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Evokation
 
 
Index
 

 

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
=
1
-
5
ADDED
18
18
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
T
=
2
-
2
TO
35
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
A
=
1
-
3
ALL
25
7
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
M
=
4
-
5
MINUS
76
22
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
N
=
5
-
4
NONE
48
21
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
S
=
1
-
6
SHARED
55
28
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
B
=
2
-
2
BY
27
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
E
=
5
-
10
EVERYTHING
133
61
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
M
=
4
-
10
MULTIPLED
121
49
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
I
=
9
-
2
IN
23
14
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
9
ABUNDANCE
65
29
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
35
-
58
First Total
995
266
59
-
1
2
3
8
5
6
14
8
18
-
-
3+5
-
5+8
Add to Reduce
9+9+5
2+6+6
5+9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+4
-
1+8
-
-
8
-
13
Second Total
23
14
10
-
1
2
3
8
5
6
5
8
9
-
-
-
-
1+3
Reduce to Deduce
2+3
1+4
1+0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
4
Essence of Number
5
5
5
-
1
2
3
8
5
6
5
8
9

 

 

26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
-
-
5
6
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
+
=
43
4+3
=
7
-
7
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
-
-
14
15
-
-
-
19
-
-
-
-
24
-
26
+
=
115
1+1+5
=
7
-
7
-
7
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
-
1
2
3
4
-
-
7
8
9
-
2
3
4
5
-
7
-
+
=
83
8+3
=
11
1+1
2
-
2
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
-
10
11
12
13
-
-
16
17
18
-
20
21
22
23
-
25
-
+
=
236
2+3+6
=
11
1+1
2
-
2
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
+
=
351
3+5+1
=
9
-
9
-
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
+
=
126
1+2+6
=
9
-
9
-
9
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
1
occurs
x
3
=
3
-
3
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
2
occurs
x
3
=
6
-
6
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
3
occurs
x
3
=
9
-
9
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
+
=
4
occurs
x
3
=
12
1+2
3
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
+
=
5
occurs
x
3
=
15
1+5
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
+
=
6
occurs
x
3
=
18
1+8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
+
=
7
occurs
x
3
=
21
2+1
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
+
=
8
occurs
x
3
=
24
2+4
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
9
occurs
x
2
=
18
1+8
9
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
45
-
-
26
-
126
-
54
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4+5
-
-
2+6
-
1+2+6
-
5+4
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
9
-
-
8
-
9
-
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
9
-
-
8
-
9
-
9

 

 

S
=
1
6
SOURCE
81
36
9
O
=
6
2
OF
21
12
3
T
=
2
3
THE
33
15
6
R
=
9
5
RIVER
72
36
9
-
-
18
16
First Total
243
99
27
-
-
1+8
1+6
Add to Reduce
2+4+3
9+9
2+7
-
-
9
7
Second Total
9
18
9
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
-
1+8
-
-
-
9
7
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

4
SELF
42
15
6
-
CONSCIOUS
-
-
-
2
C+O
18
9
9
3
N+S+C
36
9
9
1
I
9
9
9
2
O+U
36
9
9
1
S
19
10
1
9
CONSCIOUS
118
46
37
-
-
1+1+8
4+6
3+7
9
CONSCIOUS
10
10
10
-
-
1+0
1+0
1+0
9
CONSCIOUS
1
1
1

 

 

-
CONSCIENCE
-
-
-
2
C+O
18
9
9
3
N+S+C
36
9
9
1
I
9
9
9
4
E+N+C+E
27
9
9
10
CONSCIENCE
90
36
36
1+0
-
9+0
3+6
3+6
1
CONSCIENCE
9
9
9

 

 

DOES GOD PLAY DICE

 

D
=
4
-
4
DOES
43
16
7
G
=
7
-
3
GOD
26
17
8
P
=
7
-
4
PLAY
54
18
9
D
=
4
-
4
DICE
39
21
3
-
-
22
-
15
Add to Reduce
162
72
27
-
-
2+2
-
1+5
Reduce to Deduce
1+6+2
7+2
2+7
-
-
4
-
6
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 



Does God play Dic
e? - Stephen Hawking

www.hawking.org.uk/does-god-play-dice.html‎


Does God Play Dice: The New Mathematics of Chaos (1989) is a book about chaos theory written by mathematician Ian Stewart. In this book Stewart explains ...

Mathematician Ian Stewart--who is also a very talented writer--shares his insights into the history and nature of the highly complex in Does God Play Dice: The ...

Bohr v Einstein - Does God play dice? - BBC
www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/...v...does-god-play-dice/14353.html‎


Book Review: Does God Play Dice - American Mathematical Society
www.ams.org/notices/200211/rev-holmes.pdf‎
by P Holmes - ‎2002 - ‎Related articles
Book Review. Does God Play Dice: The New. Mathematics of Chaos and. What Shape Is a Snowflake? Magical Numbers in Nature. Reviewed by Philip Holmes.

 

 

GREAT PHILOSOPHIES OF THE EAST

E. W. F. Tomlin 1952

Page 159

"Like the conpilers of the Old Testament: the editors of the Rig-Veda anthology were,careful to preserve intact material beloning to different epochs, We are thus able to trace the development of the early Aryan, religious consciousness , just as a reading of early and later parts of the Bible affords us an enlarged conception of the nature of the Hebrew Yahve. There is wisdom in this refusal on the part of priestly guardians to suppress the primitive elements of their faith; for these are better kept well before the eye than allowed to fester, as the result of exision, in that uneasy corner to be found in the most devout conscience. Some of the vedic hymns are merely satirical, such as that addressed 'To Frogs', which is considered to be a satire on the priesthood; or straightforward vers de societe- such as that on the 'The Gambler', of whose ('dice dearer than soma') it is said:

Downward they roll, and then spring quickly upward, and handless, force

The man with hands to serve them.

Cast on the board, like lumps of magic charcoal, though cold themselves, they burn

The heart to ashes."

 

 

CHANCE, SKILL, AND LUCK

The psychology of guessing and gambling

John Cohen 1960

Page57

"The propounding of a riddle to an an opponent served a purpose similar to that of divination, for it provided him with an opportunity to demonstrate that the gods supported- him. The questioner held him bound until he found the solution, and once he had found it he was free. The riddle thus had a sacred significance. 10,11 Divination by lot or riddle was never merely a resort to meaningless chance. It was an appeal directed to supernatural powers, as when the Greek heroes cast lots to decide who would fight with Hector.12 Since it is impossible to predict the fall of a die or the result of casting lots the outcome must presumably be decided by divine intervention. The professional diviners in the market-places of China foretold the future by means of the samse lots with which the people gambled. To this day playing cards are used for telling fortunes as well as for gambling, on the assumption that a supernatural force influences the shuffling of the cards and hence governs the result. Divination embodies the idea that the gods themselves govern the universe by gambling. The Ases of Scandinavian myths, like the Hindu Siva, god of a thousand names', determined the fate of mankind by throw-/Page 58/ing dice. So, two, in Homer's Illiad (Bookxv), Poseidon, Zeus and Hades divide the world between them by shaking lots, which by their special power could reveal the will of the gods.13 In the myth of Osiris, Rhea (Nut= the heaven) had five children born on the the five 'epagomenal' days of the year, after the 360th day. Hermes (Thoth) had won those days during a game of draughts with Selene (the moon).

 

 

DOES GOD PLAY DICE

THE NEW MATHEMATICS OF CHAOS

Ian Stewart 1989

Page 1

PROLOGUE

CLOCKWORK OR CHAOS?

"YOU BELIEVE IN A GOD WHO PLAYS DICE, AND I IN COMPLETE LAW AND ORDER."

Albert Einstein, Letter to Max Born

 

 

The Death Of Forever

A New Future for Human Consciousness

Darryl Reanney (1995 Edition)

Page 219

(It was this indeterminate character of quantum mechanics that caused Einstein to complain that God 'did not play dice with the world'.)

 

 

TWO HANDS OF GOD

An Exploration of the Underlying Unity of all Things

Alan Watts 1963

The Cosmic Dance

Page 98

"In Puranic literature the Hindu gods, like those of the Greeks, disport themselves by descending to the human condition and allowing them selves to be carried away by human passions. This is perhaps a way of saying that at every level of /Page 98/ life- divine, human, or animal-the problem and predicament of life is the same; an eternal giving-in to the temptation of losing control of the situation, of trusting oneself to chance-the passion of the gambler. Hence the words of Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita " I am the gambling of the cheat."

 

 

DAILY MIRROR

Tuesday November 25, 2008

Front Page

By Bob Roberts, Political Editor

"THE GAMBLER"

"...ACES HIGH..."

"...holding winning hand..."

"...gamble..."

Page 4

"...gamble..."

"...gamble..."

Page 5

"...gamble..."

 

 

DAILY MAIL

Monday, November 24, 2008

Front Page

By Michael Lea Political Correspondent

"...GAMBLE ON YOUR FUTURE..."

"...gamble..."

Page 6

"...gamble..."

 

 

DAILY MAIL

Friday, August 10, 2007

By James Chapman Deputy Political Editor

Front Page

"...GAMBLING..."

"...gambling..."

"...gambling..."

"...gambling..."

"...gambling..."

Page 4

"Gambling our future"

"...Gambling..."

"...gambling..."

"...gambling..."

"...gambling..."

"...gambling..."

"...gambling..."

"...gambling..."

"...gambling..."

"...Gambling..."

"...gambling..."

"...gambling..."

"...gambling..."

"...gambling..."

"...gambling..."

"...gamblers..."

"...gambling..."

Page 12/13

".Lucan I should be so lucky"

By Brian Masters

Page 13

"What ingrediants are needed to ensure these stories endure? The tales must involve somebody famous, somebody rich, somebody notorious, somebody dead, or somebody about whom mystery can be endlessly invoked. If you can manage all these then you have a winner"

"...gambled..."

 

 

PLAY UP PLAY UP AND PLAY THE GAME

 

ODDS AND EVENS

 

HEADS I WIN TAILS YOU LOSE

 

 

AGAINST THE GODS

THE REMARKABLE STORY OF RISK

Peter L. Bernstein

Page 11

The Winds of the Greeks and the Role of the Dice

"Human beings have always been infatuated with gambling because it puts us head to head against the fates, with no holds barred. We enter this daunting battle because we are convinced that we have a powerful ally: Lady Luck will interpose herself between us and the fates / Page 12 /(or the odds) to bring victory to our side."

Page 50

"On the cast of one die"

 

 

GOD

Alexander Waugh

Page 162

Einstein's blunder. - When Einstein tried to refute quantum physics with his now famous dictum 'God does not play dice' He revealed his ignorance of scripture, for God does indeed play dice in the form of a game called urim and thummim. These flat stone dice are mentioned many times in the Hebrew Bible.

 

 

A
=
1
-
6
ALBERT
58
22
4
E
=
5
-
8
EINSTEIN
95
41
5
-
-
6
-
14
Add to Reduce
153
63
9
-
-
2+2
-
1+4
Reduce to Deduce
1+5+3
6+3
-
-
-
6
-
5
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 


Albert Einstein - Wikiquote

en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein‎

I, at any rate, am convinced that He does not throw dice. .... and the Poet, Einstein said: "As I have said so many times, God doesn't play dice with the world."
Albert Einstein

A hundred times every day I remind myself that my inner and outer life are based on the labors of other men, living and dead, and that I must exert myself in order to give in the same measure as I have received and am still receiving...
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a theoretical physicist and humanist who is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time. He is most famous for his Special and General Theories of Relativity, but contributed in other areas of physics. He won the Nobel Prize in physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect.

A new type of thinking is essential if mankind is to survive and move toward higher levels. From "Atomic Education Urged by Einstein", New York Times (25 May 1946), and later quoted in the article "The Real Problem is in the Hearts of Man" by Michael Amrine, from the New York Times Magazine (23 June 1946). A slightly modified version of the 23 June article was reprinted in Einstein on Peace by Otto Nathan and Heinz Norden (1960), and it was also reprinted in Einstein on Politics by David E. Rowe and Robert Schulmann (2007), p. 383.
In The New Quotable Einstein (2005), editor Alice Calaprice suggests that two quotes attributed to Einstein which she could not find sources for, "The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them" and "The world we have created today as a result of our thinking thus far has problems which cannot be solved by thinking the way we thought when we created them," may both be paraphrases of the 1946 quote above. A similar unsourced variant is "The world we have created is a product of our thinking; it cannot be changed without changing our thinking."
In the 23 June article Einstein expanded somewhat on the original quote from the 25 May article: Many persons have inquired concerning a recent message of mine that "a new type of thinking is essential if mankind is to survive and move to higher levels."Often in evolutionary processes a species must adapt to new conditions in order to survive. Today the atomic bomb has altered profoundly the nature of the world as we knew it, and the human race consequently finds itself in a new habitat to which it must adapt its thinking.In the light of new knowledge, a world authority and an eventual world state are not just desirable in the name of brotherhood, they are necessary for survival. In previous ages a nation's life and culture could be protected to some extent by the growth of armies in national competition. Today we must abandon competition and secure cooperation. This must be the central fact in all our considerations of international affairs; otherwise we face certain disaster. Past thinking and methods did not prevent world wars. Future thinking must prevent wars.

Letter of 1950, as quoted in The New York Times (29 March 1972) and The New York Post (28 November 1972). However, The New Quotable Einstein by Alice Calaprice (Princeton University Press, 2005: ISBN 0691120749), p. 206, has a different and presumably more accurate version of this letter, which she dates to February 12, 1950 and describes as "a letter to a distraught father who had lost his young son and had asked Einstein for some comforting words":

A human being is a part of the whole, called by us "Universe," a part limited in time and space. He experiences himself, his thoughts and feelings as something separate from the rest—a kind of optical delusion of his consciousness. The striving to free oneself from this delusion is the one issue of true religion. Not to nourish it but to try to overcome it is the way to reach the attainable measure of peace of mind.

I am enough of an artist to draw freely upon my imagination. Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world.

 

 

Quote by Albert Einstein: God does not play dice with the universe.

www.goodreads.com/.../2669-god-does-not-play-dice-with-the-universe‎

“God does not play dice with the universe.”

― Albert Einstein, The Born-Einstein Letters 1916-55

 

 

5
URIMM
61
25
7
7
THUMMIM
97
34
7

 

GOD

Alexander Waugh 2002

Page 162

Einstein's blunder. - When Einstein tried to refute quantum physics with his now famous dictum 'God does not play dice' He revealed his ignorance of scripture, for God does indeed play dice in the form of a game called urim and thummim. These flat stone dice are mentioned many times in the Hebrew Bible. Although urim and thummim actually belonged to God (Ps.-Philo 47:2) they were jealously guarded by the high priest either in his ephod (an oracular pouch) or in a pocket by his chest. The exact manner in which urim and thummim was played has been lost to the mysteries of time, but it is thought they provided the same function as a coin when it is flipped for heads or tails.

