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A

MAZE

IN

ZAZAZA ENTERS AZAZAZ

AZAZAZAZAZAZAZZAZAZAZAZAZAZA

ZAZAZAZAZAZAZAZAZAAZAZAZAZAZAZAZAZAZ

THE

MAGICALALPHABET

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZZYXWVUTSRQPONMLKJIHGFEDCBA

12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262625242322212019181716151413121110987654321

 

 

26
A
B
C
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F
G
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O
P
Q
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U
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W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
-
-
5
6
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
+
=
43
4+3
=
7
-
7
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
-
-
14
15
-
-
-
19
-
-
-
-
24
-
26
+
=
115
1+1+5
=
7
-
7
-
7
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
-
1
2
3
4
-
-
7
8
9
-
2
3
4
5
-
7
-
+
=
83
8+3
=
11
1+1
2
-
2
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
-
10
11
12
13
-
-
16
17
18
-
20
21
22
23
-
25
-
+
=
236
2+3+6
=
11
1+1
2
-
2
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
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X
Y
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
+
=
351
3+5+1
=
9
-
9
-
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
+
=
126
1+2+6
=
9
-
9
-
9
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
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T
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X
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Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
1
occurs
x
3
=
3
-
3
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
2
occurs
x
3
=
6
-
6
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
3
occurs
x
3
=
9
-
9
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
+
=
4
occurs
x
3
=
12
1+2
3
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
+
=
5
occurs
x
3
=
15
1+5
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
+
=
6
occurs
x
3
=
18
1+8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
+
=
7
occurs
x
3
=
21
2+1
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
+
=
8
occurs
x
3
=
24
2+4
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
9
occurs
x
2
=
18
1+8
9
26
A
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E
F
G
H
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K
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M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
45
-
-
26
-
126
-
54
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4+5
-
-
2+6
-
1+2+6
-
5+4
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
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L
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N
O
P
Q
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T
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X
Y
Z
-
-
9
-
-
8
-
9
-
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
26
A
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E
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O
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X
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Z
-
-
9
-
-
8
-
9
-
9

 

 

A

HISTORY OF GOD

Karen Armstrong 1993

The God of the Mystics

Page 250

"Perhaps the most famous of the early Jewish mystical texts is the fifth century Sefer Yezirah (The Book of Creation). There is no attempt to describe the creative process realistically; the account is unashamedly symbolic and shows God creating the world by means of language as though he were writing a book. But language has been entirely transformed and the message of creation is no longer clear. Each letter of the Hebrew alphabet is given a numerical value; by combining the letters with the sacred numbers, rearranging them in endless configurations, the mystic weaned his mind away from the normal connotations of words."

 

Page 250

THERE IS NO ATTEMPT MADE TO DESCRIBE THE CREATIVE PROCESS REALISTICALLY THE ACCOUNT

IS UNASHAMEDLY SYMBOLIC AND SHOWS GOD CREATING THE WORLD BY MEANS OF LANGUAGE AS

THOUGH HE WERE WRITING A BOOK. BUT LANGUAGE HAS BEEN ENTIRELY TRANSFORMED AND THE

MESSAGE OF CREATION IS NO LONGER CLEAR EACH LETTER OF THE HEBREW ALPHABET IS GIVEN

A NUMERICAL VALUE BY COMBINING THE LETTERS WITH THE SACRED NUMBERS REARRANGING

THEM IN ENDLESS CONFIGURATIONS THE MYSTIC WEANED THE MIND AWAY FROM THE NORMAL

CONNOTATIONS OF WORDS

 

 

THE LIGHT IS RISING NOW RISING IS THE LIGHT

 

....

 

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
=
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
=
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
1+0
1+1
1+2
1+3
1+4
1+5
1+6
1+7
1+8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
=
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
=
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
I
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
9
1+9
2+0
2+1
2+2
2+3
2+4
2+5
2+6
ME
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
=
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
=
I
ME
I
ME
I
ME
I
ME
I
9
18
9
18
9
18
9
18
9
=
1+8
=
1+8
=
1+8
=
1+8
=
=
9
=
9
=
9
=
9
=
I
ME
I
ME
I
ME
I
ME
1
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
I
ME
I
ME
I
ME
I
ME
1

 

 

 

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1
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3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+0
1+1
1+2
1+3
1+4
1+5
1+6
1+7
1+8
1+9
2+0
2+1
2+2
2+3
2+4
2+5
2+6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
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N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
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L
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N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
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U
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X
Y
Z

 

 

 

LIGHT AND LIFE

Lars Olof Bjorn 1976

Page 197

"By writing the 26 letters of the alphabet in a certain order one may put down almost any message (this book 'is written with the same letters' as the Encyclopaedia Britannica and Winnie the Pooh, only the order of the letters differs). In the same way Nature is able to convey with her language how a cell and a whole organism is to be constructed and how it is to function. Nature has succeeded better than we humans; for the genetic code there is only one universal language which is the same in a man, a bean plant and a bacterium."

"BY WRITING THE 26 LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET IN A CERTAIN ORDER

ONE MAY PUT DOWN ALMOST ANY MESSAGE"

 

 

"FOR THE GENETIC CODE THERE IS ONLY ONE UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE"

 

DNA AND DNA DNA AND DNA DNA AND DNA

DNA AND DNA DNA AND DNA DNA AND DNA

 

 

A QUEST FOR THE BEGINNING AND THE END

Graham Hancock 1995

Chapter 32

Speaking to the Unborn

Page 285

"It is understandable that a huge range of myths from all over the ancient world should describe geological catastrophes in graphic detail. Mankind survived the horror of the last Ice Age, and the most plausible source for our enduring traditions of flooding and freezing, massive volcanism and devastating earthquakes is in the tumultuous upheavals unleashed during the great meltdown of 15,000 to 8000 BC. The final retreat of the ice sheets, and the consequent 300-400 foot rise in global sea levels, took place only a few thousand years before the beginning of the historical period. It is therefore not surprising that all our early civilizations should have retained vivid memories of the vast cataclysms that had terrified their forefathers.
Much harder to explain is the peculiar but distinctive way the myths of cataclysm seem to bear the intelligent imprint of a guiding hand.l Indeed the degree of convergence between such ancient stories is frequently remarkable enough to raise the suspicion that they must all have been 'written' by the same 'author'.
Could that author have had anything to do with the wondrous deity, or superhuman, spoken of in so many of the myths we have reviewed, who appears immediately after the world has been shattered by a horrifying geological catastrophe and brings comfort and the gifts of civilization to the shocked and demoralized survivors?
White and bearded, Osiris is the Egyptian manifestation of this / Page 286 / universal figure, and it may not be an accident that one of the first acts he is remembered for in myth is the abolition of cannibalism among the primitive inhabitants of the Nile Valley.2 Viracocha, in South America, was said to have begun his civilizing mission immediately after a great flood; Quetzalcoatl, the discoverer of maize, brought the benefits of crops, mathematics, astronomy and a refined culture to Mexico after the Fourth Sun had been overwhelmed by a destroying deluge.
Could these strange myths contain a record of encounters between scattered palaeolithic tribes which survived the last Ice Age and an as yet unidentified high civilization which passed through the same epoch?
And could the myths be attempts to communicate?

A message in the bottle of time

'Of all the other stupendous inventions,' Galileo once remarked,

what sublimity of mind must have been his who conceived how to communicate his most secret thoughts to any other person, though very distant either in time or place, speaking with those who are in the Indies, speaking to those who are not yet born, nor shall be this thousand or ten thousand years? And with no greater difficulty than the various arrangements of two dozen little signs on paper? Let this be the seal of all the admirable inventions of men.3

If the 'precessional message' identified by scholars like Santillana, von Dechend and Jane Sellers is indeed a deliberate attempt at communication by some lost civilization of antiquity, how come it wasn't just written down and left for us to find? Wouldn't that have been easier than encoding it in myths? Perhaps.
Nevertheless, suppose that whatever the message was written on got destroyed or worn away after many thousands of years? Or suppose that the language in which it was inscribed was later forgotten utterly (like the enigmatic Indus Valley script, which has been studied closely for more than half a century but has so far resisted all attempts at decoding)? It must be obvious that in such circumstances a written / Page 287 / legacy to the future would be of no value at all, because nobody would be able to make sense of it.
What one would look for, therefore, would be a universal language, the kind of language that would be comprehensible to any technologically advanced society in any epoch, even a thousand or ten thousand years into the future. Such languages are few and far between, but mathematics is one of them - and the city of Teotihuacan may be the calling-card of a lost civilization written in the eternal language of mathematics.
Geodetic data, related to the exact positioning of fixed geographical points and to the shape and size of the earth, would also remain valid and recognizable for tens of thousands of years, and might be most conveniently expressed by means of cartography (or in the construction of giant geodetic monuments like the Great Pyramid of Egypt, as we shall see).
Another 'constant' in our solar system is the language of time: the great but regular intervals of time calibrated by the inch-worm creep of precessional motion. Now, or ten thousand years in the future, a message that prints out numbers like 72 or 2160 or 4320or 25,920 should be instantly intelligible to any civilization that has evolved a modest talent for mathematics and the ability to detect and measure the almost imperceptible reverse wobble that the sun appears to make along the ecliptic against the background of the fixed stars..."

