-
9
SPELLING
4
4
4

 

 

G
7
-
5
GUESS
71
17
8
W
5
-
3
WHO
46
19
1
I
9
-
2
IS
28
10
1
S
1
-
9
SPELLING
94
49
4
I
9
-
2
IT
29
11
2
O
6
-
2
OUT
56
11
2
-
37
-
23
First Total
324
117
9
-
3+7
-
2+3
Add to Reduce
3+2+4
1+1+7
=
-
10
-
5
Second Total
9
9
9
-
1+0
-
=
Reduce to Deduce
-
-
=
-
1
-
5
Essence of Number
13
13
4

 

 

A
1
-
3
AND
19
10
1
T
2
-
7
TELLING
79
34
7
I
9
-
2
IT
29
11
2
L
3
-
4
LIKE
37
19
1
I
9
-
2
IT
29
11
2
I
9
-
2
IS
28
10
1
-
33
-
20
-
221
95
14
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
A
1
-
6
ALWAYS
81
27
9
-
34
-
26
Add to Reduce
302
122
23
-
3+4
-
2+6
Reduce to Deduce
3+0+2
1+2+2
2+3
-
7
-
8
Essence of Number
5
5
5

 

 

-
ZEUS
-
-
-
-
Z
26
8
8
-
EUS
45
18
9
5
ZEUS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
ODYSSEUS
-
-
-
-
ODYSS
82
19
1
-
EUS
45
18
9
8
ODYSSEUS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
PERSEUS
-
-
-
-
PERS
58
22
4
-
EUS
45
18
9
7
PERSEUS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
THESEUS
-
-
-
-
THES
52
16
7
-
EUS
45
18
9
7
THESEUS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
ORPHEUS
-
-
-
-
ORPH
57
30
3
-
EUS
45
18
9
7
ORPHEUS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
PROMETHEUS
-
-
-
-
PROMETH
95
41
5
-
EUS
45
18
9
10
PROMETHEUS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
AMADEUS
-
-
-
-
AMAD
95
41
5
-
EUS
45
18
9
7
AMADEUS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
HERCULES
-
-
-
-
HERCU
55
28
1
-
LES
36
18
9
8
HERCULES
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
ACHILLES
-
-
-
-
ACHIL
55
28
1
-
LES
36
18
9
8
ACHILLES
-
-
-

 

 

-
ZEUS
-
-
-
-
Z
-
-
-
-
EUS
5
3
1
5
ZEUS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
ODYSSEUS
-
-
-
-
ODYSS
-
-
-
-
EUS
45
9
9
8
ODYSSEUS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
PERSEUS
-
-
-
-
PERS
-
-
-
-
EUS
45
9
9
7
PERSEUS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
THESEUS
-
-
-
-
THES
-
-
-
-
EUS
45
9
9
7
THESEUS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
ORPHEUS
-
-
-
-
ORPH
-
-
-
-
EUS
45
9
9
7
ORPHEUS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
PROMETHEUS
-
-
-
-
PROMETH
-
-
-
-
EUS
45
9
9
10
PROMETHEUS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
HERCULES
-
-
-
-
HERCU
-
-
-
-
LES
36
9
9
8
HERCULES
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
ACHILLES
-
-
-
-
ACHIL
-
-
-
-
LES
36
9
9
8
ACHILLES
-
-
-

 

 

-
ZEUS
E
U
S
-
Z
-
-
-
-
EUS
5
3
1
5
ZEUS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
ODYSSEUS
-
-
-
-
ODYSS
-
-
-
-
EUS
5
3
1
8
ODYSSEUS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
PERSEUS
-
-
-
-
PERS
-
-
-
-
EUS
5
3
1
7
PERSEUS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
THESEUS
-
-
-
-
THES
-
-
-
-
EUS
5
3
1
7
THESEUS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
ORPHEUS
-
-
-
-
ORPH
-
-
-
-
EUS
5
3
1
7
ORPHEUS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
PROMETHEUS
-
-
-
-
PROMETH
-
-
-
-
EUS
5
3
1
10
PROMETHEUS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
HERCULES
-
-
-
-
HERCU
-
-
-
-
LES
5
3
1
8
HERCULES
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
ACHILLES
-
-
-
-
ACHIL
-
-
-
-
LES
5
3
1
8
ACHILLES
-
-
-

 

 

-
ORPHEUS
-
-
-
-
ORPH
57
30
3
-
E
5
5
5
-
U
21
3
3
-
S
19
1
1
7
ORPHEUS
102
39
17
-
-
1+0+2
3+9
1+7
7
ORPHEUS
3
12
3
-
-
-
1+2
-
7
ORPHEUS
3
3
3

 

 

-
PROMETHEUS
-
-
-
-
PROMETH
95
41
5
-
E
5
5
5
-
U
21
3
3
-
S
19
1
1
10
PROMETHEUS
71
17
17
1+0
-
7+1
1+7
1+7
1
PROMETHEUS
8
8
8

 

 

3
THE
33
15
6
4
MIND
40
22
4
2
OF
21
12
3
9
HUMANKIND
95
41
5
18
First Total
189
90
18
1+8
Add to Reduce
1+8+9
9+0
1+8
9
Second Total
18
9
9
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+8
-
-
9
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

3
THE
33
15
6
6
DIVINE
63
36
9
4
MIND
40
22
4
2
OF
21
12
3
9
HUMANKIND
95
41
5
24
Add to Reduce
252
126
27
2+4
Reduce to Deduce
2+5+2
1+2+6
2+7
6
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