 

 

8
EXOTERIC
99
45
9
8
ESOTERIC
94
40
4
16
First Total
193
85
13
1+6
Add to Reduce
1+9+3
8+5
1+3
7
Second Total
13
13
4
8
ESOTERIC
94
40
4
7
Essence of Number
4
4
4

 

 

-
ESOTERIC
-
-
-
1
E
5
5
5
1
S
19
10
1
1
O
15
6
6
1
T
20
2
2
1
E
5
5
5
1
R
18
9
9
1
I
9
9
9
1
C
3
3
3
8
ESOTERIC
94
49
40
-
-
9+4
4+9
4+0
8
ESOTERIC
13
13
4
-
-
1+3
1+3
-
8
ESOTERIC
4
4
4

 

ESOTERIC O SECRET I ESOTERIC

ESOTERIC

6 SECRET 9

ESOTERIC

ESOTERIC O SECRET I ESOTERIC

 

-
ESOTERIC
-
-
-
1
O
15
6
6
6
SECRET
70
34
7
1
I
9
9
9
8
ESOTERIC
94
49
22
-
-
9+4
4+9
2+2
8
ESOTERIC
13
13
4
-
-
1+3
1+3
-
8
ESOTERIC
4
4
4

 

 

-
ESOTERIC
-
-
-
1
I
9
9
9
6
SECRET
70
34
7
1
O
15
6
6
8
ESOTERIC
94
49
22
-
-
9+4
4+9
2+2
8
ESOTERIC
13
13
4
-
-
1+3
1+3
-
8
ESOTERIC
4
4
4

 

ESOTERIC I SECRET O ESOTERIC

ESOTERIC

9 SECRET 6

ESOTERIC

ESOTERIC O SECRET I ESOTERIC

 

 

G
=
7
-
4
GODS
45
18
9
O
=
7
-
2
OF
21
12
3
T
=
7
-
3
THE
33
15
6
F
=
4
-
9
FIRMAMENT
99
45
9
-
-
25
-
18
First Total
198
90
27
-
-
2+5
-
1+8
Add to Reduce
1+9+8
9+0
2+7
-
-
6
-
9
Second Total
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+8
-
-
-
-
6
-
9
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
S
=
1
-
8
STRAIGHT
102
39
3
L
=
3
-
4
LINE
40
22
4
E
=
5
-
4
EVEN
46
19
1
-
-
9
-
17
First Total
189
81
9
-
-
-
-
1+7
Add to Reduce
1+8+9
8+1
-
-
-
9
-
8
Second Total
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+8
-
-
-
-
9
-
8
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

T
=
2
-
3
THE
33
15
6
S
=
1
-
8
STRAIGHT
102
39
3
A
=
1
-
3
AND
19
10
1
N
=
5
-
6
NARROW
89
35
8
-
-
9
-
20
First Total
243
99
18
-
-
-
-
2+0
Add to Reduce
2+4+3
9+9
1+8
-
-
9
-
2
Second Total
9
18
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+8
1+8
-
-
-
9
-
2
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
S
=
1
-
8
STRAIGHT
102
39
3
L
=
3
-
4
LINE
40
22
4
I
=
9
-
2
IS
28
10
1
-
-
9
-
17
First Total
171
72
9
-
-
-
-
1+7
Add to Reduce
1+8+9
7+2
-
-
-
9
-
8
Second Total
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+8
-
-
-
-
9
-
8
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
SIRIUS
-
-
-
S
=
1
-
1
S
19
10
1
I
=
9
-
1
I
9
9
9
R
=
9
-
1
R
18
9
9
I
=
9
-
1
I
9
9
9
U
=
3
-
1
U
21
3
3
S
=
1
-
1
S
19
10
1
-
-
32
-
6
SIRIUS
95
50
32
-
-
3+2
-
-
-
9+5
5+0
3+2
-
-
5
-
6
SIRIUS
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+4
-
-
-
-
5
-
6
SIRIUS
5
5
5

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
SOTHIS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
S+O
34
7
7
-
-
-
-
1
T+H+I+S
56
20
2
S
=
1
-
6
SOTHIS
90
27
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
9+0
2+7
-
S
=
1
-
6
SOTHIS
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+4
-
-
S
=
1
-
6
SOTHIS
5
9
9

 

Sothic cycle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sothic_cycle‎

The Sothic year is the length of time for the star Sirius/Sothis to visually return to the same position in relation to the sun. Star years measured in this way vary ...

Sirius, known in ancient Egypt as Sopdet (Greek: Σῶθις = Sothis), is recorded in the earliest astronomical records. During the era of the Middle Kingdom, ...

 

Sirius (star) -- Encyclopedia Britannica - Britannica.com

www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/546598/Sirius‎

Sirius was known as Sothis to the ancient Egyptians, who were aware that it made its first heliacal rising (i.e., rose just before sunrise) of the year at about the ...

 

Sirius - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sirius‎

Sirius is the brightest star in the night sky. With a visual apparent magnitude of −1.46, it is almost twice as bright as Canopus, the next brightest star. The name ...
‎Sirius (disambiguation) - ‎Canis Major - ‎Sirius Satellite Radio - ‎The Sirius Mystery
Sirius

 

Sirius is the brightest star in the night sky. With a visual apparent magnitude of −1.46, it is almost twice as bright as Canopus, the next brightest star. The name "Sirius" is derived from the Ancient Greek: Σείριος Seirios ("glowing" or "scorcher"). The star has the Bayer designation Alpha Canis Majoris (α CMa). What the naked eye perceives as a single star is actually a binary star system, consisting of a white main-sequence star of spectral type A1V, termed Sirius A, and a faint white dwarf companion of spectral type DA2, called Sirius B. The distance separating Sirius A from its companion varies between 8.1 and 31.5 AU.[18]

Sirius appears bright because of both its intrinsic luminosity and its proximity to Earth. At a distance of 2.6 parsecs (8.6 ly), as determined by the Hipparcos astrometry satellite,[5][19][20] the Sirius system is one of Earth's near neighbors; for Northern-hemisphere observers between 30 degrees and 73 degrees of latitude (including almost all of Europe and North America), it is the closest star (after the Sun) that can be seen with the naked eye. Sirius is gradually moving closer to the Solar System, so it will slightly increase in brightness over the next 60,000 years. After that time its distance will begin to recede, but it will continue to be the brightest star in the Earth's sky for the next 210,000 years.[21]

Sirius A is about twice as massive as the Sun and has an absolute visual magnitude of 1.42. It is 25 times more luminous than the Sun[7] but has a significantly lower luminosity than other bright stars such as Canopus or Rigel. The system is between 200 and 300 million years old.[7] It was originally composed of two bright bluish stars. The more massive of these, Sirius B, consumed its resources and became a red giant before shedding its outer layers and collapsing into its current state as a white dwarf around 120 million years ago.[7]

Sirius is also known colloquially as the "Dog Star", reflecting its prominence in its constellation, Canis Major (Greater Dog).[12] The heliacal rising of Sirius marked the flooding of the Nile in Ancient Egypt and the "dog days" of summer for the ancient Greeks, while to the Polynesians it marked winter and was an important star for navigation around the Pacific Ocean

 

T
=
2
-
3
THE
33
15
6
D
=
4
-
3
DOG
26
17
8
S
=
1
-
4
STAR
58
13
4
-
-
7
-
10
Add to Reduce
117
45
18
-
-
-
-
1+0
Reduce to Deduce
1+1+7
4+5
1+8
-
-
7
-
1
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

T
=
2
-
3
THE
33
15
6
G
=
7
-
3
GOD
26
17
8
S
=
1
-
4
STAR
58
13
4
-
-
10
-
10
Add to Reduce
117
45
18
-
-
1+0
-
1+0
Reduce to Deduce
1+1+7
4+5
1+8
-
-
1
-
1
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

I
=
9
-
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
HAVE
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
H+A
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
2
V+E
27
9
9
H
=
8
Q
4
HAVE
36
18
18
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
COME
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
C+O
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
2
M+E
18
9
9
C
=
3
Q
4
COME
36
18
18
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
20
Q
9
First Total
81
45
45
-
-
2+0
-
-
Add to Reduce
8+1
4+5
4+5
-
-
2
Q
9
Second Total
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
-
-
-
-
-
2
Q
9
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

Maat

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Maat

Maat.svg

Maat was both the goddess and the personification of truth and justice. Her ostrich feather represents truth.

Goddess of truth and justice

Major cult center
All ancient Egyptian cities

Symbol
the ostrich feather

Consort
Thoth (in some accounts)

Parents
Ra

Maat or ma'at (thought to have been pronounced *[muʔ.ʕat]),[1] also spelled māt or mayet, was the ancient Egyptian concept of truth, balance, order, law, morality, and justice. Maat was also personified as a goddess regulating the stars, seasons, and the actions of both mortals and the deities, who set the order of the universe from chaos at the moment of creation. Her (ideological) counterpart was Isfet.

The earliest surviving records indicating Maat is the norm for nature and society, in this world and the next, were recorded during the Old Kingdom, the earliest substantial surviving examples being found in the Pyramid Texts of Unas (ca. 2375 BCE and 2345 BCE).[2]

Later, as a goddess in other traditions of the Egyptian pantheon, where most goddesses were paired with a male aspect, her masculine counterpart was Thoth and their attributes are the same. After the rise of Ra they were depicted together in the Solar Barque.

After her role in creation and continuously preventing the universe from returning to chaos, her primary role in Egyptian mythology dealt with the weighing of souls that took place in the underworld, Duat.[3] Her feather was the measure that determined whether the souls (considered to reside in the heart) of the departed would reach the paradise of afterlife successfully.

Pharaohs are often depicted with the emblems of Maat to emphasise their role in upholding the laws of the Creator.[4]

 

Maat wearing feather of truth
Maat as a principle was formed to meet the complex needs of the emergent Egyptian state that embraced diverse peoples with conflicting interests.[5] The development of such rules sought to avert chaos and it became the basis of Egyptian law. From an early period the King would describe himself as the "Lord of Maat" who decreed with his mouth the Maat he conceived in his heart.

The significance of Maat developed to the point that it embraced all aspects of existence, including the basic equilibrium of the universe, the relationship between constituent parts, the cycle of the seasons, heavenly movements, religious observations and fair dealings, honesty and truthfulness in social interactions.[6]

The ancient Egyptians had a deep conviction of an underlying holiness and unity within the universe. Cosmic harmony was achieved by correct public and ritual life. Any disturbance in cosmic harmony could have consequences for the individual as well as the state. An impious King could bring about famine or blasphemy blindness to an individual.[7] In opposition to the right order expressed in the concept of Maat is the concept of Isfet: chaos, lies and violence.[8]

In addition to the importance of the Maat, several other principles within ancient Egyptian law were essential, including an adherence to tradition as opposed to change, the importance of rhetorical skill, and the significance of achieving impartiality, and social justice. In one Middle Kingdom (2062 to c. 1664 BCE) text the Creator declares "I made every man like his fellow". Maat called the rich to help the less fortunate rather than exploit them, echoed in tomb declarations: "I have given bread to the hungry and clothed the naked" and "I was a husband to the widow and father to the orphan".[9]

To the Egyptian mind, Maat bound all things together in an indestructible unity: the universe, the natural world, the state, and the individual were all seen as parts of the wider order generated by Maat.

The underlying concepts of Taoism and Confucianism resemble Maat at times.[10] Many of these concepts were codified into laws, and many of the concepts often were discussed by ancient Egyptian philosophers and officials who referred to the spiritual text known as the Book of the Dead.

Maat and the law[edit source]

There is little surviving literature that describes the practice of ancient Egyptian law. Maat was the spirit in which justice was applied rather than the detailed legalistic exposition of rules (as found in Mosaic law of the 1st millennium BCE). Maat was the norm and basic values that formed the backdrop for the application of justice that had to be carried out in the spirit of truth and fairness. From the 5th dynasty (c. 2510-2370 BCE) onwards the Vizier responsible for justice was called the Priest of Maat and in later periods judges wore images of Maat.[11]

Later scholars and philosophers also would embody concepts from the wisdom literature, or Sebayt.[12] These spiritual texts dealt with common social or professional situations and how each was best to be resolved or addressed in the spirit of Maat. It was very practical advice, and highly case-based, so that few specific and general rules could be derived from them.

During the Greek period in Egyptian history, Greek law existed alongside Egyptian law. The Egyptian law preserved the rights of women who were allowed to act independently of men and own substantial personal property and in time this influenced the more restrictive conventions of the Greeks and Romans.[13] When the Romans took control of Egypt, the Roman legal system which existed throughout the Roman Empire was imposed in Egypt.

Maat and scribes[edit source]

Scribes held prestigious positions in ancient Egyptian society in view of their importance in the transmission of religious, political and commercial information.[14]

Thoth was the patron of scribes who is described as the one "who reveals Maat and reckons Maat; who loves Maat and gives Maat to the doer of Maat".[15] In texts such as the Instruction of Amenemope the scribe is urged to follow the precepts of Maat in his private life as well as his work.[16] The exhortations to live according to Maat are such that these kinds of instructional texts have been described as "Maat Literature".[17]

Maat as a goddess[edit source]

 

Goddess Maat[18][19]
in hieroglyphs

Maat was the goddess of harmony, justice, and truth represented as a young woman,[20] sitting or standing, holding a was scepter, the symbol of power, in one hand and an ankh, the symbol of eternal life, in the other. Sometimes she is depicted with wings on each arm or as a woman with an ostrich feather on her head.[21] Depictions of Maat as a goddess are recorded from as early as the middle of the Old Kingdom (c. 2680 to 2190 BCE).[22]

The sun-god Ra came from the primaeval mound of creation only after he set his daughter Maat in place of Isfet (chaos). Kings inherited the duty to ensure Maat remained in place and they with Ra are said to "live on Maat", with Akhenaten (r. 1372-1355 BCE) in particular emphasising the concept to a degree that, John D. Ray asserts, the kings contemporaries viewed as intolerance and fanaticism.[23] Some kings incorporated Maat into their names, being referred to as Lords of Maat,[24] or Meri-Maat (Beloved of Maat). When beliefs about Thoth arose in the Egyptian pantheon and started to consume the earlier beliefs at Hermopolis about the Ogdoad, it was said that she was the mother of the Ogdoad and Thoth the father.

In the Duat, the Egyptian underworld, the hearts of the dead were said to be weighed against her single "Feather of Ma'at", symbolically representing the concept of Maat, in the Hall of Two Truths. A heart which was unworthy was devoured by the goddess Ammit and its owner condemned to remain in the Duat. The heart was considered the location of the soul by ancient Egyptians. Those people with good and pure hearts were sent on to Aaru. Osiris came to be seen as the guardian of the gates of Aaru after he became part of the Egyptian pantheon and displaced Anubis in the Ogdoad tradition.

The weighing of the heart, pictured on papyrus in the Book of the Dead typically, or in tomb scenes, shows Anubis overseeing the weighing and the lioness Ammit seated awaiting the results so she could consume those who failed. The image would be the vertical heart on one flat surface of the balance scale and the vertical Shu-feather standing on the other balance scale surface. Other traditions hold that Anubis brought the soul before the posthumous Osiris who performed the weighing.

Temples of Maat[edit source]

The earliest evidence for a dedicated temple is in the New Kingdom (c. 1569 to 1081 BCE) era, despite the great importance placed on Maat. Amenhotep III commissioned a temple in the Karnak complex, whilst textual evidence indicates that other temples of Maat were located in Memphis and at Deir el-Medina.[25]

Maat themes found in the The Book of Going Forth by Day and on tomb inscriptions[edit source]

 

This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. (November 2011)

A section of the Egyptian Book of the Dead written on papyrus showing the "Weighing of the Heart" in the Duat using the feather of Maat as the measure in balance
One aspect of ancient Egyptian funerary literature which often is mistaken for a codified ethic of Maat is Spell (Chapter) 125 of the Book of the Dead or Papyrus of Ani (known to the ancient Egyptians as The Book of Going Forth by Day). The lines of these texts are often collectively called the "Forty-Two Declarations of Purity". These declarations varied somewhat from tomb to tomb and so cannot be considered a canonical definition of Maat. Rather, they appear to express each tomb owner's individual practices in life to please Maat, as well as words of absolution from misdeeds or mistakes, made by the tomb owner in life could be declared as not having been done, and through the power of the written word, wipe particular misdeed from the afterlife record of the deceased.

Many of the lines are similar, however, and they can help to give the student a "flavor" for the sorts of things which Maat governed — essentially everything, from the most formal to the most mundane aspects of life.

The doctrine of Maat is represented in the declarations to Rekhti-merti-f-ent-Maat and the 42 Negative Confessions listed in the Papyrus of Ani. The following are taken from public domain translations made by E. A. Wallis Budge in the early part of the 20th century; more recent translations may differ in the light of modern scholarship.