"What one would look for, therefore, would be a universal language, the kind of language that would be comprehensible to any technologically advanced society in any epoch, even a thousand or ten thousand years into the future. Such languages are few and far between, but mathematics is one of them"

"WRITTEN IN THE ETERNAL LANGUAGE OF MATHEMATICS"

 

 

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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+0
1+1
1+2
1+3
1+4
1+5
1+6
1+7
1+8
1+9
2+0
2+1
2+2
2+3
2+4
2+5
2+6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

 

 

THERE IS NO ATTEMPT MADE TO DESCRIBE THE CREATIVE PROCESS REALISTICALLY

THE ACCOUNT IS SYMBOLIC AND SHOWS GOD CREATING THE WORLD BY MEANS OF LANGUAGE

AS THOUGH WRITING A BOOK BUT LANGUAGE ENTIRELY TRANSFORMED

THE MESSAGE OF CREATION IS CLEAR EACH LETTER OF

THE

ALPHABET

IS

GIVEN

A

NUMERICAL

VALUE BY COMBINING THE LETTERS WITH THE SACRED NUMBERS

REARRANGING THEM IN ENDLESS CONFIGURATIONS

THE MYSTIC WEANED THE MIND AWAY FROM THE NORMAL CONNOTATIONS OF WORDS

 

....

 

THE LIGHT IS RISING NOW RISING IS THE LIGHT

 

 

 

 

26
A
B
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F
G
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I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
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U
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W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
-
-
5
6
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
+
=
43
4+3
=
7
-
7
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
-
-
14
15
-
-
-
19
-
-
-
-
24
-
26
+
=
115
1+1+5
=
7
-
7
-
7
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
-
1
2
3
4
-
-
7
8
9
-
2
3
4
5
-
7
-
+
=
83
8+3
=
11
1+1
2
-
2
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
-
10
11
12
13
-
-
16
17
18
-
20
21
22
23
-
25
-
+
=
236
2+3+6
=
11
1+1
2
-
2
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
+
=
351
3+5+1
=
9
-
9
-
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
+
=
126
1+2+6
=
9
-
9
-
9
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
1
occurs
x
3
=
3
-
3
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
2
occurs
x
3
=
6
-
6
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
3
occurs
x
3
=
9
-
9
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
+
=
4
occurs
x
3
=
12
1+2
3
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
+
=
5
occurs
x
3
=
15
1+5
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
+
=
6
occurs
x
3
=
18
1+8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
+
=
7
occurs
x
3
=
21
2+1
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
+
=
8
occurs
x
3
=
24
2+4
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
9
occurs
x
2
=
18
1+8
9
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
45
-
-
26
-
126
-
54
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4+5
-
-
2+6
-
1+2+6
-
5+4
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
9
-
-
8
-
9
-
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
9
-
-
8
-
9
-
9

 

 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z = 351 = Z Y X W V U T S R Q P O N M L K J I H G F E D C B A

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z = 126 = Z Y X W V U T S R Q P O N M L K J I H G F E D C B A

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z = 9 = Z Y X W V U T S R Q P O N M L K J I H G F E D C B A

 

 

ABCDEFGH I JKLMNOPQ R STUVWXYZ = 351 = ZYXWVUTS R QPONMLKJ I HGFEDCBA

ABCDEFGH I JKLMNOPQ R STUVWXYZ = 126 = ZYXWVUTS R QPONMLKJ I HGFEDCBA

ABCDEFGH I JKLMNOPQ R STUVWXYZ = 9 = ZYXWVUTS R QPONMLKJ I HGFEDCBA

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
=
1
-
5
ADDED
18
18
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
T
=
2
-
2
TO
35
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
A
=
1
-
3
ALL
25
7
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
M
=
4
-
5
MINUS
76
22
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
N
=
5
-
4
NONE
48
21
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
S
=
1
-
6
SHARED
55
28
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
B
=
2
-
2
BY
27
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
E
=
5
-
10
EVERYTHING
133
61
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
M
=
4
-
9
MULTIPLED
121
49
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
I
=
9
-
2
IN
23
14
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
9
ABUNDANCE
65
29
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
35
-
57
First Total
995
266
59
-
1
2
3
8
5
6
14
8
18
-
-
3+5
-
5+7
Add to Reduce
9+9+5
2+6+6
5+9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+4
-
1+8
-
-
8
-
12
Second Total
23
14
10
-
1
2
3
8
5
6
5
8
9
-
-
-
-
1+2
Reduce to Deduce
2+3
1+4
1+0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
3
Essence of Number
5
5
5
-
1
2
3
8
5
6
5
8
9

 

 

EVOLVE LOVE EVOLVE

LOVES SOLVE LOVES

EVOLVE LOVE EVOLVE

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE DEATH OF GODS IN ANCIENT EGYPT

Jane B. Sellars 1992

Page 204

"The overwhelming awe that accompanies the realization, of the measurable orderliness of the universe strikes modern man as well. Admiral Weiland E. Byrd, alone In the Antarctic for five months of polar darkness, wrote these phrases of intense feeling:

Here were the imponderable processes and forces of the cosmos, harmonious and soundless. Harmony, that was it! I could feel no doubt of oneness with the universe. The conviction came that the rhythm was too orderly, too harmonious, too perfect to be a product of blind chance - that, therefore there must be purpose in the whole and that man was part of that whole and not an accidental offshoot. It was a feeling that transcended reason; that went to the heart of man's despair and found it groundless. The universe was a cosmos, not a chaos; man was as rightfully a part of that cosmos as were the day and night.10

Returning to the account of the story of Osiris, son of Cronos god of' Measurable Time, Plutarch takes, pains to remind the reader of the original Egyptian year consisting of 360 days.

Phrases are used that prompt simple mental. calculations and an attention to numbers, for example, the 360-day year is described as being '12 months of 30 days each'. Then we are told that, Osiris leaves on a long journey, during which Seth, his evil brother, plots with 72 companions to slay Osiris: He also secretly obtained the measure of Osiris and made ready a chest in which to entrap him.

The, interesting thing about this part of the-account is that nowhere in the original texts of the Egyptians are we told that Seth, has 72 companions. We have already been encouraged to equate Osiris with the concept of measured time; his father being Cronos. It is also an observable fact that Cronos-Saturn has the longest sidereal period of the known planets at that time, an orbit. of 30 years. Saturn is absent from a specific constellation for that length of time.

A simple mathematical fact has been revealed to any that are even remotely sensitive to numbers: if you multiply 72 by 30, the years of Saturn's absence (and the mention of Osiris's absence prompts one to recall this other), the resulting product is 2,160: the number of years required, for one 30° shift, or a shift: through one complete sign of the zodiac. This number multplied by the / Page205 / 12 signs also gives 25,920. (And Plutarch has reminded us of 12)

If you multiply the unusual number 72 by 360, a number that Plutarch mentions several times, the product will be 25,920, again the number of years symbolizing the ultimate rebirth.

This 'Eternal Return' is the return of, say, Taurus to the position of marking the vernal equinox by 'riding in the solar bark with. Re' after having relinquished this honoured position to Aries, and subsequently to the to other zodiacal constellations.

Such a return after 25,920 years is indeed a revisit to a Golden Age, golden not only because of a remarkable symmetry In the heavens, but golden because it existed before the Egyptians experienced heaven's changeability.