2
IS
28
10
1
9
UNIVERSAL
121
40
4
4
MIND
40
22
4
3
THE
33
15
6
4
MIND
40
22
4
2
OF
21
12
3
9
HUMANKIND
95
41
5
18
First Total
378
162
27
1+8
Add to Reduce
3+7+8
1+6+2
2+7
9
Second Total
18
9
9
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+8
-
-
9
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

9
UNIVERSAL
121
40
4
4
MIND
40
22
4
2
IS
28
10
1
3
THE
33
15
6
4
MIND
40
22
4
2
OF
21
12
3
9
HUMANKIND
95
41
5
33
First Total
378
162
27
3+3
Add to Reduce
3+7+8
1+6+2
2+7
6
Second Total
18
9
9
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+8
-
-
6
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

NATO phonetic alphabet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NATO_phonetic_alphabet

The NATO phonetic alphabet, more accurately known as the NATO spelling alphabet and also called the ICAO phonetic or spelling alphabet, the ITU phonetic ...

Spelling alphabet - International Phonetic Alphabet - LAPD phonetic alphabet

 


-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
T
=
2
-
3
THE
33
15
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
N
=
5
-
4
NATO
50
14
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
P
=
7
-
8
PHONETIC
90
45
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
A
=
1
-
8
ALPHABET
65
29
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
15
-
23
-
238
103
2+2
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I
=
9
-
2
IS
28
10
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
24
-
25
First Total
266
113
23
-
-
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
2+4
-
2+5
Add to Reduce
2+6+6
1+1+3
2+3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
Q
7
Second Total
14
5
5
Q
Q
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
Q
7
Essence of Number
5
5
5
Q
Q
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

 

 

NATO phonetic alphabet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

The NATO phonetic alphabet is a way of using words to replace letters. Although it is called a "phonetic alphabet" because it is used so no one gets confused when saying letters, it does not have the same reasons as the International Phonetic Alphabet or other phonetic alphabets. The first letter of the word is the letter the word stands for. This is done to help make speech easier to understand at times when it is important to be understood such as in the military and in air travel. There have been many different phonetic alphabets over time. On board ships, flags are known as these letters, and each have their own meanings. Different countries also have different phonetic alphabets.

[change] Alphabet

Oscar, on board ship, means Man Overboard
This is the phonetic alphabet that is used most often today:

 

ALPHA BRAVO CHARLIE DELTA ECHO FOXTROT GOLF HOTEL INDIA

JULIET KILO LIMA MIKE NOVEMBER OSCAR PAPA QUEBEC ROMEO

SIERRA TANGO UNIFORM VICTOR WHISKY X RAY YANKEE ZULU


 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
T
=
2
-
3
THE
33
15
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
N
=
5
-
4
NATO
50
14
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
P
=
7
-
8
PHONETIC
90
45
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
A
=
1
-
8
ALPHABET
65
29
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
15
-
23
-
238
103
2+2
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
=
1
-
5
ALPHA
38
20
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
B
=
2
-
5
BRAVO
58
22
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
C
=
3
-
7
CHARLIE
56
38
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
D
=
4
-
5
DELTA
42
15
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
E
=
5
-
4
ECHO
31
22
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
F
=
6
-
7
FOXTROT
118
37
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
G
=
7
-
4
GOLF
40
22
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
H
=
8
-
5
HOTEL
60
24
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
I
=
9
-
5
INDIA
37
28
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
J
=
1
-
6
JULIET
77
23
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
K
=
2
-
4
KILO
47
20
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
L
=
3
-
4
LIMA
35
17
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
M
=
4
-
4
MIKE
38
20
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
N
=
5
-
8
NOVEMBER
94
40
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
O
=
6
-
5
OSCAR
56
20
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
P
=
7
-
4
PAPA
34
16
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
Q
=
8
-
6
QUEBEC
53
26
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
R
=
9
-
5
ROMEO
66
30
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
S
=
1
-
6
SIERRA
70
34
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
T
=
2
-
5
TANGO
57
21
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
U
=
3
-
7
UNIFORM
96
42
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
V
=
4
-
6
VICTOR
87
33
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
W
=
5
-
6
WHISKY
95
32
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
X
=
6
-
4
XRAY
68
23
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
Y
=
7
-
6
YANKEE
61
25
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
Z
=
8
-
4
ZULU
80
17
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
351
-
137
-
1594
667
118
-
2
10
6
16
15
24
21
24
9
-
-
3+5+1
-
1+3+7
-
1+5+9+4
6+6+7
1+1+8
-
-
1+0
-
1+6
1+5
2+4
2+1
2+4
-
Q
-
9
Q
10
Q
19
19
10
Q
2
1
6
7
6
6
3
6
9
-
-
-
-
1+0
-
1+9
1+9
1+0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
Q
1
Q
10
10
1
Q
2
1
6
7
6
6
3
6
9
-
-
-
-
1+0
-
1+0
1+0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
Q
1
Q
1
1
1
Q
2
1
6
7
6
6
3
6
9

 

 

simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/NATO_phonetic_alphabet

The NATO phonetic alphabet is a way of using words to replace letters. Although it is ... The English numbers 0 through 8 are written and spoken the same.

Numbers (FAA, ICAO)

 

Number: Code Word Pronunciation:

0 Zero Zee Row