 

I
=
9
-
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
HAVE
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
H+A
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
2
V+E
27
9
9
H
=
8
Q
5
HAVE
36
18
18
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
17
Q
5
Add to Reduce
45
27
27
-
-
1+7
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
4+5
2+7
2+7
-
-
8
Q
5
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

42 Negative Confessions (Papyrus of Ani)[edit source]

1.I have not committed sin.
2.I have not committed robbery with violence.
3.I have not stolen.
4.I have not slain men and women.
5.I have not stolen grain.
6.I have not purloined offerings.
7.I have not stolen the property of the god.
8.I have not uttered lies.
9.I have not carried away food.
10.I have not uttered curses.
11.I have not committed adultery, I have not lain with men.
12.I have made none to weep.
13.I have not eaten the heart [i.e I have not grieved uselessly, or felt remorse].
14.I have not attacked any man.
15.I am not a man of deceit.
16.I have not stolen cultivated land.
17.I have not been an eavesdropper.
18.I have slandered [no man].
19.I have not been angry without just cause.
20.I have not debauched the wife of any man.
21.I have not debauched the wife of [any] man. (repeats the previous affirmation but addressed to a different god).
22.I have not polluted myself.
23.I have terrorised none.
24.I have not transgressed [the Law].
25.I have not been wroth.
26.I have not shut my ears to the words of truth.
27.I have not blasphemed.
28.I am not a man of violence.
29.I am not a stirrer up of strife (or a disturber of the peace).
30.I have not acted (or judged) with undue haste.
31.I have not pried into matters.
32.I have not multiplied my words in speaking.
33.I have wronged none, I have done no evil.
34.I have not worked witchcraft against the King (or blasphemed against the King).
35.I have never stopped [the flow of] water.
36.I have never raised my voice (spoken arrogantly, or in anger).
37.I have not cursed (or blasphemed) God.
38.I have not acted with evil rage.
39.I have not stolen the bread of the gods.
40.I have not carried away the khenfu cakes from the Spirits of the dead.
41.I have not snatched away the bread of the child, nor treated with contempt the god of my city.
42.I have not slain the cattle belonging to the god.[26]

Assessors of Maat[edit source]

"The Assessors of Maat" are the 42 deities listed in the Papyrus of Nebseni, to whom the deceased make the Negative Confession in the Papyrus of Ani.[27]

See also[edit source]
Seshat, goddess of writing and measure, and a wife of Thoth
Egyptian soul

Notes[edit source]

1.^ Information taken from phonetic symbols for Maat, and explanations on how to pronounce based upon modern reals, revealed in (Collier and Manley pp. 2–4, 154)
2.^ Siegfried Morenz (1973). Egyptian Religion: Siegried Morenz. p. 273. ISBN 978-0-8014-8029-4.
3.^ Budge. The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 418.
4.^ Henrietta McCall (1990-01). Mesopotamian myths. University of Texas Press. p. 46. ISBN 0-292-72076-9.
5.^ Norman Rufus Colin Cohn (1993). Cosmos, Caos and the World to Come: The Ancient Roots of Apocalyptic Faith. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-300-05598-6.
6.^ Norman Rufus Colin Cohn (1993). Cosmos, Caos and the World to Come: The Ancient Roots of Apocalyptic Faith. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-300-05598-6.
7.^ John Romer, "Testament", pp. 41-42, Guild Publishing, 1988.
8.^ "Religion and Cultural Memory: Ten Studies", Jan Assmann, Translated by Rodney Livingstone, p. 34, Stanford University Press, 2006, ISBN 080474523.
9.^ James P. Allen (2000). Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-521-77483-3.
10.^ Edwin Oliver James (1970). Creation and Cosmology: A Historical and Comparative Study. Brill Academic Pub. p. 50. ISBN 978-90-04-01617-0.
11.^ Siegfried Morenz (1973). Egyptian Religion: Siegried Morenz. pp. 117–125. ISBN 978-0-8014-8029-4.
12.^ See Russ VerSteeg, Law in Ancient Egypt 19 (Carolina Academic Press 2002)
13.^ Anton Powell (1995). The Greek World. Psychology Press. p. 303. ISBN 978-0-415-17042-0.
14.^ Black, p. 130
15.^ Black, p. 131
16.^ Black, p. 132
17.^ Black, p. 157
18.^ Hieroglyphs can be found in (Collier and Manley pp. 27, 29, 154)
19.^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 416)
20.^ robert a armour (2001). gods and myths of ancient egypt. American University in Cairo Press. ISBN 978-977-424-669-2.
21.^ Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 416)
22.^ "The Oxford Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology", Edited by Donald B. Redford, p. 190, Berkeley, 2003, ISBN 0-425-19096-X
23.^ "Reflections on Osiris", John D. Ray, p. 64, Profile books,2002, ISBN 186197 490 6
24.^ Barry J. Kemp (2005). 100 hieroglyphs: think like an Egyptian. ISBN 1-86207-658-8.
25.^ "The Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology:The Oxford Guide", p190, Berkeley Reference, 2003, ISBN 0-425-19096-X
26.^ The Book of the Dead. Gramercy. 1995-01-23. pp. 576–582. ISBN 978-0-517-12283-9.
27.^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 pp. 418-20)

References[edit source]
Black, James Roger. "The Instruction of Amenemope: A Critical Edition and Commentary--Prolegomenon and Prologue", Dissertation University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2002 [1]
Budge, E. A. Wallis. The Egyptian Book of the Dead: (The Papyrus of Ani) Egyptian Text Transliteration and Translation. New York: Dover Publications, 1967. Originally published in 1895.
Budge, E. A. Wallis. The Gods of the Egyptians: Studies in Egyptian Mythology — Volume 1. New York: Dover Publications, 1969. Originally published in 1904.
Collier, Mark and Manly, Bill. How to Read Egyptian Hieroglyphs: Revised Edition. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
Faulkner, Raymond. The Egyptian Book of the Dead. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1994. ISBN 0-8118-6489-8
Mancini, Anna. Maat Revealed: Philosophy of Justice in Ancient Egypt. New York: Buenos Books America, 2004.
Strudwick, Helen. The Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Singapore: De Agostini UK, 2006.
Journey through the afterlife, Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead edited by John H. Taylor ( the British Museum Press 2010. London ISBN 0-7141-1989-X)

 

 

Know I’ve done wrong, left your heart torn
Is that what devils do?
Took you so long, where only fools gone
I shook the angel in you!
Now I’m rising from the crowd
Rising up to you!
Feel with all the strength I found
There's nothing I can’t do!

Chorus:
I need to know now, know now
Can you love me again?
I need to know now, know now
Can you love me again?
I need to know now, know now
Can you love me again?
I need to know now, know now
Can you love me again?
I need to know now, know now
Can you love me again?

It’s unforgivable,
I stole and burnt your soul
Is that what demons do, hey?
They rule the worst in me
Destroy everything,
They blame on angels like you, hey!
Now I’m rising from the crowd
Rising up to you!
Filled with all the strength I found
There's nothing I can’t do!

Chorus:
I need to know now, know now
Can you love me again?
I need to know now, know now
Can you love me again?
I need to know now, know now
Can you love me again?
I need to know now, know now
Can you love me again?
I need to know now, know now
Can you love me again?
Uh, uh, uh, uh!
Oh, oh!

Told you once again,
Do this again, do this again, oh!
I told you once again,
Do this again, do this again, oh, oh!

Chorus:
I need to know now, know now
Can you love me again?
I need to know now, know now
Can you love me again?
I need to know now, know now
Can you love me again?
I need to know now, know now
Can you love me again?
I need to know now, know now
Can you love me again?

John Newman : "Love Me Again" Lyrics

www.sweetslyrics.com › Artists starting with J‎

Know I've done wrong, left your heart torn / Is that what devils do? / Took you so long, where only fools gone / I shook the angel in you!/ Now I'm rising from the ...

 

 

-
-
-
-
9
MNEMOSYNE
-
-
-
M
=
4
-
1
M
13
4
4
N
=
5
-
1
N
14
5
5
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
M
=
4
-
1
M
13
4
4
O
=
6
-
1
O
15
6
6
S
=
1
-
1
S
19
10
1
Y
=
7
-
1
Y
25
7
7
N
=
5
-
1
N
14
5
5
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
42
-
9
MNEMOSYNE
123
51
42
-
-
4+2
-
-
-
1+2+3
5+1
4+2
-
-
6
-
9
MNEMOSYNE
6
6
6

 

 

-
-
-
-
9
MNEMOSYNE
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
M+N
27
9
9
-
-
-
-
2
E+M
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
-
-
4
S+Y+N+E
63
18
9
M
=
4
-
9
MNEMOSYNE
123
42
33
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+2+3
4+2
3+3
M
=
4
-
9
MNEMOSYNE
6
6
6

 

 

-
9
M
N
E
M
O
S
Y
N
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
6
1
-
5
-
+
=
17
1+7
=
8
=
8
=
8
-
-
-
14
-
-
15
19
-
14
-
+
=
62
6+2
=
8
=
8
=
8
-
9
M
N
E
M
O
S
Y
N
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
5
4
-
-
7
-
5
+
=
25
2+5
=
7
=
7
=
7
-
-
13
-
5
13
-
-
25
-
5
+
=
61
6+1
=
7
=
7
=
7
-
9
M
N
E
M
O
S
Y
N
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
13
14
5
13
15
19
25
14
5
+
=
123
1+2+3
=
9
=
9
=
9
-
-
4
5
5
4
6
1
7
5
5
+
=
42
4+5
=
9
=
9
=
9
-
9
M
N
E
M
O
S
Y
N
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
occurs
x
1
=
1
=
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
TWO
2
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
3
THREE
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
occurs
x
2
=
8
=
8
-
-
-
5
5
-
-
-
-
5
5
-
-
5
occurs
x
4
=
20
2+0
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
occurs
x
1
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
7
occurs
x
1
=
7
=
7
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
EIGHT
8
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
NINE
9
-
-
-
-
-
22
9
M
N
E
M
O
S
Y
N
E
-
-
23
-
-
9
-
42
-
24
2+2
--
-
5
5
-
-
-
-
5
5
-
-
2+3
-
-
--
-
4+5
-
2+4
4
9
M
N
E
M
O
S
Y
N
E
-
-
5
-
-
9
-
9
-
6
-
--
4
5
5
4
6
1
7
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
4
9
M
N
E
M
O
S
Y
N
E
-
-
5
-
-
9
-
9
-
6

 

 

M
N
E
M
O
S
Y
N
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
6
1
-
5
-
+
=
17
1+7
=
8
=
8
=
8
-
-
14
-
-
15
19
-
14
-
+
=
62
6+2
=
8
=
8
=
8
9
M
N
E
M
O
S
Y
N
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
5
4
-
-
7
-
5
+
=
25
2+5
=
7
=
7
=
7
-
13
-
5
13
-
-
25
-
5
+
=
61
6+1
=
7
=
7
=
7
9
M
N
E
M
O
S
Y
N
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
13
14
5
13
15
19
25
14
5
+
=
123
1+2+3
=
9
=
9
=
9
-
4
5
5
4
6
1
7
5
5
+
=
42
4+5
=
9
=
9
=
9
9
M
N
E
M
O
S
Y
N
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
occurs
x
1
=
1
=
1
-
4
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
occurs
x
2
=
8
=
8
-
-
5
5
-
-
-
-
5
5
-
-
5
occurs
x
4
=
20
2+0
2
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
occurs
x
1
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
7
occurs
x
1
=
7
=
7
9
M
N
E
M
O
S
Y
N
E
-
-
23
-
-
9
-
42
-
24
--
-
5
5
-
-
-
-
5
5
-
-
2+3
-
-
--
-
4+5
-
2+4
9
M
N
E
M
O
S
Y
N
E
-
-
5
-
-
9
-
9
-
6
--
4
5
5
4
6
1
7
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
9
M
N
E
M
O
S
Y
N
E
-
-
5
-
-
9
-
9
-
6

 

 

Mnemosyne - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mnemosyne‎

The Twelve Titans: Oceanus and Tethys, Hyperion and Theia, Coeus and Phoebe, Cronus and Rhea, Mnemosyne, Themis, Crius, Iapetus Children of Oceanus:

Mnemosyne

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mnemosyne (1881), a Pre-Raphaelite interpretation of the goddess by Dante Gabriel Rossetti[1]

Greek deities
series

Titans
Olympians
Aquatic deities
Chthonic deities
Personified concepts
Other deities

Titans

The Twelve Titans:
Oceanus and Tethys,
Hyperion and Theia,
Coeus and Phoebe,
Cronus and Rhea,
Mnemosyne, Themis,
Crius, Iapetus
Children of Oceanus:
Oceanids, Potamoi, Calypso
Children of Hyperion:
Helios, Selene, Eos
Daughters of Coeus:
Leto and Asteria
Sons of Iapetus:
Atlas, Prometheus,
Epimetheus, Menoetius
Sons of Crius:
Astraeus, Pallas, Perses

Mnemosyne (/nɨˈmɒzɨniː/ or /nɨˈmɒsɨni/; Greek: Mνημοσύνη, pronounced [mnɛːmosýːnɛː]), source of the word mnemonic,[2] was the personification of memory in Greek mythology. The titaness was the daughter of Gaia and Uranus and the mother of the nine Muses by Zeus:
Calliope (Epic Poetry)
Clio (History)
Erato (Love Poetry)
Euterpe (Music)
Melpomene (Tragedy)
Polyhymnia (Hymns)
Terpsichore (Dance)
Thalia (Comedy)
Urania (Astronomy)

In Hesiod's Theogony, kings and poets receive their powers of authoritative speech from their possession of Mnemosyne and their special relationship with the Muses.

Zeus and Mnemosyne slept together for nine consecutive nights, thus birthing the nine Muses. Mnemosyne also presided over a pool[3] in Hades, counterpart to the river Lethe, according to a series of 4th century BC Greek funerary inscriptions in dactylic hexameter. Dead souls drank from Lethe so they would not remember their past lives when reincarnated. Initiates were encouraged to drink from the river Mnemosyne when they died, instead of Lethe. These inscriptions may have been connected with Orphic poetry (see Zuntz, 1971).

Similarly, those who wished to consult the oracle of Trophonius in Boeotia were made to drink alternately from two springs called "Lethe" and "Mnemosyne". An analogous setup is described in the Myth of Er at the end of Plato's Republic.

 

THE MYTH OF ER THE MYTH OF RE

 

 

Mnemosyne - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mnemosyne

Zeus and Mnemosyne slept together for nine consecutive nights, thus birthing the nine Muses. Mnemosyne also presided over a pool[3] in Hades, counterpart to the river Lethe, according to a series of 4th century BC Greek funerary inscriptions in dactylic hexameter. Dead souls drank from Lethe so they would not remember their past lives when reincarnated. Initiates were encouraged to drink from the river Mnemosyne when they died, instead of Lethe. These inscriptions may have been connected with Orphic poetry (see Zuntz, 1971).

Similarly, those who wished to consult the oracle of Trophonius in Boeotia were made to drink alternately from two springs called "Lethe" and "Mnemosyne". An analogous setup is described in the Myth of Er at the end of Plato's Republic.

 

 

Mnemosyne - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mnemosyne‎

Zeus and Mnemosyne slept together for nine consecutive nights, thus birthing the nine Muses.

 

 

-
-
-
-
9
MNEMOSYNE
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
M+N
27
9
9
-
-
-
-
2
E+M
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
-
-
4
S+Y+N+E
63
18
9
M
=
4
-
9
MNEMOSYNE
123
42
33
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+2+3
4+2
3+3
M
=
4
-
9
MNEMOSYNE
6
6
6

 

 

Z
=
8
-
4
ZEUS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
Z
26
8
8
-
-
-
-
3
E+U+S
45
18
9
Z
=
8
-
4
ZEUS
71
26
17
-
-
-
-
-
-
7+1
2+6
1+7
Z
=
8
-
4
ZEUS
8
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+4
1+4
-
Z
=
8
-
4
ZEUS
5
8
8

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
ZEUS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
Z
26
8
8
-
-
-
-
3
E+U+S
45
9
9
Z
=
8
-
4
ZEUS
71
17
17
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
MNEMOSYNE
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
M+N
27
9
9
-
-
-
-
2
E+M
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
-
-
4
S+Y+N+E
63
18
9
M
=
4
-
9
MNEMOSYNE
123
42
33
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
12
-
13
First Total
194
59
50
-
-
1+2
-
1+3
Add to Reduce
1+9+4
5+9
5+0
-
-
3
-
4
Second Total
14
14
5
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+4
1+4
-
-
-
3
-
4
Essence of Number
5
5
5

 

 

JESUS AND THE GODDESS

THE SECRET TEACHINGS OF THE ORIGINAL CHRISTIANS

Timothy Freke & Peter Gandy 2001

Pag 147

Motifs of the Mystical Marriage

"Olive oil was a familiar symbol in the ancient world for wisdom and was associated with the Goddess."