But now to inform the reader of a fact he or she may already know. Hipparaus did: not really have the exact figures: he was a trifle off in his observations and calculations. In his published work, On the Displacement of the Solstitial and Equinoctial Signs, he gave figures of 45" to 46" a year, while the truer precessional lag along the ecliptic is about 50 seconds. The exact measurement for the lag, based on the correct annual lag of 50'274" is 1° in 71.6 years, or 36in 25,776 years, only 144 years less than the figure of 25,920.

With Hipparchus's incorrect figures a 'Great Year' takes from 28,173.9 to 28,800 years, incorrect by a difference of from 2,397.9 years to 3,024.

Since Nicholas Copernicus (AD 1473-1543) has always been credited with giving the correct numbers (although Arabic astronomer Nasir al-Din Tusi,11 born AD 1201, is known to have fixed the Precession at 50°), we may correctly ask, and with justifiable astonishment 'Just whose information was Plutarch transmitting'

AN IMPORTANT POSTSCRIPT

Of course, using our own notational system, all the important numbers have digits that reduce to that amazing number 9 a number that has always delighted budding mathematician.

Page 206

Somewhere along the way, according to Robert Graves, 9 became the number of lunar wisdom.12

This number is found often in the mythologies of the world. the Viking god Odin hung for nine days and nights on the World Tree in order to acquire the secret of the runes, those magic symbols out of which writing and numbers grew. Only a terrible sacrifice would give away this secret, which conveyed upon its owner power and dominion over all, so Odin hung from his neck those long 9 days and nights over the 'bottomless abyss'. In the tree were 9 worlds, and another god was said to have been born of 9 mothers.

Robert Graves, in his White Goddess, Is intrigued by the seemingly recurring quality of the number 72 in early myth and ritual. Graves tells his reader that 72 is always connected with the number 5, which reflects, among other things, the five Celtic dialects that he was investigating. Of course, 5 x 72= 360, 360 x 72= 25,920. Five is also the number of the planets known to the ancient world, that is, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus Mercury.

Graves suggests a religious mystery bound up with two ancient Celtic 'Tree Alphabets' or cipher alphabets, which as genuine articles of Druidism were orally preserved and transmitted for centuries. He argues convincingly that the ancient poetry of Europe was ultimately based on what its composers believed to be magical principles, the rudiments of which formed a close religious secret for centuries. In time these were-garbled, discredited and forgotten.

Among the many signs of the transmission of special numbers he points out that the aggregate number of letter strokes for the complete 22-letter Ogham alphabet that he is studying is 72 and that this number is the multiple of 9, 'the number of lunar wisdom'. . . . he then mentions something about 'the seventy day season during which Venus moves successively from. maximum eastern elongation 'to inferior conjunction and maximum western elongation'.13

Page 207

"...Feniusa Farsa, Graves equates this hero with Dionysus. Farsa has 72 assistants who helped him master the 72 languages created at the confusion of Babel, the tower of which is said to be built of 9 different materials

We are also reminded of the miraculous translation into Greek of the Five Books of Moses that was done by 72 scholars working for 72 days, Although the symbol for the Septuagint is LXX, legend, according to the fictional letter of Aristeas, records 72. The translation was done for Ptolemy Philadelphus (c.250 BC), by Hellenistic Jews, possibly from Alexandra.14

Graves did not know why this number was necessary, but he points out that he understands Frazer's Golden Bough to be a book hinting that 'the secret involves the truth that the Christian dogma, and rituals, are the refinement of a great body of primitive beliefs, and that the only original element in Christianity- is the personality of Christ.15

Frances A. Yates, historian of Renaissance hermetisma tells, us the cabala had 72 angels through which the sephiroth (the powers of God) are believed to be approached, and further, she supplies the information that although the Cabala supplied a set of 48 conclusions purporting to confirm the Christian religion from the foundation of ancient wisdom, Pico Della Mirandola, a Renaissance magus, introduced instead 72, which were his 'own opinion' of the correct number. Yates writes, 'It is no accident there are seventy-two of Pico's Cabalist conclusions, for the conclusion shows that he knew something of the mystery of the Name of God with seventy-two letters.'16

In Hamlet's Mill de Santillana adds the facts that 432,000 is the number of syllables in the Rig-Veda, which when multiplied by the soss (60) gives 25,920" (The reader is forgiven for a bit of laughter at this point)

The Bible has not escaped his pursuit. A prominent Assyriologist of the last century insisted that the total of the years recounted mounted in Genesis for the lifetimes of patriarchs from the Flood also contained the needed secret numbers. (He showed that in the 1,656 years recounted in the Bible there are 86,400 7 day weeks, and dividing this number yields / Page 208 / 43,200.) In Indian yogic schools it is held that all living beings exhale and inhale 21,600 times a day, multiply this by 2 and again we have the necessary 432 digits.

Joseph Campbell discerns the secret in the date set for the coming of Patrick to Ireland. Myth-gives this date-as-the interesting number of AD.432.18

Whatever one may think-of some of these number coincidences, it becomes difficult to escape the suspicion that many signs (number and otherwise) - indicate that early man observed the results of the movement of Precession and that the - transmission of this information was considered of prime importance.

With the awareness of the phenomenon, observers would certainly have tried for its measure, and such an endeavour would have constituted the construction-of a 'Unified Field Theory' for nothing less than Creation itself. Once determined, it would have been information worthy of secrecy and worthy of the passing on to future adepts.

But one last word about mankind's romance with number coincidences.The antagonist in John Updike's novel, Roger's Version, is a computer hacker, who, convinced, that scientific evidence of God's existence is accumulating, endeavours to prove it by feeding -all the available scientific information. into a comuter. In his search for God 'breaking, through', he has become fascinated by certain numbers that have continually been cropping up. He explains them excitedly as 'the terms of Creation':

"...after a while I noticed that all over the sheet there seemed to hit these twenty-fours Jumping out at me. Two four; two, four. Planck time, for instance, divided by the radiation constant yields a figure near eight times ten again to the negative twenty-fourth, and the permittivity of free space, or electric constant, into the Bohr radius ekla almost exactly six times ten to the negative twenty-fourth. On positive side, the electromagnetic line-structure constant times Hubble radius - that is, the size of the universe as we now perceive it gives us something quite close to ten to the twenty-fourth, and the strong-force constant times the charge on the proton produces two point four times ten to the negative eighteenth, for another I began to circle twenty-four wherever it appeared on the Printout here' - he held it up his piece of stripped and striped wallpaper, decorated / Page 209 / with a number of scarlet circles - 'you can see it's more than random.'19
This inhabitant of the twentieth century is convinced that the striking occurrences of 2 and 4 reveal the sacred numbers by which God is speaking to us.

So much for any scorn directed to ancient man's fascination with number coincidences. That fascination is alive and well, Just a bit more incomprehensible"

 

 

NUMBER

9

THE SEARCH FOR THE SIGMA CODE

Cecil Balmond 1998

Cycles and Patterns

Page 165

Patterns

"The essence of mathematics is to look for patterns.

Our minds seem to be organised to search for relationships and sequences. We look for hidden orders.

These intuitions seem to be more important than the facts themselves, for there is always the thrill at finding something, a pattern, it is a discovery - what was unknown is now revealed. Imagine looking up at the stars and finding the zodiac!

Searching out patterns is a pure delight.

Suddenly the counters fall into place and a connection is found, not necessarily a geometric one, but a relationship between numbers, pictures of the mind, that were not obvious before. There is that excitement of finding order in something that was otherwise hidden.

And there is the knowledge that a huge unseen world lurks behind the facades we see of the numbers themselves."

 

 

KEEPER OF GENESIS

A QUEST FOR THE HIDDEN LEGACY OF MANKIND

Robert Bauval Graham Hancock 1996

Page 254

"...Is there in any sense an interstellar Rosetta Stone?

We believe there is a common language that all technical civilizations, no matter how different, must have.

That common language is science and mathematics.

The laws of Nature are the same everywhere:..."