 

-
-
-
-
-
OLIVE
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
O+L
27
9
9
-
-
-
-
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
2
V+E
27
9
9
O
=
6
-
5
OLIVE
63
27
27
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
OIL
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
-
-
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
1
L
12
3
3
O
=
6
-
3
OIL
36
18
18
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
13
-
8
First Total
99
45
45
-
-
1+3
-
-
Add to Reduce
9+9
4+5
4+5
-
-
4
-
8
Second Total
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+8
-
-
-
-
4
-
8
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

T
=
2
-
3
THE
33
15
6
-
-
-
-
-
CHRISTOS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
C
3
3
3
-
-
-
-
2
H+S
27
18
9
-
-
-
-
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
3
T+O+S
54
9
9
C
=
3
-
8
CHRISTOS
111
48
30
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
11
Add to Reduce
144
63
45
-
-
-
-
1+1
Reduce to Deduce
1+1+4
3+6
4+5
-
-
5
-
2
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

I
=
2
-
1
I
9
9
9
T
=
2
-
4
THAT
49
13
4
A
=
1
-
2
AM
14
5
5
A
=
1
-
2
AT
21
3
3
M
=
4
-
4
MAAT
35
8
8
A
=
1
-
2
AM
14
5
5
I
=
9
-
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
16
Q
16
Add to Reduce
144
63
45
-
-
1+6
-
1+6
Reduce to Deduce
1+1+4
3+6
4+5
-
-
4
Q
4
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

JESUS AND THE GODDESS

THE SECRET TEACHINGS OF THE ORIGINAL CHRISTIANS

Timothy Freke & Peter Gandy 2001

Pag 23

The Exodus Allegory

Like the Jews in Exodus, in the gospel story Jesus is called out of Egypt, where he has been hiding, like the soul within the body. The Gospel of Matthew explains that this is to fulfill the prophecy 'Out of Egypt I have called my son.'48 Here. as elsewhere in the gospels, we should read 'fulfil the prophecy' as a coded reference to the source of the symbolic motif and intended allegorical meaning.

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
O
=
6
-
3
OUT
56
11
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
O
=
6
-
2
OF
21
12
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
E
=
5
-
5
EGYPT
73
28
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I
=
9
-
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
H
=
8
-
4
HAVE
36
18
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
C
=
3
-
6
CALLED
37
19
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
M
=
4
-
2
MY
38
11
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
S
=
1
-
3
SON
48
12
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
42
-
26
First Total
318
120
30
-
2
4
6
8
5
6
7
8
18
-
-
4+2
-
2+6
Add to Reduce
3+1+8
1+2+0
3+0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+8
-
-
6
-
8
Second Total
12
3
3
-
2
4
6
8
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
Essence of Number
3
3
3
-
2
4
6
8
5
6
7
8
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
9
O
=
6
-
3
OUT
56
11
2
-
-
2
-
-
O
=
6
-
2
OF
21
12
3
-
-
-
3
-
E
=
5
-
5
EGYPT
73
28
1
-
1
-
-
-
I
=
9
-
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
9
H
=
8
-
4
HAVE
36
18
9
-
-
-
-
9
C
=
3
-
6
CALLED
37
19
1
-
1
-
-
-
M
=
4
-
2
MY
38
11
2
-
-
2
-
-
S
=
1
-
3
SON
48
12
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
42
-
26
First Total
318
120
30
-
2
4
6
18
-
-
4+2
-
2+6
Add to Reduce
3+1+8
1+2+0
3+0
-
-
-
-
1+8
-
-
6
-
8
Second Total
12
3
3
-
2
4
6
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
Essence of Number
3
3
3
-
2
4
6
9

 

 

ADVENT 1134 ADVENT

 

 

OSIRIS ISIS ISISOSIRIS

 

 

EGYPT O EGYPT

FOR YOU WE THOUGHT AND DIED

 

 

Al-Azhar Mosque

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Al-Azhar Mosque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Azhar_Mosque

The mosque acquired its current name, al-Azhar, sometime between the caliphate of al-Mu'izz and the end of the reign of the second Fatimid caliph in Egypt, ...

Al-Azhar Mosque is located in Egypt

Al-Azhar Mosque

Location in Egypt
Coordinates: 30.0457°N 31.2627°ECoordinates: 30.0457°N 31.2627°E

Location
Cairo, Egypt

Established
972

Branch/tradition
Sunni1

Leadership
Imam(s):
Mohamed Ahmed el-Tayeb

Architectural information

Style
Hypostyle Mosque, Fatimid

Capacity
20,000

Area
7,800 m2 (84,000 sq ft)

Minaret(s)
4

Footnotes
1Between 972 and 1171 CE, al-Azhar followed the Ismaili branch of Shia Islam

Al-Azhar Mosque (Arabic: الجامع الأزهر‎ al-Gāmi` al-Azhar, "mosque of the most resplendent") is a mosque in Islamic Cairo in Egypt. Al-Mu‘izz li-Dīn Allāh of the Fatimid Caliphate commissioned its construction for the newly established capital city in 970. Its name is usually thought to allude to the Islamic prophet Muhammad's daughter Fatimah, a revered figure in Islam who was given the title az-Zahrā′ ("the shining one"). It was the first mosque established in Cairo, a city that has since gained the nickname "the city of a thousand minarets."[nb 1]

After its dedication in 972, and with the hiring by mosque authorities of 35 scholars in 989, the mosque slowly developed into what is today the second oldest continuously run university in the world after Al Karaouine. Al-Azhar University has long been regarded as the foremost institution in the Islamic world for the study of Sunni theology and sharia, or Islamic law. The university, integrated within the mosque as part of a mosque school since its inception, was nationalized and officially designated an independent university in 1961, following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952.

Over the course of its over a millennium-long history, the mosque has been alternately neglected and highly regarded. Because it was founded as an Ismāʿīli institution, Saladin and the Sunni Ayyubid dynasty that he founded shunned al-Azhar, removing its status as a congregational mosque and denying stipends to students and teachers at its school. These moves were reversed under the Mamluk Sultanate, under whose rule numerous expansions and renovations took place. Later rulers of Egypt showed differing degrees of deference to the mosque and provided widely varying levels of financial assistance, both to the school and to the upkeep of the mosque. Today, al-Azhar remains a deeply influential institution in Egyptian society and a symbol of Islamic Egypt.

 

-
-
-
-
-
AL
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
A+L
13
4
4
A
=
1
-
2
AL
13
4
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
AZHAR
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
A+Z
27
9
9
-
-
-
-
2
H+A
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
1
R
18
9
9
A
=
1
-
5
AZHAR
54
27
27
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
MOSQUE
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
M+O
28
10
1
-
-
-
-
2
S+Q
36
18
9
-
-
-
-
2
U+E
26
8
8
M
=
4
-
6
MOSQUE
90
36
18
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
13
First Total
157
67
49
-
-
-
-
1+3
Add to Reduce
1+5+7
6+7
4+9
-
-
6
-
4
Second Total
13
13
13
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+3
1+3
1+3
-
-
6
-
4
Essence of Number
4
4
4

 

 

A
=
1
-
2
AL
13
4
4
A
=
1
-
5
AZHAR
54
27
27
M
=
4
-
6
MOSQUE
90
36
18
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
13
First Total
157
67
49
-
-
-
-
1+3
Add to Reduce
1+5+7
6+7
4+9
-
-
6
-
4
Second Total
13
13
13
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+3
1+3
1+3
-
-
6
-
4
Essence of Number
4
4
4

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
AZHAR
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
A+Z
27
9
9
-
-
-
-
2
H+A
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
1
R
18
9
9
A
=
1
-
5
AZHAR
54
27
27
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
MOSQUE
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
M+O
28
10
1
-
-
-
-
2
S+Q
36
18
9
-
-
-
-
2
U+E
26
8
8
M
=
4
-
6
MOSQUE
90
36
18
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
11
First Total
144
63
45
-
-
-
-
1+1
Add to Reduce
1+4+4
6+3
4+5
-
-
5
-
2
Second Total
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
2
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

A
=
1
-
5
AZHAR
54
27
9
M
=
4
-
6
MOSQUE
90
36
9
-
-
5
-
11
First Total
144
63
18
-
-
-
-
1+1
Add to Reduce
1+4+4
6+3
1+8
-
-
5
-
2
Second Total
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
2
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
RABAA
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
1
A
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
1
B
2
2
2
-
-
-
-
1
A
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
1
A
1
1
1
R
=
9
-
5
RABAA
23
14
14
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
MOSQUE
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
M+O
28
10
1
-
-
-
-
2
S+Q
36
18
9
-
-
-
-
2
U+E
26
8
8
M
=
4
-
6
MOSQUE
90
36
18
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
13
-
11
First Total
113
50
32
-
-
1+3
-
1+1
Add to Reduce
1+1+3
5+0
4+5
-
-
4
-
2
Second Total
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
2
Essence of Number
5
5
5

 

 

R
=
9
-
5
RABAA
23
14
14
M
=
4
-
6
MOSQUE
90
36
18
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
13
-
11
First Total
113
50
32
-
-
1+3
-
1+1
Add to Reduce
1+1+3
5+0
4+5
-
-
4
-
2
Second Total
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
2
Essence of Number
5
5
5

 

Children Swarm Cairo's Rabaa Sit-In - The Daily Beast

www.thedailybeast.com/articles/.../children-swarm-cairo-s-rabaa-sit-in.ht...‎

2 days ago - With faces painted and bandannas wrapped around their heads, pro-Morsi kids scamper around the Rabaa mosque sit-in. Mike Giglio on the ...

 

Life In The Egyptian Protest Camp Site Outside Rabaa Mosque ...

www.arise.tv/.../life-in-the-egyptian-protest-camp-site-outside-rabaa-mos...‎

6 Aug 2013 - Arise News Report: We have a report now on life in the protest camp outside the Rabaa Mosque where supporters of the ousted President ...

 

Rabaa Al-Adawiyah Mosque Destroyed In Cairo Clashes (PHOTOS)

www.huffingtonpost.com/.../rabaa-al-adawiyah-photos-destroyed_...

by Eline Gordts - in 32 Google+ circles6 hours ago - Egypt woke up to a scene of devastation on Thursday, one day after security forces cleared two sit-ins occupied by supporters of ousted ...

 

C
=
4
-
5
CAIRO
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
C
3
3
3
-
-
-
-
1
A
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
1
O
15
6
6
C
=
4
-
5
CAIRO
46
28
28
-
-
-
-
-
-
4+6
2+8
2+8
C
=
4
-
5
CAIRO
10
10
10
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+0
1+0
1+0
C
=
4
-
5
CAIRO
1
1
1

 

 

C
=
4
-
5
CAIRO
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
C+O
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
1
A
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
1
R
18
9
9
C
=
4
-
5
CAIRO
46
28
28
-
-
-
-
-
-
4+6
2+8
2+8
C
=
4
-
5
CAIRO
10
10
10
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+0
1+0
1+0
C
=
4
-
5
CAIRO
1
1
1

 

 

-
5
C
A
I
R
O
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
6
+
=
15
1+5
=
6
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
-
9
-
15
+
=
24
2+4
=
6
=
6
=
6
-
5
C
A
I
R
O
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
1
-
9
-
+
=
13
1+3
=
4
=
4
=
4
-
-
3
1
-
18
-
+
=
22
2+2
=
4
=
4
=
4
-
5
C
A
I
R
O
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
1
9
18
15
+
=
46
4+6
=
10
1+0
1
=
1
-
-
3
1
9
9
6
+
=
28
2+8
=
10
1+0
1
=
1
-
5
C
A
I
R
O
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
occurs
x
1
=
1
=
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
TWO
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
--
-
3
occurs
x
1
=
3
=
3
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
FOUR
4
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
FIVE
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
6
occurs
x
1
=
6
=
6
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
SEVEN
7
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
EIGHT
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
9
-
-
-
9
occurs
x
2
=
18
1+8
9
26
5
C
A
I
R
O
-
-
19
-
-
5
-
28
-
19
2+6
--
-
-
9
9
-
-
-
1+9
-
-
--
-
2+8
-
1+9
8
5
C
A
I
R
O
-
-
10
-
-
5
-
10
-
10
-
--
3
1
9
9
6
-
-
1+0
-
-
--
-
1+0
-
1+0
8
5
C
A
I
R
O
-
-
1
-
-
5
-
1
-
1

 

 

-
5
C
A
I
R
O
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
6
+
=
15
1+5
=
6
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
-
9
-
15
+
=
24
2+4
=
6
=
6
=
6
-
5
C
A
I
R
O
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
1
-
9
-
+
=
13
1+3
=
4
=
4
=
4
-
-
3
1
-
18
-
+
=
22
2+2
=
4
=
4
=
4
-
5
C
A
I
R
O
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
1
9
18
15
+
=
46
4+6
=
10
1+0
1
=
1
-
-
3
1
9
9
6
+
=
28
2+8
=
10
1+0
1
=
1
-
5
C
A
I
R
O
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
occurs
x
1
=
1
=
1
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
--
-
3
occurs
x
1
=
3
=
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
6
occurs
x
1
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
-
9
9
-
-
-
9
occurs
x
2
=
18
1+8
9
26
5
C
A
I
R
O
-
-
19
-
-
5
-
28
-
19
2+6
--
-
-
9
9
-
-
-
1+9
-
-
--
-
2+8
-
1+9
8
5
C
A
I
R
O
-
-
10
-
-
5
-
10
-
10
-
--
3
1
9
9
6
-
-
1+0
-
-
--
-
1+0
-
1+0
8
5
C
A
I
R
O
-
-
1
-
-
5
-
1
-
1

 

 

This Old Man - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/This_Old_Man

"This Old Man" is an English language children's song, counting and nursery rhyme with a Roud Folk Song Index number of 3550.
The origins of this song are obscure. The earliest extant record is a version noted in Anne Gilchrist's Journal of the English Folk Dance and Song Society (1937), learnt from her Welsh nurse in the 1870s under the title "Jack Jintle" with the lyrics:



My name is Jack Jintle, the eldest but one,
And I can play nick-nack upon my own thumb.
With my nick-nack and pad-lock and sing a fine song,
And all the fine ladies come dancing along.

My name is Jack Jintle, the eldest but two,
And I can play nick-nack upon my own shoe.
With my nick-nack, etc.[1]

The more familiar version goes like this:

 

This old man, he played one,
He played knick-knack on my thumb;
With a knick-knack paddywhack,
Give the dog a bone,
This old man came rolling home.

This old man, he played two,
He played knick-knack on my shoe;
With a knick-knack paddywhack,
Give the dog a bone,
This old man came rolling home.

This old man, he played three,
He played knick-knack on my knee;
With a knick-knack paddywhack,
Give the dog a bone,
This old man came rolling home.

This old man, he played four,
He played knick-knack on my door;
With a knick-knack paddywhack,
Give the dog a bone,
This old man came rolling home.

This old man, he played five,
He played knick-knack on my hive;
With a knick-knack paddywhack,
Give the dog a bone,
This old man came rolling home.

This old man, he played six,
He played knick-knack on my sticks;
With a knick-knack paddywhack,
Give the dog a bone,
This old man came rolling home.

This old man, he played seven,
He played knick-knack up in heaven;
With a knick-knack paddywhack,
Give the dog a bone,
This old man came rolling home.

This old man, he played eight,
He played knick-knack on my gate;
With a knick-knack paddywhack,
Give the dog a bone,
This old man came rolling home.

This old man, he played nine,
He played knick-knack on my spine;
With a knick-knack paddywhack,
Give the dog a bone,
This old man came rolling home.

This old man, he played ten,
He played knick-knack once again;
With a knick-knack paddywhack,
Give the dog a bone,
This old man came rolling home.



A similar version was included in Cecil Sharp and Sabine Baring-Gould's English Folk-Songs for Schools, published in 1906.[2] It was collected several times in England in the early twentieth century with a variety of lyrics. In 1948 it was included by Pete Seeger and Ruth Crawford in their American Folk Songs for Children and recorded by Seeger in 1953. It received a boost in popularity when it was adapted for the 1958 film The Inn of the Sixth Happiness by composer Malcolm Arnold as "The Children's Marching Song", which led to hit singles for Cyril Stapleton and Mitch Miller.[3]

 

THIS IS THE SCENE OF THE SCENE UNSEEN

THE UNSEEN SEEN OF THE SCENE UNSEEN THIS IS THE SCENE

 

 

NETERS TEN NET ENTERS

 

 

3
THE
33
15
6
4
MIND
40
22
4
2
OF
21
12
3
9
HUMANKIND
95
41
5
18
First Total
189
90
18
1+8
Add to Reduce
1+8+9
9+0
1+8
9
Second Total
18
9
9
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+8
-
-
9
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

ESOTERIC O SECRET I ESOTERIC

ESOTERIC 6 SECRET 9 ESOTERIC

ESOTERIC O SECRET I ESOTERIC




ALL ABOUT 2012 The End of the Mayan Calendar After Dec. 21, 2012. Planetary Alignment Sept. 8, 2040 .... See: Mayan Prophecy of the End of the Great Cycle ...Survival and Self-Sufficiency Links - THE MAYAN CALENDAR and THE ...
www.greatdreams.com/2012.htm -

Mayan Prophecy 2012: Entering Our Galactic DayAnd would coincide with an unprecedented planetary alignment, the 'Grand ... The Mayan prophecy tells us that in 1999, our solar system began to leave the ...
www.december212012.com/articles/mayan/7.shtml -

Doomsday, The Mayan Calendar and 2012ViewZone asked me to write a story about the Mayan Calendar. There is a common belief that the calendar holds a prophecy that the world will end in 2012. ...
viewzone2.com/endtime.html -

Do the 2012 Mayan Prophecies Foretell the End Times? - 2012 Planet ...23 Nov 2010 ... It is important when we consider the End Times in relation to the.
2012planetalignment.org/do-the-2012-mayan-prophecies-foretell-the-end- times -

2012: Mayan Prophecy and the Shift of the Ages2 Jan 2011 ... 2012: ODYSSEY OF TIME: MAYAN PROPHECY AND THE SHIF (DVD MOVIE ...
2012planetalignment.org/2012-mayan-prophecy-and-the-shift-of-the-ages -

Show more results from 2012planetalignment.orgBeyond 2012 page 1However, this planetary alignment is due on 24 December 2011, which is the date given by ... Mayan Tribal Prophecy; Hunbatz Men, a modern Mayan Daykeeper, ...
www.diagnosis2012.co.uk/1.htm -

December 21 2012 Predictions – The 2012 End of The World ?It is thought that this rare planetary alignment could signal a shift in the ... else the 2012 end of the world prophesy that is brought about by the Mayan ...
www.december2012endofworld.com/ -

2012 Planet Alignment - What Will Happen on 2012?5 Sep 2009 ... The theory held by ancient Mayan prophecies as well as our modern day predictions regarding the 2012 planet alignment is often called as ...
ezinearticles.com › News and Society › Religion -

Mayan Calendar coming to a End | 2012 Planet Alignment23 Mar 2009 ... 2012 Planet Alignment - Destruction or Revelation ... For many years i have known about the Mayan Calendar coming to a end on December 21, ...
www.2012planetalignment.net/.../mayan-calendar-coming-to-a-end/ -

2012 phenomenon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThe Chilam Balam are a group of post-conquest Mayan prophetic histories ..... A third suggested alignment is a planetary conjunction on December 21, 2012. ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2012_phenomenon


Mesoamerican Long Count calendarMain article: Mesoamerican Long Count calendar
December 2012 marks the conclusion of a b'ak'tun; a time period in the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar, which was used in Central America prior to the arrival of Europeans. Though the Long Count was most likely invented by the Olmec,[8] it has become closely associated with the Maya civilization, whose classic period lasted from 250 to 900 AD.[9] The writing system of the classic Maya has been substantially deciphered, meaning that a corpus of their written and inscribed material has survived from before the European conquest.

Unlike the 52-year Calendar Round still used today among the Maya, the Long Count was linear, rather than cyclical, and kept time roughly in units of 20: 20 days made a uinal, 18 uinals (360 days) made a tun, 20 tuns made a k'atun, and 20 k'atuns (144,000 days) made up a b'ak'tun. Thus, the Mayan date of 8.3.2.10.15 represents 8 b'ak'tuns, 3 k'atuns, 2 tuns, 10 uinals and 15 days.[10][11]

ApocalypseSee also: Fifth World (Native American mythology)
There is a strong tradition of "world ages" in Maya literature, but unfortunately the record has been distorted, leaving several possibilities open.[12] According to the Popol Vuh, a book compiling details of creation accounts known to the K'iche' Maya of the Colonial-era highlands, we are living in the fourth world.[13] The Popol Vuh describes the first three creations that the gods failed in making and the creation of the successful fourth world, where men were placed. In the Maya Long Count, the previous world ended after 13 b'ak'tuns or roughly 5,125 years. The Long Count's "zero date" was set at a point in the past marking the end of the third world and the beginning of the current one, which corresponds to either 11 or 13 August 3114 BC in the Proleptic Gregorian calendar, depending on the formula used.[14][a] This means that the fourth world will also have reached the end of its thirteenth b'ak'tun, or Mayan date 13.0.0.0.0, on either December 21 or December 23, 2012.[1][a]

In 1957, Mayanist and astronomer Maud Worcester Makemson wrote that "the completion of a Great Period of 13 b'ak'tuns would have been of the utmost significance to the Maya".[15] In 1966, Michael D. Coe more ambitiously asserted in The Maya that "there is a suggestion ... that Armageddon would overtake the degenerate peoples of the world and all creation on the final day of the thirteenth [b'ak'tun]. Thus ... our present universe [would] be annihilated [in December 2012][b] when the Great Cycle of the Long Count reaches completion."[16]

ObjectionsCoe's apocalyptic interpretation was repeated by other scholars through the early 1990s.[17] In contrast, later researchers said that, while the end of the 13th b'ak'tun would perhaps be a cause for celebration,[3] it did not mark the end of the calendar.[18] "There is nothing in the Maya or Aztec or ancient Mesoamerican prophecy to suggest that they prophesied a sudden or major change of any sort in 2012," says Mayanist scholar Mark Van Stone. "The notion of a "Great Cycle" coming to an end is completely a modern invention."[19] In 1990, Mayanist scholars Linda Schele and David Freidel argued that the Maya "did not conceive this to be the end of creation, as many have suggested."[20] Susan Milbrath, curator of Latin American Art and Archaeology at the Florida Museum of Natural History, stated that "We have no record or knowledge that [the Maya] would think the world would come to an end" in 2012.[21] "For the ancient Maya, it was a huge celebration to make it to the end of a whole cycle," says Sandra Noble, executive director of the Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies in Crystal River, Florida. To render December 21, 2012, as a doomsday event or moment of cosmic shifting, she says, is "a complete fabrication and a chance for a lot of people to cash in."[21] "There will be another cycle," says E. Wyllys Andrews V, director of the Tulane University Middle American Research Institute (MARI). "We know the Maya thought there was one before this, and that implies they were comfortable with the idea of another one after this."[22]

Mayan references to b'ak'tun 13The present-day Maya, as a whole, do not attach much significance to b'ak'tun 13. Although the Calendar Round is still used by some Maya groups in the Guatemalan highlands, the Long Count was employed exclusively by the classic Maya, and was only recently rediscovered by archaeologists.[23] Mayan elder Apolinario Chile Pixtun and Mexican archaeologist Guillermo Bernal both note that "apocalypse" is a Western concept that has little or nothing to do with Mayan beliefs. Bernal believes that such ideas have been foisted on the Maya by Westerners because their own myths are "exhausted".[24][25] Mayan archaeologist Jose Huchm has stated that "If I went to some Mayan-speaking communities and asked people what is going to happen in 2012, they wouldn't have any idea. That the world is going to end? They wouldn't believe you. We have real concerns these days, like rain".[24]

What significance the classic Maya gave the 13th b'ak'tun is uncertain. Most classic Maya inscriptions are strictly historical and do not make any prophetic declarations.[26] Two items in the Maya historical corpus, however, may mention the end of the 13th b'ak'tun: Tortuguero Monument 6 and, possibly, the Chilam Balam.

Tortuguero
The Tortuguero monument connects the end of the 13th b'ak'tun with the appearance of Bolon Yokte' K'uh, shown here on the Vase of Seven Gods.The Tortuguero site, which lies in southernmost Tabasco, Mexico, dates from the 7th century AD and consists of a series of inscriptions mostly in honor of the contemporary ruler Bahlam Ajaw. One inscription, known as Tortuguero Monument 6, is the only inscription to refer to b'ak'tun 13. It has been partially defaced; Sven Gronemeyer and Barbara MacLeod have given the most complete translation:

tzuhtzjo:m uy-u:xlaju:n pik

It will be completed the thirteenth b'ak'tun.

chan ajaw u:x uni:w

It is 4 Ajaw 3 K'ank'in

uhto:m il?

and it will happen a 'seeing'[?].

ye'ni/ye:n bolon yokte'

It is the display of B'olon-Yokte'

ta chak joyaj

in a great "investiture".[27]
Very little is known about the god (or gods) Bolon Yokte' K'uh. According to an article by Mayanists Markus Eberl and Christian Prager in British Anthropological Reports, his name is composed of the elements "nine", 'OK-te' (the meaning of which is unknown), and "god". Confusion in classical period inscriptions suggests that the name was already ancient and unfamiliar to contemporary scribes.[28] He also appears in inscriptions from Palenque, Usumacinta, and La Mar as a god of war, conflict, and the underworld. In one stela he is portrayed with a rope tied around his neck, and in another with an incense bag, together signifying a sacrifice to end a period of time.[29]

On the subject of the future events being prophesied, Gronemeyer and MacLeod note that "[t]he popular adage of Murphy's Law now comes into play, as this statement is badly eroded," but using modern Maya ceremony to supplement the fragments, they claim that it refers to a celebratory ritual where a person portraying Bolon Yokte' K'uh is wrapped in ritual garments and paraded around the site.[30] They note that the association of Bolon Yokte' K'uh with the 13 b'ak'tun date appears to be so important on this inscription that it supersedes more typical statements of future celebrations such as "erection of stelae, scattering of incense" and so forth. They furthermore assert that this event was indeed planned for 2012, and not the 7th century.[31]

Chilam BalamThe Chilam Balam are a group of post-conquest Mayan prophetic histories transcribed in a modified form of the Spanish alphabet. Their authorship is ascribed to a chilam balam, or jaguar prophet.[32] The Chilam Balam of Tizimin has been translated four times in the 20th century, with many disputes over the meaning of its passages. One passage in particular is relevant to the interpretation of the 13th b'ak'tun:

lic u tal oxlahun bak chem, ti u cenic u (tzan a cen/ba nacom)i (ciac/cha') a ba yum(il/t)exe

Maud Worcester Makemson, an archaeoastronomer, believed that this line referred to the "tremendously important event of the arrival of 13.0.0.0.0 4 Ahau 3 Kankin in the not too distant future",[33] Her translation of the line, runs:

Presently B'ak'tun 13 shall come sailing, figuratively speaking, bringing the ornaments of which I have spoken from your ancestors.

Her version of the text continues, "Then the god will come to visit his little ones. Perhaps 'After Death' will be the subject of his discourse." Makemson was still relying on her own dating of 13.0.0.0.0 to 1752 and therefore the "not too distant future" in her annotations meant a few years after the scribe in Tizimin recorded his Chilam Balam.[34] The more recent translation of Munro S. Edmonson does not support this reading; he considers the Long Count almost entirely absent from the book, since the 360-day tun was supplanted in the 1750s by a 365-day Christian year, and a 24-round may system was being implemented.[35] He translates the line as follows:

...like the coming of 13 sail-ships. When the captains dress themselves, your fathers will be taken.[36]

Other Chilam Balam books contain references to the 13th b'ak'tun, but it is unclear if these are in the past or future; for example, oxhun bakam u katunil (thirteen bakam of k'atuns) in the Chilam Balam of Chumayel.[37] Bolon Yokte' K'uh appears in the Chilam Balam of Chumayel to signify an apparent battle and victory over Spanish invaders.[38]

Dates beyond b'ak'tun 13Mayan inscriptions occasionally reference predicted future events or commemorations that would occur on dates that lie beyond the completion of the 13th b'ak'tun. Most of these are in the form of "distance dates" where some Long Count date is given, together with a Distance Number that is to be added to the Long Count date to arrive at this future date. On the west panel at the Temple of Inscriptions in Palenque, a section of the text projects into the future to the 80th Calendar Round anniversary of the Palenque ruler K'inich Janaab' Pakal's accession to the throne (Pakal's accession occurred on 9.9.2.4.8; equivalent to 27 July 615 CE in the proleptic Gregorian calendar). It does this by commencing with Pakal's birthdate of 9.8.9.13.0 (24 March 603 CE Gregorian) and adding to it the Distance Number 10.11.10.5.8.[39] This calculation arrives at the 80th Calendar Round since his accession, which lies over 4,000 years after Pakal's time—the 21st of October in the year AD 4772.[19][39][40]

Another example is Stela 1 at Coba, which gives a date with twenty units above the b'ak'tun, placing it either 4.134105 × 1028 (41 octillion) years in the future,[20] or an equal distance in the past.[41] Either way, this date is 3 quintillion times the age of the universe, demonstrating that not all Mayans considered the 5,125-year cycle as the most important.

New Age beliefsMany assertions about 2012 are a form of Mayanism,[c] a non-codified collection of New Age beliefs about ancient Maya wisdom and spirituality. Archaeoastronomer Anthony Aveni says that while the idea of "balancing the cosmos" was prominent in ancient Maya literature, and some modern Maya affirm this idea of an age of coexistence, the 2012 phenomenon does not present this message in its original form. Instead, it is bound up with American traditions such as the New Age movement, millenarianism, and the belief in secret knowledge from distant times and places.[42] Established themes found in 2012 literature include "suspicion towards mainstream Western culture", the idea of spiritual evolution, and the possibility of leading the world into the New Age by individual example or by a group's joined consciousness. The general intent of this literature is not to warn of impending doom but "to foster counter-cultural sympathies and eventually socio-political and 'spiritual' activism".[2] Aveni, who has studied New Age and SETI communities, describes 2012 narratives as the product of a "disconnected" society: "Unable to find spiritual answers to life's big questions within ourselves, we turn outward to imagined entities that lie far off in space or time—entities that just might be in possession of superior knowledge."[43]

In 1975, the ending of the b'ak'tun cycle became the subject of speculation by several New Age authors, who believe it will correspond to a global "consciousness shift". In his book Mexico Mystique: The Coming Sixth Age of Consciousness, Frank Waters tied Coe's December 24, 2011[b] date to astrology and the prophecies of the Hopi,[44] while both José Argüelles and Terence McKenna (in their books The Transformative Vision[45] and The Invisible Landscape[46][47] respectively) discussed the significance of the year 2012, but not a specific day. In 1987, the year in which he held the Harmonic Convergence event, Argüelles settled on the date of December 21 in his book The Mayan Factor: Path Beyond Technology,[48][49] in which he claimed on that date the Earth would pass through a great "beam" from the centre of the Galaxy, and that the Maya aligned their calendar in anticipation of that event.[50]

In 2006, author Daniel Pinchbeck popularised New Age concepts about this date in his book 2012: The Return of Quetzalcoatl, linking it to beliefs about crop circles, alien abduction, and personal revelations based on the use of entheogens and mediumship.[51][52] Pinchbeck claims to discern a "growing realization that materialism and the rational, empirical worldview that comes with it has reached its expiration date...[w]e're on the verge of transitioning to a dispensation of consciousness that's more intuitive, mystical and shamanic."[53]

In India, the guru Kalki Bhagavan has promoted 2012 as a "deadline" for human enlightenment since at least 1998.[54][55] In the United States, the association of December 21, 2012, with a "transformation of consciousness" has also received popular attention in The Lost Symbol (2009), a bestseller work of thriller fiction by Dan Brown, in which the date is associated with references to esoteric beliefs of Freemasonry and noetic theory.[56]

Frank Joseph's Atlantis and 2012: The Science of the Lost Civilization and the Prophecies of the Maya, published in 2010,[57] links supposed Maya prophecies about December 21, 2012 to mythology about the lost continents of Atlantis and Lemuria, claiming that knowledge of a past cataclysm was carried to the ancient Maya and to ancient Egypt. Joseph connects this knowledge to stories of the Ark of the Covenant, which he claims was stolen from the Great Pyramid by Moses, brought from Jerusalem to the Americas by the Knights Templar, and now lies hidden in a cave in Illinois, awaiting its prophesied discovery in 2012. The discovery of the ark and the knowledge it contains will usher in a New Age.