 

R
=
9
-
7
ROSETTA
98
26
8
S
=
1
-
5
STONE
73
19
1
-
-
10
-
12
Add to Reduce
171
45
9
-
-
1+0
-
1+2
Reduce to Deduce
1+7+1
4+5
-
-
-
1
-
3
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

-
12
R
O
S
E
T
T
A
-
S
T
O
N
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
6
5
-
+
=
19
1+9
=
10
1+0
1
=
1
-
-
-
15
19
-
-
-
-
-
19
-
15
14
-
+
=
82
8+2
=
10
1+0
1
=
1
-
12
R
O
S
E
T
T
A
-
S
T
O
N
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
5
2
2
1
-
-
2
-
-
5
+
=
26
2+6
=
8
=
8
=
8
-
-
18
-
-
5
20
20
1
-
-
20
-
-
5
+
=
89
8+9
=
17
1+7
8
=
8
-
12
R
O
S
E
T
T
A
-
S
T
O
N
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
18
15
19
5
20
20
1
-
19
20
15
14
5
+
=
171
1+7+1
=
9
=
9
=
9
-
-
9
6
1
5
2
2
1
-
1
2
6
5
5
+
=
45
4+5
=
9
=
9
=
9
-
12
R
O
S
E
T
T
A
-
S
T
O
N
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
occurs
x
3
=
3
=
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
occurs
x
3
=
6
=
6
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
THREE
3
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
FOUR
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
5
-
-
5
occurs
x
3
=
15
1+5
6
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
6
occurs
x
2
=
12
1+2
3
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
SEVEN
7
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
EIGHT
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
occurs
x
1
=
9
=
9
22
12
R
O
S
E
T
T
A
-
S
T
O
N
E
-
-
23
-
-
12
-
45
-
27
2+2
1+2
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2+3
-
-
1+2
-
4+5
-
2+7
4
3
R
O
S
E
T
T
A
-
S
T
O
N
E
-
-
5
-
-
3
-
9
-
9
-
-
9
6
1
5
2
2
1
-
1
2
6
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
3
R
O
S
E
T
T
A
-
S
T
O
N
E
-
-
5
-
-
3
-
9
-
9

 

 

12
R
O
S
E
T
T
A
-
S
T
O
N
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
6
5
-
+
=
19
1+9
=
10
1+0
1
=
1
-
-
15
19
-
-
-
-
-
19
-
15
14
-
+
=
82
8+2
=
10
1+0
1
=
1
12
R
O
S
E
T
T
A
-
S
T
O
N
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
5
2
2
1
-
-
2
-
-
5
+
=
26
2+6
=
8
=
8
=
8
-
18
-
-
5
20
20
1
-
-
20
-
-
5
+
=
89
8+9
=
17
1+7
8
=
8
12
R
O
S
E
T
T
A
-
S
T
O
N
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
18
15
19
5
20
20
1
-
19
20
15
14
5
+
=
171
1+7=1
=
9
=
9
=
9
-
9
6
1
5
2
2
1
-
1
2
6
5
5
+
=
45
4+5
=
9
=
9
=
9
12
R
O
S
E
T
T
A
-
S
T
O
N
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
occurs
x
3
=
3
=
3
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
occurs
x
3
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
5
-
-
5
occurs
x
3
=
15
1+5
6
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
6
occurs
x
2
=
12
1+2
3
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
occurs
x
1
=
9
=
9
12
R
O
S
E
T
T
A
-
S
T
O
N
E
-
-
23
-
-
12
-
45
-
27
1+2
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2+3
-
-
1+2
-
4+5
-
2+7
3
R
O
S
E
T
T
A
-
S
T
O
N
E
-
-
5
-
-
3
-
9
-
9
-
9
6
1
5
2
2
1
-
1
2
6
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
R
O
S
E
T
T
A
-
S
T
O
N
E
-
-
5
-
-
3
-
9
-
9

 

 

 

O
=
6
-
3
OUT
56
11
2
O
=
6
-
2
OF
21
12
3
Z
=
8
-
4
ZERO
64
28
1
C
=
3
-
6
COMETH
64
28
1
O
=
6
-
3
ONE
34
16
7
Q
Q
29
Q
18
Q
239
95
14
-
-
2+9
-
1+8
-
2+3+9
9+5
1+4
-
-
11
-
9
-
14
14
5
-
-
1+1
-
-
-
1+4
1+4
-
-
-
2
-
9
-
5
5
5

 

 

THERE IS NO ATTEMPT MADE TO DESCRIBE THE CREATIVE PROCESS REALISTICALLY

THE ACCOUNT IS SYMBOLIC AND SHOWS GOD CREATING THE WORLD BY MEANS OF LANGUAGE

AS THOUGH WRITING A BOOK BUT LANGUAGE ENTIRELY TRANSFORMED

THE MESSAGE OF CREATION IS CLEAR EACH LETTER OF

THE

ALPHABET

IS

GIVEN

A

NUMERICAL

VALUE BY COMBINING THE LETTERS WITH THE SACRED NUMBERS

REARRANGING THEM IN ENDLESS CONFIGURATIONS

THE MYSTIC WEANED THE MIND AWAY FROM THE NORMAL CONNOTATIONS OF WORDS

 

....

 

THE LIGHT IS RISING RISING IS THE LIGHT

 

 

9
LANGUAGES
87
33
6
3
AND
19
10
1
7
NUMBERS
92
29
2
19
-
198
72
9
1+9
-
1+9+8
7+2
-
10
-
18
9
9
1+0
-
1+8
-
-
1
-
9
9
9

 

 

L
=
3
-
8
LANGUAGE
68
32
5
T
=
2
-
7
TALKING
74
29
2
N
=
5
-
7
NUMBERS
92
29
2
-
=
10
-
22
-
234
90
9
-
=
1+0
-
2+2
-
2+3+4
9+0
-
-
=
1
-
4
-
9
9
9

 

 

T
=
2
-
9
THE
33
15
6
E
=
5
-
3
ENGLISH
74
29
2
A
=
1
-
7
ALPHABET
65
29
2
-
-
8
-
19
-
172
73
10
-
-
4+6
-
1+9
-
1+7+2
7+3
1+0
-
-
8
-
10
-
10
10
1
-
-
-
-
1+0
-
1+0
1+0
-
-
-
8
-
1
-
1
1
1

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
LANGUAGE
-
-
-
L
=
3
-
2
L+A+N
27
9
9
A
=
1
-
2
G+U+A+G
18
18
9
N
=
5
-
3
E
5
5
5
-
-
32
-
8
LANGUAGE
68
32
32
-
-
3+2
-
-
-
6+8
3+2
3+2
-
-
5
-
8
LANGUAGE
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+4
-
-
-
-
5
-
8
LANGUAGE
5
5
5

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
LANGUAGE
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
L
=
3
-
2
L
12
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
2
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
N
=
5
-
3
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
G
=
7
-
2
G
7
7
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
U
=
3
-
3
U
21
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
3
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
G
=
7
-
4
G
7
7
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
E
=
5
-
3
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
32
-
8
LANGUAGE
68
32
32
-
2
2
6
4
10
6
14
8
9
-
-
3+2
-
-
-
6+8
3+2
3+2
-
-
-
-
-
1+0
-
1+4
-
-
-
-
5
-
8
LANGUAGE
14
5
5
-
2
2
6
4
1
6
5
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
8
LANGUAGE
5
5
5
-
2
2
6
4
1
6
5
8
9

 

 

LAND

ENGAGE LAND ENGAGE

 

 

BBC - Languages - Languages - Languages of the world ...

www.bbc.co.uk/languages/guide/languages.shtml‎

Languages of the world. A guide to which languages are most widely spoken, hardest to learn and other revealing facts. Open/close. 1. How many languages ...

It’s estimated that up to 7,000 different languages are spoken around the world. 90% of these languages are used by less than 100,000 people. Over a million people converse in 150-200 languages and 46 languages have just a single speaker!

Languages are grouped into families that share a common ancestry. For example, English is related to German and Dutch, and they are all part of the Indo-European family of languages. These also include Romance languages, such as French, Spanish and Italian, which come from Latin.

2,200 of the world’s languages can be found in Asia, while Europe has a mere 260.

Nearly every language uses a similar grammatical structure, even though they may not be linked in vocabulary or origin. Communities which are usually isolated from each other because of mountainous geography may have developed multiple languages. Papua New Guinea for instance, boasts no less than 832 different languages!

 


Exactly How Many Languages Are There in the World?

www.translationblog.co.uk/exactly-how-many-languages-are-there-in-th...‎

Jan 11, 2010 – One of the challenges we face as a language solutions provider is covering demand for the languages that our clients request on a daily basis.

RichardLoyer | January 11, 2010

Exactly How Many Languages Are There in the World?


One of the challenges we face as a language solutions provider is covering demand for the languages that our clients request on a daily basis. So how many languages are there in the World and how do we go about providing translation and interpreting in all of them….?

The invaluable Ethnologue quotes 6909 living languages, that’s one language for every 862,000 people on Earth. Let’s look at some more figures from Ethnologue’s database.

Europe, with ¼ of the World’s population has only 234 languages spoken on a daily basis.

Although English does well as the World’s business language-at least for the time being- it is only 3rd in the league table of native speakers of a first language, with 328M, only 1m behind Spanish but a long way from the 845M Mandarin speakers.

94% of languages are spoken by only 6% of the World’s population, which tells us that there are hundreds of languages with just a few thousand [or hundred] speakers.

Many of these languages would be classified by some as dialects i.e. languages that have evolved from but are still quite closely related to another. This definition, of course, falls down very rapidly as most Western European languages can trace their roots to Latin but would not normally be described as dialects. Some of the African and Caribbean Patois are still seen as dialects, as was Ulster-Scots until fairly recently when it was recognised as a language. http://www.ulsterscotsagency.com/

The most famous phrase “a language is a dialect with an army and a navy” is wrongly attributed to Yiddish scholar Max Weinreich, who was probably quoting an anonymous teacher from New York, but it is a neat way to make the definition.

So how many of these languages are regularly translated by Applied Language? Well, it’s a lot but not quite 6909…….we reckon that about 200 languages are translated regularly by our global offices into documents, websites, brochures and anything else you can imagine. The range of languages required by our interpreting team is rather smaller at about 100.

The difference is no mystery; companies that translate their promotional material may be selling into every part of the globe and therefore their need is very broad whilst a hospital in Manchester, for example, will only have to deal with the resident non-native speakers and unwell tourists that come through its doors. Although the interpreting requirement is significant, it rarely exceeds 100 different languages.

Some of the most difficult requests are for languages that unfortunately don’t exist; enquiries for “Indian” or “Eastern European” do pop up occasionally. Similarly, “African” or “South American” can have us scratching our heads.

As a final thought for those of you currently learning another language you might be slightly discouraged by a report from Swarthmore College linguist K. David Harrison who predicts that 90% of the World’s languages will be extinct by 2050. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4387421/

This might make finding translators a little easier, but would surely make our World a rather less interesting place?

 

 

Alphabet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alphabet‎

An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) which is used to write one or more languages based on the general principle that ...

Alphabet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

This article is about sets of letters used in written languages. For other uses, see Alphabet (disambiguation).

An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) which is used to write one or more languages based on the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language. This is in contrast to other types of writing systems, such as syllabaries (in which each character represents a syllable) and logographies (in which each character represents a word, morpheme or semantic unit).

A true alphabet has letters for the vowels of a language as well as the consonants. The first "true alphabet" in this sense is believed to be the Greek alphabet,[1][2] which is a modified form of the Phoenician alphabet. In other types of alphabet either the vowels are not indicated at all, as was the case in the Phoenician alphabet (such systems are known as abjads), or else the vowels are shown by diacritics or modification of consonants, as in the devanagari used in India and Nepal (these systems are known as abugidas or alphasyllabaries).

There are dozens of alphabets in use today, the most popular being the Latin alphabet[3] (which was derived from the Greek). Many languages use modified forms of the Latin alphabet, with additional letters formed using diacritical marks. While most alphabets have letters composed of lines (linear writing), there are also exceptions such as the alphabets used in Braille, fingerspelling, and Morse code.

Alphabets are usually associated with a standard ordering of their letters. This makes them useful for purposes of collation, specifically by allowing words to be sorted in alphabetical order. It also means that their letters can be used as an alternative method of "numbering" ordered items, in such contexts as numbered lists.

Contents
[hide] 1 Etymology
2 History 2.1 Middle Eastern scripts
2.2 European alphabets
2.3 Asian alphabets

3 Types
4 Alphabetical order
5 Names of letters
6 Orthography and pronunciation
7 See also
8 References
9 Bibliography
10 External links

Etymology[edit]

The English word alphabet came into Middle English from the Late Latin word alphabetum, which in turn originated in the Greek ἀλφάβητος (alphabētos), from alpha and beta, the first two letters of the Greek alphabet.[4] Alpha and beta in turn came from the first two letters of the Phoenician alphabet, and originally meant ox and house respectively.

History[edit]

Main article: History of the alphabet

A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia.
Middle Eastern scripts[edit]

The history of the alphabet started in ancient Egypt. By the 27th century BC Egyptian writing had a set of some 24 hieroglyphs which are called uniliterals,[5] to represent syllables that begin with a single consonant of their language, plus a vowel (or no vowel) to be supplied by the native speaker. These glyphs were used as pronunciation guides for logograms, to write grammatical inflections, and, later, to transcribe loan words and foreign names.[6]

A specimen of Proto-Sinaitic script, one of the earliest (if not the very first) phonemic scripts
In the Middle Bronze Age an apparently "alphabetic" system known as the Proto-Sinaitic script appears in Egyptian turquoise mines in the Sinai peninsula dated to circa the 15th century BC, apparently left by Canaanite workers. In 1999, John and Deborah Darnell discovered an even earlier version of this first alphabet at Wadi el-Hol dated to circa 1800 BC and showing evidence of having been adapted from specific forms of Egyptian hieroglyphs that could be dated to circa 2000 BC, strongly suggesting that the first alphabet had been developed circa that time.[7] Based on letter appearances and names, it is believed to be based on Egyptian hieroglyphs.[8] This script had no characters representing vowels. An alphabetic cuneiform script with 30 signs including three which indicate the following vowel was invented in Ugarit before the 15th century BC. This script was not used after the destruction of Ugarit.[9]

The Proto-Sinaitic script eventually developed into the Phoenician alphabet, which is conventionally called "Proto-Canaanite" before ca. 1050 BC.[10] The oldest text in Phoenician script is an inscription on the sarcophagus of King Ahiram. This script is the parent script of all western alphabets. By the tenth century two other forms can be distinguished namely Canaanite and Aramaic. The Aramaic gave rise to Hebrew.[11] The South Arabian alphabet, a sister script to the Phoenician alphabet, is the script from which the Ge'ez alphabet (an abugida) is descended. Vowelless alphabets, which are not true alphabets, are called abjads, currently exemplified in scripts including Arabic, Hebrew, and Syriac. The omission of vowels was not a satisfactory solution and some "weak" consonants were used to indicate the vowel quality of a syllable (matres lectionis). These had dual function since they were also used as pure consonants.[12]

The Proto-Sinatic or Proto Canaanite script and the Ugaritic script were the first scripts with limited number of signs, in contrast to the other widely used writing systems at the time, Cuneiform, Egyptian hieroglyphs, and Linear B. The Phoenician script was probably the first phonemic script[8][10] and it contained only about two dozen distinct letters, making it a script simple enough for common traders to learn. Another advantage of Phoenician was that it could be used to write down many different languages, since it recorded words phonemically.

The script was spread by the Phoenicians, across the Mediterranean.[10] In Greece, the script was modified to add the vowels, giving rise to the ancestor of all alphabets in the West. The indication of the vowels is the same way as the indication of the consonants, therefore it was the first true alphabet. The Greeks took letters which did not represent sounds that existed in Greek, and changed them to represent the vowels. The vowels are significant in the Greek language, and the syllabical Linear B script which was used by the Mycenaean Greeks from the 16th century BC had 87 symbols including 5 vowels. In its early years, there were many variants of the Greek alphabet, a situation which caused many different alphabets to evolve from it.

European alphabets[edit]

Codex Zographensis in the Glagolitic alphabet from Medieval Bulgaria
The Greek alphabet, in its Euboean form, was carried over by Greek colonists to the Italian peninsula, where it gave rise to a variety of alphabets used to write the Italic languages. One of these became the Latin alphabet, which was spread across Europe as the Romans expanded their empire. Even after the fall of the Roman state, the alphabet survived in intellectual and religious works. It eventually became used for the descendant languages of Latin (the Romance languages) and then for most of the other languages of Europe.

Some adaptations of the Latin alphabet are augmented with ligatures, such as æ in Old English and Icelandic and Ȣ in Algonquian; by borrowings from other alphabets, such as the thorn þ in Old English and Icelandic, which came from the Futhark runes; and by modifying existing letters, such as the eth ð of Old English and Icelandic, which is a modified d. Other alphabets only use a subset of the Latin alphabet, such as Hawaiian, and Italian, which uses the letters j, k, x, y and w only in foreign words.