Galactic alignmentIn the mid-1990s, esoteric author John Major Jenkins asserted that the ancient Maya intended to tie the end of their calendar to the winter solstice in 2012, which falls on December 21. This date was in line with an idea he terms the galactic alignment.[58]

In the Solar System, the planets and the Sun share roughly the same plane of orbit, known as the plane of the ecliptic. From our perspective on Earth, the ecliptic is the path taken by the Sun across the sky over the course of the year. The 12 constellations which line the ecliptic are known as the zodiac and, through the year, the Sun passes through each constellation in turn. Additionally, over time, the Sun's annual passage appears to recede counterclockwise by one degree every 72 years. This movement, called "precession", is attributed to a slight wobble in the Earth's axis as it spins.[59] As a result, approximately every 2,160 years, the constellation visible on the early morning of the spring equinox changes. In Western astrological traditions, this signals the end of one astrological age (currently the Age of Pisces) and the beginning of another (Age of Aquarius). Over the course of 26,000 years, precession makes one full circuit around the ecliptic.[59]

Just as the spring equinox in the northern hemisphere is currently in the constellation of Pisces, so the winter solstice is currently in the constellation of Sagittarius, which is the zodiacal constellation intersected by the galactic equator.[60] Every year for the last 1,000 years or so, on the winter solstice, the Earth, Sun and the galactic equator come into alignment, and every year, precession pushes the Sun's position a little way further through the Milky Way's band.

The Milky Way near Cygnus showing the lane of the Dark Rift, which the Maya called the Xibalba be or "Black Road"Jenkins suggests that the Maya based their calendar on observations of the Great Rift, a band of dark dust clouds in the Milky Way, which the Maya called the Xibalba be or "Black Road."[61] Jenkins claims that the Maya were aware of where the ecliptic intersected the Black Road and gave this position in the sky a special significance in their cosmology.[62] According to the hypothesis, the Sun precisely aligns with this intersection point at the winter solstice of 2012.[62] Jenkins claimed that the classical Mayans anticipated this conjunction and celebrated it as the harbinger of a profound spiritual transition for mankind.[63] New Age proponents of the galactic alignment hypothesis argue that, just as astrology uses the positions of stars and planets to make claims of future events, the Mayans plotted their calendars with the objective of preparing for significant world events.[64] Jenkins attributes the insights of ancient Maya shamans about the galactic center to their use of psilocybin mushrooms, psychoactive toads, and other psychedelics.[65] Jenkins also associates the Xibalba be with a "world tree", drawing on studies of contemporary (not ancient) Maya cosmology.[66]

Astronomers argue that the galactic equator is an entirely arbitrary line, and can never be precisely determined because it is impossible to say exactly where the Milky Way begins or ends. Jenkins claims he drew his conclusions about the location of the galactic equator from observations taken at above 11,000 feet (3,400 m), which is higher than any of the Maya lived.[50] Furthermore, the precessional alignment of the Sun with any single point is not exclusive to a specific year, but takes place over a 36-year period, corresponding to its diameter. Jenkins himself notes that, even given his determined location for the line of the galactic equator, its most precise convergence with the centre of the Sun already occurred in 1998.[67][68]

There is no clear evidence that the classic Maya were aware of precession. Some Maya scholars, such as Barbara MacLeod, Michael Grofe, Eva Hunt, Gordon Brotherston, and Anthony Aveni,[69] have suggested that some Mayan holy dates were timed to precessional cycles, but scholarly opinion on the subject remains divided.[19] There is also little evidence, archaeological or historical, that the Maya placed any importance on solstices or equinoxes.[19][70] It is possible that early Mesoamericans had an emphasis on solstices which was later forgotten,[71] but this is also a disputed issue among Mayanists.[19][70] The start date of the Long Count is not astronomically significant.[72]

Timewave zero and the I Ching
A screenshot of the Timewave Zero software"Timewave zero" is a numerological formula that purports to calculate the ebb and flow of "novelty", defined as increase in the universe's interconnectedness, or organised complexity,[73] over time.[74] According to Terence McKenna, who conceived the idea over several years in the early-mid 1970s while using psilocybin mushrooms and DMT, the universe has a teleological attractor at the end of time that increases interconnectedness, eventually reaching a singularity of infinite complexity in 2012, at which point anything and everything imaginable will occur simultaneously.[73]

McKenna expressed "novelty" in a computer program, which purportedly produces a waveform known as timewave zero or the timewave. Based on McKenna's interpretation of the King Wen sequence of the I Ching,[46] the graph appears to show great periods of novelty corresponding with major shifts in humanity's biological and cultural evolution. He believed the events of any given time are recursively related to the events of other times, and chose the atomic bombing of Hiroshima as the basis for calculating his end date in November 2012. When he later discovered this date's proximity to the end of the 13th b'ak'tun of the Maya calendar, he revised his hypothesis so that the two dates matched.[75]

The first edition of The Invisible Landscape refers to 2012 (as the year, not a specific day) only twice. It was only in 1983, with the publication of Sharer's revised table of date correlations in the 4th edition of Morley's The Ancient Maya, that each became convinced that December 21, 2012, had significant meaning. McKenna subsequently included this specific date throughout the second edition of The Invisible Landscape, published in 1993.[2]

Doomsday theoriesA far more apocalyptic view of the year 2012 has also spread in various media, describing the end of the world or of human civilization on that date. This view has been promulgated by many hoax sites on the Internet, particularly on YouTube,[76] and by the History Channel, with such series as Decoding the Past (2005–2007), 2012, End of Days (2006), Last Days on Earth (2006), Seven Signs of the Apocalypse (2007), and Nostradamus 2012 (2008).[77] The Discovery Channel also aired 2012 Apocalypse in 2009, suggesting that massive solar storms, magnetic pole reversal, earthquakes, supervolcanoes, and other drastic natural events may occur in 2012.[78] Author Graham Hancock, in his book Fingerprints of the Gods, interpreted Coe's remarks in Breaking the Maya Code[79] as evidence for the prophecy of a global cataclysm.[80]

Other alignmentsAn apocalyptic reading of Jenkins's hypothesis has that, when the galactic alignment occurs, it will somehow create a combined gravitational effect between the Sun and the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy (known as Sagittarius A*), creating havoc on Earth.[81] Apart from the fact noted above that the "galactic alignment" predicted by Jenkins already happened in 1998, the Sun's apparent path through the zodiac as seen from Earth does not take it near the true galactic center, but rather several degrees above it.[82] Even if this were not the case, Sagittarius A* is 30,000 light years from Earth, and would have to be more than 6 million times closer to cause any gravitational disruption to Earth's Solar System.[83][84] This reading of Jenkins's theories was included on the History Channel documentary, Decoding the Past. However, Jenkins has complained of the fact that a science fiction writer co-authored the documentary, and went on to characterize it as "45 minutes of unabashed doomsday hype and the worst kind of inane sensationalism".[85]

Some suggested alternate alignments relate to a very different "galactic alignment" proposed by some scientists to explain a supposed periodicity in mass extinctions in the fossil record.[86] The hypothesis supposes that vertical oscillations made by the Sun as it orbits the galactic center cause it to regularly pass through the galactic plane. When the Sun's orbit takes it outside the galactic plane which bisects the galactic disc, the influence of the galactic tide is weaker; as it re-enters the galactic disc, as it does every 20–25 million years, it comes under the influence of the far stronger "disc tides", which, according to mathematical models, increase the flux of Oort cloud comets into the Solar System by a factor of 4, leading to a massive increase in the likelihood of a devastating comet impact.[87] However, this "alignment" takes place over tens of millions of years, and could never be timed to an exact date.[88] Evidence shows that the Sun passed through the plane bisecting the galactic disc only three million years ago, and is now moving farther above it.[89]

A third suggested alignment is a planetary conjunction on December 21, 2012. However, there will be no alignment of planets on that date.[90]

Geomagnetic reversalAnother idea involves a geomagnetic reversal (often incorrectly referred to as a polar shift by proponents of this hypothesis), perhaps triggered by a massive solar flare, one with energy equal to 100 billion atomic bombs.[91] This belief is supposedly supported by observations that the Earth's magnetic field is weakening,[92] which could precede a reversal of the north and south magnetic poles. Scientists believe the Earth is overdue for a geomagnetic reversal,[citation needed] and has been for a long time, even since well before the time of the Mayans, because the last reversal was 780,000 years ago.[93] Critics, however, claim geomagnetic reversals take up to 5,000 years to complete, and do not start on any particular date. Also, NOAA now predicts that the solar maximum will peak in 2013, not 2012, and that it will be fairly weak, with a below-average number of sunspots.[94] In any case, there is no scientific evidence linking a solar maximum to a geomagnetic reversal.[95] In particular, the planet's magnetic fields are caused and regulated by the spinning of the solid inner core inside the molten outer core, and so cannot be changed by something external to the planet such as a solar flare. A solar maximum would be mostly notable for its effects on satellite and cellular phone communications.[96] NASA's David Morrison attributes the rise of the solar storm idea to physicist and science populariser Michio Kaku, who claimed in an interview with Fox News that a solar peak in 2012 could be disastrous for orbiting satellites.[76]

Planet X/NibiruMain article: Nibiru collision
Some proponents of doomsday in 2012 claim that a planet called Planet X or Nibiru will collide with or pass by Earth in that year. This idea, which has appeared in various forms within New Age circles since 1995, initially slated the event for 2003 but abandoned that date after it passed without incident. It originated from claims of channeling of alien beings and has been widely ridiculed.[97][98] Astronomers calculate that such an object so close to Earth would be visible to anyone looking up at the night sky.[99][100]

Alien invasionSee also: Alien invasion
In late 2009, rumours began circulating in UFO forums on the internet that SETI had detected several city-sized spacecraft headed towards Earth, often citing a particular image from the Digitized Sky Survey as evidence.[101] In December 2010, an article appeared in examiner.com, again citing the photograph, and stating that a high-ranking SETI researcher named "Craig Kasnov" had reported that three "flying saucers", each tens of kilometres long, would arrive in Earth orbit by December, 2012.[102] This article was referenced in a number of mainstream news outlets, including the English language version of Pravda.[103] Although no-one named Craig Kasnov could be located at SETI, Craig Kasnoff, a computer programmer who co-conceived the SETI@home project with David Gedye,[104] stated that he had never made the reported claims.[102][101] Astronomer and debunker Phil Plait noted on his blog that the supposed UFO photograph bore more resemblance to a bit of grit or a defect in the photographic plate.[102] Also, he noted that by using the small angle formula one could determine that, were the object in the photo as large as claimed, it would have to be closer to Earth than the Moon, which would mean it would effectively have already arrived.[102] In January 2011, Seth Shostak, chief astronomer of SETI, issued a press release debunking the claims.[105]

 

 

THE TWENTY FIRST OF DECEMBER TWO THOUSAND AND TWELVE

 

T
2
=
3
THE
33
15
6
T
2
=
6
TWENTY
107
26
8
F
6
=
5
FIRST
72
27
9
O
6
=
2
OF
21
12
3
D
4
=
8
DECEMBER
55
37
1
T
2
=
3
TWO
58
13
4
T
2
=
8
THOUSAND
102
30
3
A
1
=
3
AND
19
10
1
T
2
=
6
TWELVE
87
24
6
-
27
-
44
First Total
554
194
41
-
2+7
-
4+4
Add to Reduce
5+5+4
1+9+4
4+1
-
9
-
8
Second Total
14
14
5
-
1+0
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+4
1+4
-
-
9
-
8
Essence of Number
5
5
5

 

 

THE

MAYAN LONG COUNT

 

 

Tonatiuh (Aztec god) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia

www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/599069/Tonatiuh

In Mesoamerican religion, Nahua sun deity of the fifth and final era (the Fifth Sun). In most myths of the Mesoamerican Nahua peoples, including those of the ...

 

 

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2012 phenomenon
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For other uses, see 2012 (disambiguation).

A date inscription for the Mayan Long Count
The 2012 phenomenon comprises a range of eschatological beliefs according to which cataclysmic or transformative events will occur on December 21, 2012.[1][2][3][4] This date is regarded as the end-date of a 5,125-year-long cycle in the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar. Various astronomical alignments and numerological formulae have been proposed as pertaining to this date, though none have been accepted by mainstream scholarship.

A New Age interpretation of this transition is that this date marks the start of time in which Earth and its inhabitants may undergo a positive physical or spiritual transformation, and that 2012 may mark the beginning of a new era.[5] Others suggest that the 2012 date marks the end of the world or a similar catastrophe. Scenarios suggested for the end of the world include the arrival of the next solar maximum, or Earth's collision with a black hole, passing asteroid or a planet called "Nibiru".

Scholars from various disciplines have dismissed the idea of such cataclysmic events occurring in 2012. Professional Mayanist scholars state that predictions of impending doom are not found in any of the extant classic Maya accounts, and that the idea that the Long Count calendar "ends" in 2012 misrepresents Maya history and culture.[3][6][7] Astronomers and other scientists have rejected the proposed events as pseudoscience, stating that they are contradicted by simple astronomical observations.[8]

Contents
[hide]
1 Mesoamerican Long Count calendar
1.1 Apocalypse
1.2 Objections
1.3 Prior associations
2 Mayan references to b'ak'tun 13
2.1 Tortuguero
2.2 Dates beyond b'ak'tun 13
3 New Age beliefs
3.1 Origins
3.2 Galactic alignment
3.2.1 Precession
3.2.2 Mysticism
3.2.3 Criticism
3.3 Timewave zero and the I Ching
3.4 Other concepts
4 Doomsday theories
4.1 Other alignments
4.2 Geomagnetic reversal
4.3 Planet X/Nibiru
4.4 Other catastrophes
5 Cultural influence
6 See also
7 Notes
8 Citations
9 References

Mesoamerican Long Count calendar
Main article: Mesoamerican Long Count calendar
December 2012 marks the conclusion of a b'ak'tun—a time period in the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar which was used in Central America prior to the arrival of Europeans. Though the Long Count was most likely invented by the Olmec,[9] it has become closely associated with the Maya civilization, whose classic period lasted from 250 to 900 AD.[10] The writing system of the classic Maya has been substantially deciphered,[11] meaning that a corpus of their written and inscribed material has survived from before the European conquest.