Another notable script is Elder Futhark, which is believed to have evolved out of one of the Old Italic alphabets. Elder Futhark gave rise to a variety of alphabets known collectively as the Runic alphabets. The Runic alphabets were used for Germanic languages from AD 100 to the late Middle Ages. Its usage is mostly restricted to engravings on stone and jewelry, although inscriptions have also been found on bone and wood. These alphabets have since been replaced with the Latin alphabet, except for decorative usage for which the runes remained in use until the 20th century.

The Old Hungarian script is a contemporary writing system of the Hungarians. It was in use during the entire history of Hungary, albeit not as an official writing system. From the 19th century it once again became more and more popular.

The Glagolitic alphabet was the initial script of the liturgical language Old Church Slavonic and became, together with the Greek uncial script, the basis of the Cyrillic script. Cyrillic is one of the most widely used modern alphabetic scripts, and is notable for its use in Slavic languages and also for other languages within the former Soviet Union. Cyrillic alphabets include the Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian, and Russian alphabets. The Glagolitic alphabet is believed to have been created by Saints Cyril and Methodius, while the Cyrillic alphabet was invented by the Bulgarian scholar Clement of Ohrid, who was their disciple. They feature many letters that appear to have been borrowed from or influenced by the Greek alphabet and the Hebrew alphabet.

Asian alphabets[edit]

Beyond the logographic Chinese writing, many phonetic scripts are in existence in Asia. The Arabic alphabet, Hebrew alphabet, Syriac alphabet, and other abjads of the Middle East are developments of the Aramaic alphabet, but because these writing systems are largely consonant-based they are often not considered true alphabets.

Most alphabetic scripts of India and Eastern Asia are descended from the Brahmi script, which is often believed to be a descendant of Aramaic.

Zhuyin on a cell phone
In Korea, the Hangul alphabet was created by Sejong the Great[13] Hangul is a unique alphabet: it is a featural alphabet, where many of the letters are designed from a sound's place of articulation (P to look like the widened mouth, L to look like the tongue pulled in, etc.); its design was planned by the government of the day; and it places individual letters in syllable clusters with equal dimensions, in the same way as Chinese characters, to allow for mixed-script writing[citation needed] (one syllable always takes up one type-space no matter how many letters get stacked into building that one sound-block).

Zhuyin (sometimes called Bopomofo) is a semi-syllabary used to phonetically transcribe Mandarin Chinese in the Republic of China. After the later establishment of the People's Republic of China and its adoption of Hanyu Pinyin, the use of Zhuyin today is limited, but it's still widely used in Taiwan where the Republic of China still governs. Zhuyin developed out of a form of Chinese shorthand based on Chinese characters in the early 1900s and has elements of both an alphabet and a syllabary. Like an alphabet the phonemes of syllable initials are represented by individual symbols, but like a syllabary the phonemes of the syllable finals are not; rather, each possible final (excluding the medial glide) is represented by its own symbol. For example, luan is represented as ㄌㄨㄢ (l-u-an), where the last symbol ㄢ represents the entire final -an. While Zhuyin is not used as a mainstream writing system, it is still often used in ways similar to a romanization system—that is, for aiding in pronunciation and as an input method for Chinese characters on computers and cellphones.

European alphabets, especially Latin and Cyrillic, have been adapted for many languages of Asia. Arabic is also widely used, sometimes as an abjad (as with Urdu and Persian) and sometimes as a complete alphabet (as with Kurdish and Uyghur).

Types[edit]

Alphabets: Armenian , Cyrillic , Georgian , Greek , Latin , Latin (and Arabic) , Latin and Cyrillic
Abjads: Arabic , Hebrew
Abugidas: North Indic , South Indic , Ge'ez , Tāna , Canadian Syllabic and Latin
Logographic+syllabic: Pure logographic , Mixed logographic and syllabaries , Featural-alphabetic syllabary + limited logographic , Featural-alphabetic syllabary

History of the alphabet[show]

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The term "alphabet" is used by linguists and paleographers in both a wide and a narrow sense. In the wider sense, an alphabet is a script that is segmental at the phoneme level—that is, it has separate glyphs for individual sounds and not for larger units such as syllables or words. In the narrower sense, some scholars distinguish "true" alphabets from two other types of segmental script, abjads and abugidas. These three differ from each other in the way they treat vowels: abjads have letters for consonants and leave most vowels unexpressed; abugidas are also consonant-based, but indicate vowels with diacritics to or a systematic graphic modification of the consonants. In alphabets in the narrow sense, on the other hand, consonants and vowels are written as independent letters.[14] The earliest known alphabet in the wider sense is the Wadi el-Hol script, believed to be an abjad, which through its successor Phoenician is the ancestor of modern alphabets, including Arabic, Greek, Latin (via the Old Italic alphabet), Cyrillic (via the Greek alphabet) and Hebrew (via Aramaic).

Examples of present-day abjads are the Arabic and Hebrew scripts; true alphabets include Latin, Cyrillic, and Korean hangul; and abugidas are used to write Tigrinya, Amharic, Hindi, and Thai. The Canadian Aboriginal syllabics are also an abugida rather than a syllabary as their name would imply, since each glyph stands for a consonant which is modified by rotation to represent the following vowel. (In a true syllabary, each consonant-vowel combination would be represented by a separate glyph.)

All three types may be augmented with syllabic glyphs. Ugaritic, for example, is basically an abjad, but has syllabic letters for /ʔa, ʔi, ʔu/. (These are the only time vowels are indicated.) Cyrillic is basically a true alphabet, but has syllabic letters for /ja, je, ju/ (я, е, ю); Coptic has a letter for /ti/. Devanagari is typically an abugida augmented with dedicated letters for initial vowels, though some traditions use अ as a zero consonant as the graphic base for such vowels.

The boundaries between the three types of segmental scripts are not always clear-cut. For example, Sorani Kurdish is written in the Arabic script, which is normally an abjad. However, in Kurdish, writing the vowels is mandatory, and full letters are used, so the script is a true alphabet. Other languages may use a Semitic abjad with mandatory vowel diacritics, effectively making them abugidas. On the other hand, the Phagspa script of the Mongol Empire was based closely on the Tibetan abugida, but all vowel marks were written after the preceding consonant rather than as diacritic marks. Although short a was not written, as in the Indic abugidas, one could argue that the linear arrangement made this a true alphabet. Conversely, the vowel marks of the Tigrinya abugida and the Amharic abugida (ironically, the original source of the term "abugida") have been so completely assimilated into their consonants that the modifications are no longer systematic and have to be learned as a syllabary rather than as a segmental script. Even more extreme, the Pahlavi abjad eventually became logographic. (See below.)

Ge'ez Script of Ethiopia
Thus the primary classification of alphabets reflects how they treat vowels. For tonal languages, further classification can be based on their treatment of tone, though names do not yet exist to distinguish the various types. Some alphabets disregard tone entirely, especially when it does not carry a heavy functional load, as in Somali and many other languages of Africa and the Americas. Such scripts are to tone what abjads are to vowels. Most commonly, tones are indicated with diacritics, the way vowels are treated in abugidas. This is the case for Vietnamese (a true alphabet) and Thai (an abugida). In Thai, tone is determined primarily by the choice of consonant, with diacritics for disambiguation. In the Pollard script, an abugida, vowels are indicated by diacritics, but the placement of the diacritic relative to the consonant is modified to indicate the tone. More rarely, a script may have separate letters for tones, as is the case for Hmong and Zhuang. For most of these scripts, regardless of whether letters or diacritics are used, the most common tone is not marked, just as the most common vowel is not marked in Indic abugidas; in Zhuyin not only is one of the tones unmarked, but there is a diacritic to indicate lack of tone, like the virama of Indic.