Unlike the 52-year Calendar Round still used today among the Maya, the Long Count was linear rather than cyclical, and kept time roughly in units of 20: 20 days made a uinal, 18 uinals (360 days) made a tun, 20 tuns made a k'atun, and 20 k'atuns (144,000 days or roughly 394 years) made up a b'ak'tun. Thus, the Mayan date of 8.3.2.10.15 represents 8 b'ak'tuns, 3 k'atuns, 2 tuns, 10 uinals and 15 days.[12][13]

Apocalypse

See also: Fifth World (Native American mythology)
There is a strong tradition of "world ages" in Mayan literature, but the record has been distorted, leaving several possibilities open to interpretation.[14] According to the Popol Vuh, a compilation of the creation accounts of the K'iche' Maya of the Colonial-era highlands, we are living in the fourth world.[15] The Popol Vuh describes the gods first creating three failed worlds, followed by a successful fourth world in which humanity was placed. In the Maya Long Count, the previous world ended after 13 b'ak'tuns, or roughly 5,125 years.[16][a] The Long Count's "zero date"[b] was set at a point in the past marking the end of the third world and the beginning of the current one, which corresponds to 11 August 3114 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar.[17][c] This means that the fourth world will also have reached the end of its 13th b'ak'tun, or Mayan date 13.0.0.0.0, on December 21, 2012.[1][c] In 1957, Mayanist and astronomer Maud Worcester Makemson wrote that "the completion of a Great Period of 13 b'ak'tuns would have been of the utmost significance to the Maya".[18] In 1966, Michael D. Coe wrote in The Maya that "there is a suggestion ... that Armageddon would overtake the degenerate peoples of the world and all creation on the final day of the 13th [b'ak'tun]. Thus ... our present universe [would] be annihilated [in December 2012][d] when the Great Cycle of the Long Count reaches completion."[19]

Objections
Coe's interpretation was repeated by other scholars through the early 1990s.[20] In contrast, later researchers said that, while the end of the 13th b'ak'tun would perhaps be a cause for celebration,[3] it did not mark the end of the calendar.[21] "There is nothing in the Maya or Aztec or ancient Mesoamerican prophecy to suggest that they prophesied a sudden or major change of any sort in 2012," said Mayanist scholar Mark Van Stone. "The notion of a "Great Cycle" coming to an end is completely a modern invention."[22] In 1990, Mayanist scholars Linda Schele and David Freidel argued that the Maya "did not conceive this to be the end of creation, as many have suggested."[23] Susan Milbrath, curator of Latin American Art and Archaeology at the Florida Museum of Natural History, stated that "We have no record or knowledge that [the Maya] would think the world would come to an end" in 2012.[3] "For the ancient Maya, it was a huge celebration to make it to the end of a whole cycle," said Sandra Noble, executive director of the Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies. The 2012 phenomenon, she said, is "a complete fabrication and a chance for a lot of people to cash in."[3] "There will be another cycle," said E. Wyllys Andrews V, director of the Tulane University Middle American Research Institute. "We know the Maya thought there was one before this, and that implies they were comfortable with the idea of another one after this."[24]

Prior associations
The European association of the Maya with eschatology dates back to the time of Christopher Columbus, who was compiling a work called Libro de las profecias during the voyage in 1502 when he first heard about the "Maia" on Guanaja, an island off the north coast of Honduras.[25] Influenced by the writings of Bishop Pierre d'Ailly, Columbus believed that his discovery of "most distant" lands (and, by extension, the Maya themselves) was prophesied and would bring about the Apocalypse. End-times fears were widespread during the early years of the Spanish Conquest as the result of popular astrological predictions in Europe of a second Great Flood for the year 1524.[25]

In the early 1900s, German scholar Ernst Förstemann interpreted the last page of the Dresden Codex as a representation of the end of the world in a cataclysmic flood. He made reference to “destruction of the world,” “apocalypse,” and “the end of the world”, though he made no reference to the 13th baktun or 2012 and it was not clear that he was referring to a future event.[26] His ideas were repeated by archaeologist Sylvanus Morley,[27] who directly paraphrased Förstemann and added his own embellishments, writing "Finally, on the last page of the manuscript, is depicted the Destruction of the World… Here, indeed, is portrayed with a graphic touch the final all-engulfing cataclysm" in the form of a Great Flood. These comments were later repeated in Morley's book The Ancient Maya, the first edition of which was published in 1946.[25]

Mayan references to b'ak'tun 13
It is not certain what significance the classic Maya give to the 13th b'ak'tun.[28] Most classic Maya inscriptions are strictly historical and do not make any prophetic declarations.[28] One item in the Mayan classical corpus, however, does mention the end of the 13th b'ak'tun: Tortuguero Monument 6.

Tortuguero
The Tortuguero site, which lies in southernmost Tabasco, Mexico, dates from the 7th century AD and consists of a series of inscriptions mostly in honor of the contemporary ruler Bahlam Ajaw. One inscription, known as Tortuguero Monument 6, is the only inscription known to refer to b'ak'tun 13. It has been partially defaced; Sven Gronemeyer and Barbara MacLeod have given this translation:

tzuhtzjo:m uy-u:xlaju:n pik
chan ajaw u:x uni:w
uhto:m il[?]
ye'ni/ye:n bolon yokte'
ta chak joyaj It will be completed the 13th b'ak'tun.
It is 4 Ajaw 3 K'ank'in
and it will happen a 'seeing'[?].
It is the display of B'olon-Yokte'
in a great "investiture".[29]

The Tortuguero monument connects the end of the 13th b'ak'tun with the appearance of Bolon Yokte' K'uh, shown here on the Vase of Seven Gods.
Very little is known about the god Bolon Yokte'. According to an article by Mayanists Markus Eberl and Christian Prager in British Anthropological Reports, his name is composed of the elements "nine", 'OK-te' (the meaning of which is unknown), and "god". Confusion in classical period inscriptions suggests that the name was already ancient and unfamiliar to contemporary scribes.[30] He also appears in inscriptions from Palenque, Usumacinta, and La Mar as a god of war, conflict, and the underworld. In one stele he is portrayed with a rope tied around his neck, and in another with an incense bag, together signifying a sacrifice to end a cycle of years.[31]

Based on observations of modern Mayan rituals, Gronemeyer and MacLeod claim that the stele refers to a celebration in which a person portraying Bolon Yokte' K'uh was wrapped in ceremonial garments and paraded around the site.[32][33] They note that the association of Bolon Yokte' K'uh with b'ak'tun 13 appears to be so important on this inscription that it supersedes more typical celebrations, such as "erection of stelae, scattering of incense" and so forth. They furthermore assert that this event was indeed planned for 2012, and not the 7th century.[34] However, Mayanist scholar Stephen Houston contests this view, arguing that future dates on Mayan inscriptions were simply meant to draw parallels with contemporary events, and that the words on the stela describe a contemporary rather than a future scene.[35]

Dates beyond b'ak'tun 13
Mayan inscriptions occasionally mention predicted future events or commemorations that would occur on dates far beyond the completion of the 13th b'ak'tun. Most of these are in the form of "distance dates": Long Count dates given together with an additional number, known as a Distance Number, which when added together make a future date. On the west panel at the Temple of Inscriptions in Palenque, a section of text projects forward to the 80th 52-year Calendar Round from the coronation of the ruler K'inich Janaab' Pakal. Pakal's accession occurred on 9.9.2.4.8, equivalent to 27 July 615 AD in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. The inscription begins with Pakal's birthdate of 9.8.9.13.0 (March 24, 603 AD Gregorian) and then adds the Distance Number 10.11.10.5.8 to it,[36] arriving at a date of October 21, 4772 AD, more than 4,000 years after Pakal's time.[22][36][37]

Another example is Stele 1 at Coba, which gives a date of 13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.0.0.0.0, or twenty units above the b'ak'tun, placing it either 4.134105 × 1028 (41 octillion) years in the future,[23] or an equal distance in the past.[38] This date is 3 quintillion times the age of the universe as determined by cosmologists.

New Age beliefs
Many assertions about the year 2012 form part of a non-codified collection of New Age beliefs about ancient Maya wisdom and spirituality.[4][39][40] Archaeoastronomer Anthony Aveni says that while the idea of "balancing the cosmos" was prominent in ancient Maya literature, the 2012 phenomenon does not draw from those traditions. Instead, it is bound up with American concepts such as the New Age movement, millenarianism, and the belief in secret knowledge from distant times and places.[41] Established themes found in 2012 literature include "suspicion towards mainstream Western culture," the idea of spiritual evolution, and the possibility of leading the world into the New Age by individual example or by a group's joined consciousness. The general intent of this literature is not to warn of impending doom but "to foster counter-cultural sympathies and eventually socio-political and 'spiritual' activism".[2] Aveni, who has studied New Age and SETI communities, describes 2012 narratives as the product of a "disconnected" society: "Unable to find spiritual answers to life's big questions within ourselves, we turn outward to imagined entities that lie far off in space or time—entities that just might be in possession of superior knowledge."[42]

Origins
In 1975, the ending of b'ak'tun 13 became the subject of speculation by several New Age authors, who asserted it would correspond with a global "transformation of consciousness". In Mexico Mystique: The Coming Sixth Age of Consciousness, Frank Waters tied Coe's original date of December 24, 2011,[d] to astrology and the prophecies of the Hopi,[43] while both José Argüelles (in The Transformative Vision)[44] and Terence McKenna (in The Invisible Landscape)[45][46] discussed the significance of the year 2012, but not a specific day. It was only in 1983, with the publication of Robert J. Sharer's revised table of date correlations in the 4th edition of Morley's The Ancient Maya,[d] that each became convinced that December 21, 2012, had significant meaning. By 1987, the year in which he organized the Harmonic Convergence event, Arguelles was using the date December 21, 2012 in The Mayan Factor: Path Beyond Technology.[47][48] He claimed that on August 13, 3113 BC the Earth began a passage through a "galactic synchronization beam" that emanated from the center of our galaxy, that it would pass through this beam during a period of 5200 tuns (Maya cycles of 360-days each), and that this beam would result in "total synchronization" and "galactic entrainment" of individuals "plugged into the Earth's electromagnetic battery" by 13.0.0.0.0 (December 21, 2012). He believed that the Maya aligned their calendar to correspond to this phenomenon.[49] Anthony Aveni has dismissed all of these ideas.[50]

Galactic alignment
There is no significant astronomical event tied to the Long Count's start date.[51] However, its supposed end date has been tied to astronomical phenomena by esoteric, fringe, and New Age literature that places great significance on astrology. Chief among these is the concept of the "galactic alignment."

Precession
In the Solar System, the planets and the Sun lie roughly within the same flat plane, known as the plane of the ecliptic. From our perspective on Earth, the ecliptic is the path taken by the Sun across the sky over the course of the year. The twelve constellations that line the ecliptic are known as the zodiac and, annually, the Sun passes through all of them in turn. Additionally, over time, the Sun's annual cycle appears to recede very slowly backward by one degree every 72 years, or by one constellation every 2,160 years. This backward movement, called "precession", is due to a slight wobble in the Earth's axis as it spins, and can be compared to the way a spinning top wobbles as it slows down.[52] Over the course of 25,800 years, a period often called a Great Year, the Sun completes a full, 360-degree backward circuit through the zodiac.[52] In Western astrological traditions, precession is measured from the northern hemisphere's spring equinox, or the point at which the Sun is exactly halfway between its lowest and highest points in the sky. Presently, the Sun's spring equinox position is in the constellation Pisces and is moving back into Aquarius. This signals the end of one astrological age (the Age of Pisces) and the beginning of another (the Age of Aquarius).[53]

Similarly, the Sun's December solstice position (in the northern hemisphere, the lowest point on its annual path; in the southern hemisphere, the highest) is currently in the constellation of Sagittarius, one of two constellations in which the zodiac intersects with the Milky Way.[54] Every year, on the December solstice, the Sun and the Milky Way, from the surface of the Earth, appear to come into alignment, and every year, precession causes a slight shift in the Sun's position in the Milky Way. Given that the Milky Way is between 10° and 20° wide, it takes between 700 and 1400 years for the Sun's December solstice position to precess through it.[55] It is currently about halfway through the Milky Way, crossing the galactic equator.[56]

Mysticism

The Milky Way near Cygnus showing the lane of the Dark Rift, which the Maya called the Xibalba be or "Black Road"
Mystical speculations about the precession of the equinoxes and the Sun's proximity to the center of the Milky Way appeared in Hamlet's Mill (1969) by Giorgio de Santillana and Hertha von Deschend. These were quoted and expanded upon by Terence and Dennis McKenna in The Invisible Landscape (1975). The significance of a future "galactic alignment" was noted in 1991 by astrologer Raymond Mardyks, who asserted that the winter solstice would align with the galactic plane in 1998/1999, writing that an event that "only occurs once each 26,000 year cycle and would be most definitely of utmost significance to the top flight ancient astrologers."[57] Astrologer Bruce Scofield notes, "The Milky Way crossing of the winter solstice is something that has been neglected by Western astrologers, with a few exceptions. Charles Jayne made a very early reference to it, and in the 1970s Rob Hand mentioned it in his talks on precession but didn't elaborate on it. Ray Mardyks later made a point of it, and after that John [Major] Jenkins, myself, and Daniel Giamario began to talk about it."[58]

Adherents to the idea, following a theory first proposed by Munro Edmonson,[59] allege that the Maya based their calendar on observations of the Great Rift or Dark Rift, a band of dark dust clouds in the Milky Way, which, according to some scholars, the Maya called the Xibalba be or "Black Road."[60] John Major Jenkins claims that the Maya were aware of where the ecliptic intersected the Black Road and gave this position in the sky a special significance in their cosmology.[61] According to Jenkins, precession will align the Sun precisely with the galactic equator at the 2012 winter solstice.[61] Jenkins claimed that the classical Maya anticipated this conjunction and celebrated it as the harbinger of a profound spiritual transition for mankind.[62] New Age proponents of the galactic alignment hypothesis argue that, just as astrology uses the positions of stars and planets to make claims of future events, the Mayans plotted their calendars with the objective of preparing for significant world events.[63] Jenkins attributes the insights of ancient Maya shamans about the galactic center to their use of psilocybin mushrooms, psychoactive toads, and other psychedelics.[64] Jenkins also associates the Xibalba be with a "world tree", drawing on studies of contemporary (not ancient) Maya cosmology.[65]

Criticism
Astronomers such as David Morrison argue that the galactic equator is an entirely arbitrary line, and can never be precisely drawn because it is impossible to determine the Milky Way's exact boundaries, which vary depending on clarity of view. Jenkins claims he drew his conclusions about the location of the galactic equator from observations taken at above 11,000 feet (3,400 m), an altitude that gives a clearer image of the Milky Way than Mayans had access to.[49] Furthermore, since the Sun is half a degree wide, it requires 36 years for it to precess across any single point. Jenkins himself notes that even given this determined location for the line of the galactic equator, its most precise convergence with the center of the Sun already occurred in 1998, and so asserts that, rather than 2012, the galactic alignment instead focuses on a multi-year period centred on 1998.[66][67][68]

There is no clear evidence that the classic Maya were aware of precession. Some Maya scholars, such as Barbara MacLeod,[33] Michael Grofe,[69] Eva Hunt, Gordon Brotherston, and Anthony Aveni,[70] have suggested that some Mayan holy dates were timed to precessional cycles, but scholarly opinion on the subject remains divided.[22] There is also little evidence, archaeological or historical, that the Maya placed any importance on solstices or equinoxes.[22][71] It is possible that only the early Mesoamericans observed solstices,[72] but this is also a disputed issue among Mayanists.[22][71] There is also no evidence that the classic Maya attached any importance to the Milky Way; there is no glyph in their writing system to represent it, and no astronomical or chronological table tied to it.[73]

Timewave zero and the I Ching

A screenshot of the "Timewave Zero" software
"Timewave zero" is a numerological formula that purports to calculate the ebb and flow of "novelty", defined as increase over time in the universe's interconnectedness, or organized complexity.[74] According to Terence McKenna, the universe has a teleological attractor at the end of time that increases interconnectedness, eventually reaching a singularity of infinite complexity in 2012, at which point anything and everything imaginable will occur simultaneously. He conceived this idea over several years in the early to mid-1970s while using psilocybin mushrooms and DMT.[74]

McKenna expressed "novelty" in a computer program which purportedly produces a waveform known as "timewave zero" or the "timewave". Based on McKenna's interpretation of the King Wen sequence of the I Ching,[45] the graph appears to show great periods of novelty corresponding with major shifts in humanity's biological and sociocultural evolution. He believed that the events of any given time are recursively related to the events of other times, and chose the atomic bombing of Hiroshima as the basis for calculating his end date of November 2012. When he later discovered this date's proximity to the end of the 13th b'ak'tun of the Maya calendar, he revised his hypothesis so that the two dates matched.[75]