The number of letters in an alphabet can be quite small. The Book Pahlavi script, an abjad, had only twelve letters at one point, and may have had even fewer later on. Today the Rotokas alphabet has only twelve letters. (The Hawaiian alphabet is sometimes claimed to be as small, but it actually consists of 18 letters, including the ʻokina and five long vowels.) While Rotokas has a small alphabet because it has few phonemes to represent (just eleven), Book Pahlavi was small because many letters had been conflated—that is, the graphic distinctions had been lost over time, and diacritics were not developed to compensate for this as they were in Arabic, another script that lost many of its distinct letter shapes. For example, a comma-shaped letter represented g, d, y, k, or j. However, such apparent simplifications can perversely make a script more complicated. In later Pahlavi papyri, up to half of the remaining graphic distinctions of these twelve letters were lost, and the script could no longer be read as a sequence of letters at all, but instead each word had to be learned as a whole—that is, they had become logograms as in Egyptian Demotic. The alphabet in the Polish language contains 32 letters.

The largest segmental script is probably an abugida, Devanagari. When written in Devanagari, Vedic Sanskrit has an alphabet of 53 letters, including the visarga mark for final aspiration and special letters for kš and jñ, though one of the letters is theoretical and not actually used. The Hindi alphabet must represent both Sanskrit and modern vocabulary, and so has been expanded to 58 with the khutma letters (letters with a dot added) to represent sounds from Persian and English.

The largest known abjad is Sindhi, with 51 letters. The largest alphabets in the narrow sense include Kabardian and Abkhaz (for Cyrillic), with 58 and 56 letters, respectively, and Slovak (for the Latin script), with 46. However, these scripts either count di- and tri-graphs as separate letters, as Spanish did with ch and ll until recently, or uses diacritics like Slovak č. The largest true alphabet where each letter is graphically independent is probably Georgian, with 41 letters.

Syllabaries typically contain 50 to 400 glyphs, and the glyphs of logographic systems typically number from the many hundreds into the thousands. Thus a simple count of the number of distinct symbols is an important clue to the nature of an unknown script.

Alphabetical order[edit]

Main article: Alphabetical order

Alphabets often come to be associated with a standard ordering of their letters, which can then be used for purposes of collation – namely for the listing of words and other items in what is called alphabetical order.

The basic ordering of the Latin alphabet (ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ), which is derived from the Northwest Semitic "Abgad" order,[15] is well established, although languages using this alphabet have different conventions for their treatment of modified letters (such as the French é, à, and ô) and of certain combinations of letters (multigraphs). In French, these are not considered to be additional letters for the purposes of collation. However, in Icelandic, the accented letters such as á, í, and ö are considered to be distinct letters of the alphabet. In Spanish, ñ is considered a separate letter, but accented vowels such as á and é are not. The ll and ch were also considered single letters, but in 1994 the Real Academia Española changed collating order so that ll is between lk and lm in the dictionary and ch is between cg and ci, and in 2010 the tenth congress of the Association of Spanish Language Academies changed it so they were no longer letters at all[16][17]

In German, words starting with sch- (constituting the German phoneme /ʃ/) would be intercalated between words with initial sca- and sci- (all incidentally loanwords) instead of this graphic cluster appearing after the letter s, as though it were a single letter—a lexicographical policy which would be de rigueur in a dictionary of Albanian, i.e. dh-, ë-, gj-, ll-, rr-, th-, xh- and zh- (all representing phonemes and considered separate single letters) would follow the letters d, e, g, l, n, r, t, x and z respectively. Nor is, in a dictionary of English, the lexical section with initial th- reserved a place after the letter t, but is inserted between te- and ti-. German words with umlaut would further be alphabetized as if there were no umlaut at all—contrary to Turkish which allegedly adopted the German graphemes ö and ü, and where a word like tüfek, would come after tuz, in the dictionary. An exception is the German phonebook where umlauts are sorted like ä = ae since names as Jäger appear also with the spelling Jaeger, and there's no telling them apart in the spoken language.

The Danish and Norwegian alphabets end with æ—ø—å, whereas the Icelandic, Swedish, Finnish and Estonian ones conventionally put å—ä—ö at the end.

It is unknown whether the earliest alphabets had a defined sequence. Some alphabets today, such as the Hanuno'o script, are learned one letter at a time, in no particular order, and are not used for collation where a definite order is required. However, a dozen Ugaritic tablets from the fourteenth century BC preserve the alphabet in two sequences. One, the ABCDE order later used in Phoenician, has continued with minor changes in Hebrew, Greek, Armenian, Gothic, Cyrillic, and Latin; the other, HMĦLQ, was used in southern Arabia and is preserved today in Ethiopic.[18] Both orders have therefore been stable for at least 3000 years.

The historical order was abandoned in Runic and Arabic, although Arabic retains the traditional abjadi order for numbering.

The Brahmic family of alphabets used in India use a unique order based on phonology: The letters are arranged according to how and where they are produced in the mouth. This organization is used in Southeast Asia, Tibet, Korean hangul, and even Japanese kana, which is not an alphabet.

Names of letters[edit]

The Phoenician letter names, in which each letter was associated with a word that begins with that sound, continue to be used to varying degrees in Samaritan, Aramaic, Syriac, Hebrew, Greek and Arabic. The names were abandoned in Latin, which instead referred to the letters by adding a vowel (usually e) before or after the consonant (the exception is zeta, which was retained from Greek). In Cyrillic originally the letters were given names based on Slavic words; this was later abandoned as well in favor of a system similar to that used in Latin.

Orthography and pronunciation[edit]

Main article: Phonemic orthography

When an alphabet is adopted or developed for use in representing a given language, an orthography generally comes into being, providing rules for the spelling of words in that language. In accordance with the principle on which alphabets are based, these rules will generally map letters of the alphabet to the phonemes (significant sounds) of the spoken language. In a perfectly phonemic orthography there would be a consistent one-to-one correspondence between the letters and the phonemes, so that a writer could predict the spelling of a word given its pronunciation, and a speaker could predict the pronunciation of a word given its spelling. However this ideal is not normally achieved in practice; some languages (such as Spanish and Finnish) come close to it, while others (such as English) deviate from it to a much larger degree.

The pronunciation of a language often evolves independently of its writing system, and writing systems have been borrowed for languages they were not designed for, so the degree to which letters of an alphabet correspond to phonemes of a language varies greatly from one language to another and even within a single language.

Languages may fail to achieve a one-to-one correspondence between letters and sounds in any of several ways:
A language may represent a given phoneme with a combination of letters rather than just a single letter. Two-letter combinations are called digraphs and three-letter groups are called trigraphs. German uses the tesseragraphs (four letters) "tsch" for the phoneme [tʃ] and "dsch" for [dʒ], although the latter is rare. Kabardian also uses a tesseragraph for one of its phonemes, namely "кхъу". Two letters representing one sound is widely used in Hungarian as well (where, for instance, cs stands for [č], sz for [s], zs for [ž], dzs for [ǰ], etc.).
A language may represent the same phoneme with two different letters or combinations of letters. An example is modern Greek which may write the phoneme [i] in six different ways: ⟨ι⟩, ⟨η⟩, ⟨υ⟩, ⟨ει⟩, ⟨οι⟩, and ⟨υι⟩ (although the last is rare).
A language may spell some words with unpronounced letters that exist for historical or other reasons. For example, the spelling of the Thai word for "beer" [เบียร์] retains a letter for the final consonant "r" present in the English word it was borrowed from, but silences it.
Pronunciation of individual words may change according to the presence of surrounding words in a sentence (sandhi).
Different dialects of a language may use different phonemes for the same word.
A language may use different sets of symbols or different rules for distinct sets of vocabulary items, such as the Japanese hiragana and katakana syllabaries, or the various rules in English for spelling words from Latin and Greek, or the original Germanic vocabulary.

National languages generally elect to address the problem of dialects by simply associating the alphabet with the national standard. However, with an international language with wide variations in its dialects, such as English, it would be impossible to represent the language in all its variations with a single phonetic alphabet.

Some national languages like Finnish, Turkish, Serbo-Croatian (Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian) and Bulgarian have a very regular spelling system with a nearly one-to-one correspondence between letters and phonemes. Strictly speaking, these national languages lack a word corresponding to the verb "to spell" (meaning to split a word into its letters), the closest match being a verb meaning to split a word into its syllables. Similarly, the Italian verb corresponding to 'spell (out)', compitare, is unknown to many Italians because the act of spelling itself is rarely needed: Italian spelling is highly phonemic. In standard Spanish, it is possible to tell the pronunciation of a word from its spelling, but not vice versa; this is because certain phonemes can be represented in more than one way, but a given letter is consistently pronounced. French, with its silent letters and its heavy use of nasal vowels and elision, may seem to lack much correspondence between spelling and pronunciation, but its rules on pronunciation, though complex, are actually consistent and predictable with a fair degree of accuracy.