The first edition of The Invisible Landscape refers to 2012 (but no specific day during the year) only twice. In the 1993 second edition, McKenna employed Sharer's date[d] of December 21, 2012 throughout.[2]

Other concepts
In India, the guru Kalki Bhagavan has promoted 2012 as a "deadline" for human enlightenment since at least 1998.[76] Over 15 million people consider Bhagavan to be the incarnation of the god Vishnu and believe that 2012 marks the end of the Kali Yuga, or degenerate age.[77]
In 2006, author Daniel Pinchbeck popularized New Age concepts about this date in his book 2012: The Return of Quetzalcoatl, linking b'ak'tun 13 to beliefs in crop circles, alien abduction, and personal revelations based on the use of entheogens and mediumship.[78][79] Pinchbeck claims to discern a "growing realization that materialism and the rational, empirical worldview that comes with it has reached its expiration date ... [w]e're on the verge of transitioning to a dispensation of consciousness that's more intuitive, mystical and shamanic."[5]

Beginning in 2000, the small French village of Bugarach, population 189, began receiving visits from "esoterics"—mystic believers who have concluded that the local mountain, Pic de Bugarach, is the ideal location to weather the transformative events of 2012. In 2011, the local mayor, Jean-Pierre Delord, began voicing fears to the international press that the small town would be overwhelmed by an influx of thousands of visitors in 2012, even suggesting he may call in the army.[80][81]

Doomsday theories

Sagittarius A*, taken by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory
A far more apocalyptic view of the year 2012 that has spread in various media describes the end of the world or of human civilization on that date. This view has been promulgated by many hoax pages on the Internet, particularly on YouTube.[82] The History Channel has aired a handful of special series on doomsday that include analysis of 2012 theories, such as Decoding the Past (2005–2007), 2012, End of Days (2006), Last Days on Earth (2006), Seven Signs of the Apocalypse (2007), and Nostradamus 2012 (2008).[83] In his book 2012: It's Not the End of the World Peter Lemesurier has listed many misleading statements in these films.[84] The Discovery Channel also aired 2012 Apocalypse in 2009, suggesting that massive solar storms, magnetic pole reversal, earthquakes, supervolcanoes, and other drastic natural events may occur in 2012.[85] Author Graham Hancock, in his book Fingerprints of the Gods, interpreted Coe's remarks in Breaking the Maya Code[86] as evidence for the prophecy of a global cataclysm.[87]

Other alignments
Some people have interpreted the galactic alignment apocalyptically, claiming that when it occurs, it will somehow create a combined gravitational effect between the Sun and the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy (known as Sagittarius A*), thus creating havoc on Earth.[88] Apart from the fact noted above that the "galactic alignment" already happened in 1998, the Sun's apparent path through the zodiac as seen from Earth does not take it near the true galactic center, but rather several degrees above it.[56] Even if this were not the case, Sagittarius A* is 30,000 light years from Earth, and would have to be more than 6 million times closer to cause any gravitational disruption to Earth's Solar System.[89][90] This reading of Jenkins's theories was included on the History Channel documentary, Decoding the Past. However, Jenkins has complained of the fact that a science fiction writer co-authored the documentary, and went on to characterize it as "45 minutes of unabashed doomsday hype and the worst kind of inane sensationalism".[91]

Some believers in a 2012 doomsday have used the term "galactic alignment" to describe a very different phenomenon proposed by some scientists to explain a pattern in mass extinctions supposedly observed in the fossil record.[92] According to this hypothesis, mass extinctions are not random, but recur every 26 million years. To account for this, it suggests that vertical oscillations made by the Sun as it orbits the galactic center cause it to regularly pass through the galactic plane. When the Sun's orbit takes it outside the galactic plane which bisects the galactic disc, the influence of the galactic tide is weaker. However, when re-entering the galactic disc—as it does every 20–25 million years—it comes under the influence of the far stronger "disc tides", which, according to mathematical models, increase the flux of Oort cloud comets into the inner Solar System by a factor of 4, thus leading to a massive increase in the likelihood of a devastating comet impact.[93] However, this "alignment" takes place over tens of millions of years, and could never be timed to an exact date.[94] Evidence shows that the Sun passed through the plane bisecting the galactic disc only three million years ago and is now moving farther above it.[95]

A third suggested alignment is some sort of planetary conjunction occurring on December 21, 2012. However, there will be no alignment of planets on that date.[96] Multi-planet alignments did occur in both 2000 and 2010, each with no ill result for the Earth.[97] Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar System; larger than all other planets combined. When Jupiter is near opposition, the Earth experiences less than 1% the gravitational force it feels daily from the Moon.[98]

Geomagnetic reversal
Another idea tied to 2012 involves a geomagnetic reversal (often incorrectly referred to as a pole shift by proponents), possibly triggered by a massive solar flare, that would release an energy equal to 100 billion atomic bombs.[99] This belief is supposedly supported by observations that the Earth's magnetic field is weakening,[100] which could precede a reversal of the north and south magnetic poles.

Critics, however, claim that geomagnetic reversals take up to 7,000 years to complete, and do not start on any particular date.[101] Furthermore, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration now predicts that the solar maximum will peak in May 2013, not 2012, and that it will be fairly weak, with a below-average number of sunspots.[102] In any case, there is no scientific evidence linking a solar maximum to a geomagnetic reversal, which is driven by forces entirely within the Earth.[103] Instead, a solar maximum would be mostly notable for its effects on satellite and cellular phone communications.[104] David Morrison attributes the rise of the solar storm idea to physicist and science popularizer Michio Kaku, who claimed in an interview with Fox News that a solar peak in 2012 could be disastrous for orbiting satellites.[82]

Planet X/Nibiru
Main article: Nibiru collision
Some proponents of doomsday in 2012 claim that a planet called Planet X, or Nibiru, will collide with or pass by Earth in that year. This idea, which has appeared in various forms since 1995, initially predicted Doomsday in May, 2003, but proponents later abandoned that date after it passed without incident.[105] The idea originated from claims of channeling of alien beings and has been widely ridiculed.[105][106] Astronomers have calculated that such an object so close to Earth would be visible to anyone looking up at the night sky.[105]

Other catastrophes

The Pleiades, a star cluster whose supposed influence is sometimes tied to the 2012 phenomenon
Other speculations regarding doomsday in 2012 have included predictions by the Web Bot project, a computer program that purports to predict the future using Internet chatter. However, commentators have rejected the programmers' claims to have successfully predicted natural disasters, which web chatter could never predict, as opposed to human-caused disasters like stock market crashes.[107]

Also, the 2012 date has been loosely tied to the long-running concept of the Photon Belt, which predicts a form of interaction between Earth and Alcyone, the largest star of the Pleiades cluster.[108] Critics have argued that photons cannot form belts, that the Pleiades, located more than 400 light years away, could have no effect on Earth, and that the Solar System, rather than getting closer to the Pleiades, is in fact moving farther away from them.[109]

Some media outlets have tied the possibility that the red supergiant star Betelgeuse will undergo a supernova at some point in the future to the 2012 phenomenon. However, while Betelgeuse is certainly in the final stages of its life, and will die as a supernova, there is no way to predict the timing of the event to within 100,000 years.[110] To be a threat to Earth, a supernova would need to be as close as 25 light years to the Solar System. Betelgeuse is roughly 600 light years away, and so its supernova will not affect Earth.[111]

Another claim involves alien invasion. In December 2010, an article, first published in examiner.com and later referenced in the English-language edition of Pravda[112] claimed, citing a Second Digitized Sky Survey photograph as evidence, that SETI had detected three large spacecraft due to arrive at Earth in 2012.[113] Astronomer and debunker Phil Plait noted that by using the small-angle formula, one could determine that if the object in the photo was as large as claimed, it would have had to be closer to Earth than the Moon, which would mean it would already have arrived.[113] In January 2011, Seth Shostak, chief astronomer of SETI, issued a press release debunking the claims.[112]

Cultural influence
The phenomenon has produced hundreds of books, as well as hundreds of thousands of websites.[82] "Ask an Astrobiologist", a NASA public outreach website, has received over 5000 questions from the public on the subject since 2007,[108] some asking whether they should kill themselves, their children or their pets.[82] Many contemporary fictional references to the year 2012 refer to December 21 as the day of a cataclysmic event, including the bestselling book of 2009,[114] Dan Brown's The Lost Symbol.

The 2009 disaster film 2012 was inspired by the phenomenon, and advance promotion prior to its release included a stealth marketing campaign in which TV spots and websites from the fictional "Institute for Human Continuity" called on people to prepare for the end of the world. As these promotions did not mention the film itself, many viewers believed them to be real and contacted astronomers in panic.[115][116] Although the campaign was heavily criticized,[82] the film became one of the most successful of its year, grossing nearly $770 million worldwide.[117]

Lars von Trier's 2011 film Melancholia features a plot in which a planet emerges from behind the Sun onto a collision course with Earth.[118] Announcing his company's purchase of the film, the head of Magnolia Pictures said in a press release, "As the 2012 apocalypse is upon us, it is time to prepare for a cinematic last supper."[119]

The phenomenon has also inspired successful pop music hits such as "2012 (It Ain't the End)" (2010) performed by Jay Sean and "Till the World Ends" (2011) performed by Britney Spears.

In 2011, the Mexico tourism board stated its intentions to use the year 2012, without its apocalyptic connotations, as a means to revive Mexico's tourism industry, which had suffered as the country gained a reputation for drug wars and kidnapping. The initiative hopes to draw on the mystical appeal of the Mayan ruins.[120] On December 21 2011, the Mayan town of Tapachula in Chiapas activated an eight-foot digital clock countding down the days until b'ak'tun 13, while in Izapa, a nearby archaeological site, Mayan priests burned incense and prayed.[121]

 

AZTEC = 1 = AZTEC

AZTECS = 2 = AZTECS

THE

SUN GOD TONATIUH GOD SUN

108 36 TONATIUH = 108 36

1836 = 18 1+8 = 9

1836 EIGHTEEN THIRTY SIX = 9 = EIGHTEEN THIRTY SIX 1836

QUETZALCOATL = 153 = 9 = 153 = QUETZALCOATL

THE MAYAN LONG COUNT

3114 BC TO 21122012

ELEVEN 11:11 ELEVEN

 

 

-
9
X
I
P
E
-
T
O
T
E
C
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
9
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
+
=
21
2+1
=
3
=
3
=
3
-
-
24
9
-
-
-
-
15
-
-
-
+
=
48
4+8
=
12
1+2
3
=
3
-
9
X
I
P
E
-
T
O
T
E
C
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
5
-
2
-
2
5
3
+
=
24
2+4
=
6
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
-
16
5
-
20
-
20
5
3
+
=
69
6+9
=
15
1+5
6
=
6
-
9
X
I
P
E
-
T
O
T
E
C
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
24
9
16
5
-
20
15
20
5
3
+
=
117
1+1+7
=
9
=
9
=
9
-
-
6
9
7
5
-
2
6
2
5
3
+
=
45
4+5
=
9
=
9
=
9
-
9
X
I
P
E
-
T
O
T
E
C
T
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
ONE
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
-
-
2
occurs
x
2
=
4
=
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
3
occurs
x
1
=
3
=
3
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
FOUR
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
5
occurs
x
2
=
10
1+0
1
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
6
occurs
x
2
=
12
1+2
3
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
occurs
x
1
=
7
=
7
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
EIGHT
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
occurs
x
1
=
9
=
9
13
9
X
I
P
E
-
T
O
T
E
C
-
-
32
-
-
9
-
45
-
27
1+3
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3+2
-
-
-
-
4+5
-
2+7
4
9
X
I
P
E
-
T
O
T
E
C
-
-
5
-
-
9
-
9
-
9
-
-
6
9
7
5
-
2
6
2
5
3
T
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
9
X
I
P
E
-
T
O
T
E
C
-
-
5
-
-
9
-
9
-
9

 

I

THE FLAYED ONE

 

9
X
I
P
E
-
T
O
T
E
C
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
9
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
+
=
21
2+1
=
3
=
3
=
3
-
24
9
-
-
-
-
15
-
-
-
+
=
48
4+8
=
12
1+2
3
=
3
9
X
I
P
E
-
T
O
T
E
C
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
5
-
2
-
2
5
3
+
=
24
2+4
=
6
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
16
5
-
20
-
20
5
3
+
=
69
6+9
=
15
1+5
6
=
6
9
X
I
P
E
-
T
O
T
E
C
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
24
9
16
5
-
20
15
20
5
3
+
=
117
1+1+7
=
9
=
9
=
9
-
6
9
7
5
-
2
6
2
5
3
+
=
45
4+5
=
9
=
9
=
9
9
X
I
P
E
-
T
O
T
E
C
T
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
-
-
2
occurs
x
2
=
4
=
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
3
occurs
x
1
=
3
=
3
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
5
occurs
x
2
=
10
1+0
1
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
6
occurs
x
2
=
12
1+2
3
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
occurs
x
1
=
7
=
7
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
occurs
x
1
=
9
=
9
9
X
I
P
E
-
T
O
T
E
C
-
-
32
-
-
9
-
45
-
27
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3+2
-
-
-
-
4+5
-
2+7
9
X
I
P
E
-
T
O
T
E
C
-
-
5
-
-
9
-
9
-
9
-
6
9
7
5
-
2
6
2
5
3
T
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
X
I
P
E
-
T
O
T
E
C
-
-
5
-
-
9
-
9
-
9

 

 

3
THE
33
15
6
6
FEATHE
45
27
9
3
RED
27
18
9
7
SERPENT
97
34
7
19
First Total
202
94
31
1+9
Add to Reduce
2+0+2
9+4
3+1
10
Second Total
4
13
4
1+0
Reduce to Deduce
-
1+3
-
1
Essence of Number
4
4
4

 

 

-
QUETZALCOATL
-
-
-
4
Q+U+E+T
63
18
9
2
Z+A
27
9
9
6
C+O+A+T+L
63
18
9
12
QUETZALCOATL
135
45
27
1+2
-
1+3+5
4+5
2+7
3
QUETZALCOATL
9
9
9

 

 

-
12
Q
U
E
T
Z
A
L
C
O
A
T
L
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
+
=
14
1+4
=
5
=
5
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
26
-
-
-
15
-
-
-
+
=
41
4+1
=
5
=
5
-
5
-
12
Q
U
E
T
Z
A
L
C
O
A
T
L
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
3
5
2
-
1
3
3
-
1
2
3
+
=
31
3+1
=
4
=
4
-
4
-
-
17
21
5
20
-
1
12
3
-
1
20
12
+
=
112
1+1+2
=
4
=
4
-
4
-
12
Q
U
E
T
Z
A
L
C
O
A
T
L
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
17
21
5
20
26
1
12
3
15
1
20
12
+
=
153
1+5+3
=
9
=
9
-
9
-
-
8
3
5
2
8
1
3
3
6
1
2
3
+
=
45
4+5
=
9
=
9
-
9
-
12
Q
U
E
T
Z
A
L
C
O
A
T
L
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
occurs
x
2
=
2
=
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
2
occurs
x
2
=
4
=
4
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
3
3
-
-
-
3
--
-
3
occurs
x
4
=
12
1+2
3
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
FOUR
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
occurs
x
1
=
5
=
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
6
occurs
x
1
=
6
=
6
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
SEVEN
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
occurs
x
2
=
16
1+6
7
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
NINE
-
-
-
-
-
-
20
12
Q
U
E
T
Z
A
L
C
O
A
T
L
-
-
25
-
-
12
-
45
-
27
2+0
1+2
-
3
-
-
-
-
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
2+5
-
-
1+2
-
4+5
-
2+7
2
3
Q
U
E
T
Z
A
L
C
O
A
T
L
-
-
7
-
-
3
-
9
-
9
-
--
8
3
5
2
8
1
3
3
6
1
2
3
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
2
3
Q
U
E
T
Z
A
L
C
O
A
T
L
-
-
7
-
-
3
-
9
-
9

 

 

12
Q
U
E
T
Z
A
L
C
O
A
T
L
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
+
=
14
1+4
=
5
=
5
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
26
-
-
-
15
-
-
-
+
=
41
4+1
=
5
=
5
-
5
12
Q
U
E