At the other extreme are languages such as English, where the spelling of many words simply has to be memorized as they do not correspond to sounds in a consistent way. For English, this is partly because the Great Vowel Shift occurred after the orthography was established, and because English has acquired a large number of loanwords at different times, retaining their original spelling at varying levels. Even English has general, albeit complex, rules that predict pronunciation from spelling, and these rules are successful most of the time; rules to predict spelling from the pronunciation have a higher failure rate.

Sometimes, countries have the written language undergo a spelling reform to realign the writing with the contemporary spoken language. These can range from simple spelling changes and word forms to switching the entire writing system itself, as when Turkey switched from the Arabic alphabet to a Turkish alphabet of Latin origin.

The sounds of speech of all languages of the world can be written by a rather-small universal phonetic-alphabet. A standard for this is the International Phonetic Alphabet.

See also[edit]

A Is For Aardvark
Abecedarium
Acrophony
Akshara
Alphabet Effect
Alphabet song
Alphabetical order
Alphabetize
Butterfly Alphabet
Character encoding
Constructed script
Cyrillic
English alphabet
Hangul
ICAO spelling alphabet
Lipogram
List of alphabets
Pangram
Thai script
Transliteration
Unicode

References[edit]

1.^ Coulmas, Florian (1996). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-21481-X.
2.^ Millard 1986, p. 396
3.^ Haarmann 2004, p. 96
4.^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online – Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary
5.^ "The Development of the Western Alphabet". h2g2. BBC. 2004-04-08. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
6.^ Daniels and Bright (1996), pp. 74–75
7.^ J. C. Darnell, F. W. Dobbs-Allsopp, Marilyn J. Lundberg, P. Kyle McCarter, and Bruce Zuckermanet, “Two early alphabetic inscriptions from the Wadi el-Hol: new evidence for the origin of the alphabet from the western desert of Egypt.” The Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 59 (2005).
8.^ a b Coulmas (1989), p. 140–141.
9.^ Ugaritic Writing online
10.^ a b c Daniels and Bright (1996), pp 92-96
11.^ "Coulmas"(1989),p.142
12.^ "Coulmas" (1989) p.147.
13.^ "上親制諺文二十八字…是謂訓民正音(His majesty created 28 characters himself... It is Hunminjeongeum (original name for Hangul))", 《세종실록 (The Annals of the Choson Dynasty : Sejong)》 25년 12월.
14.^ For critics of the abjad-abugida-alphabet distinction, see Reinhard G. Lehmann: "27-30-22-26. How Many Letters Needs an Alphabet? The Case of Semitic", in: The idea of writing: Writing across borders / edited by Alex de Voogt and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Leiden: Brill 2012, p. 11-52, esp p. 22-27
15.^ Reinhard G. Lehmann: "27-30-22-26. How Many Letters Needs an Alphabet? The Case of Semitic", in: The idea of writing: Writing across borders / edited by Alex de Voogt and Joachim Friedrich Quack, Leiden: Brill 2012, p. 11-52
16.^ Real Academia Española. "Spanish Pronto!: Spanish Alphabet." Spanish Pronto! 22 April 2007. January 2009 Spanish Pronto: Spanish < > English Medical Translators.
17.^ "La “i griega” se llamará “ye”". Cuba Debate. 2010-11-05. Retrieved 12 December 2010. Cubadebate.cu
18.^ Millard, A.R. "The Infancy of the Alphabet", World Archaeology 17, No. 3, Early Writing Systems (February 1986): 390–398. page 395.

Bibliography[edit]
Coulmas, Florian (1989). The Writing Systems of the World. Blackwell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-631-18028-1.
Daniels, Peter T.; Bright, William (1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507993-0. Overview of modern and some ancient writing systems.
Driver, G. R. (1976). Semitic Writing (Schweich Lectures on Biblical Archaeology S.) 3Rev Ed. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-725917-0.
Haarmann, Harald (2004). Geschichte der Schrift (2nd ed.). München: C. H. Beck. ISBN 3-406-47998-7
Hoffman, Joel M. (2004). In the Beginning: A Short History of the Hebrew Language. NYU Press. ISBN 0-8147-3654-8. Chapter 3 traces and summarizes the invention of alphabetic writing.
Logan, Robert K. (2004). The Alphabet Effect: A Media Ecology Understanding of the Making of Western Civilization. Hampton Press. ISBN 1-57273-523-6.
McLuhan, Marshall; Logan, Robert K. (1977). Alphabet, Mother of Invention. Etcetera. Vol. 34, pp. 373–383
Millard, A. R. (1986). "The Infancy of the Alphabet". World Archaeology 17 (3): 390–398. doi:10.1080/00438243.1986.9979978
Ouaknin, Marc-Alain; Bacon, Josephine (1999). Mysteries of the Alphabet: The Origins of Writing. Abbeville Press. ISBN 0-7892-0521-1.
Powell, Barry (1991). Homer and the Origin of the Greek Alphabet. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-58907-X.
Powell, Barry B. 2009. Writing: Theory and History of the Technology of Civilization, Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-6256-2
Sacks, David (2004). Letter Perfect: The Marvelous History of Our Alphabet from A to Z (PDF). Broadway Books. ISBN 0-7679-1173-3.
Saggs, H. W. F. (1991). Civilization Before Greece and Rome. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05031-3. Chapter 4 traces the invention of writing

External links[edit]

Look up alphabet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
The Origins of abc
"Language, Writing and Alphabet: An Interview with Christophe Rico", Damqātum 3 (2007)
Alphabetic Writing Systems
Michael Everson's Alphabets of Europe
Evolution of alphabets, animation by Prof. Robert Fradkin at the University of Maryland
How the Alphabet Was Born from Hieroglyphs—Biblical Archaeology Review

 

 

English alphabet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_alphabet‎

The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters – the same letters that are found in the ISO basic Latin alphabet: ...

 

 

THE USBORNE BOOK OF

FACTS AND LISTS

Lynn Bressler (no date)

Page 82

10 most spoken languages
Chinese 700,000,000 English 400,000,000 Russian 265,000,000 Spanish 240,000,000 Hindustani 230,000,000 Arabic 146,000,000 Portuguese 145,000,000 Bengali 144,000,000 German 119,000,000 Japanese 116,000,000

The first alphabet
The Phoenicians, who once lived where Syria, Jordan and Lebanon are today, had an alphabet of 29 letters as early as 1,700 BC. It was adopted by the Greeks and the Romans. Through the Romans, who went on to conquer most of Europe, it became the alphabet of Western countries.

Sounds strange
One tribe of Mexican Indians hold entire conversations just by whistling. The different pitches provide meaning.

The Rosetta Stone
 The Rosetta Stone was found by Napoleon in the sands of Egypt. It dates to about 196 BC.
On it is an inscription in hieroglyphics and a translation in Greek. , Because scholars knew ancient Greek, they could work out what the Egyptian hieroglyphics meant. From this they learned the language of the ancient Egyptians.

Did You KnowMany Chinese cannot understand each other. They have different ways of speaking (called dialects) in different
parts of the country. But today in schools allover China, the children are being taught one dialect (Mandarin), so that one day all Chinese will understand each other.

Translating computers
Computers can be used to help people of different nationalities, who do not know each others' language, talk to each other. By giving a computer a message in one language it will translate it into another specified language.

Worldwide language
English is spoken either as a first or second language in at least 45 countries. This is more than any other language. It is the language of international business and scientific conferences and is used by airtraffic controllers worldwide. In all, about one third of the world speaks it.

Page 83

Earliest writing Chinese writing has been found on pottery, and even on a tortoise shell, going back 6,000 years. Pictures made the basis for their writing, each picture showing an object or idea. Probably the earliest form of writing came from the Middle East, where Iraq and Iran are now. This region was then ruled by the Sumerians.

The most words

English has more words in it than any other language. There are about1 million in all, a third of which are technical terms. Most
people only use about 1 per cent of the words available, that is, about 10,000. William Shakespeare is reputed to have made most use of the English vocabulary.

A scientific word describing a process in the human cell is 207,000 letters long. This makes this single word equal in length to a short novel or about 80 typed sheets of A4 paper.

Many tongues
A Frenchman, named Georges Henri Schmidt, is fluent (meaning he reads and writes well) in 31 different languages.

International language
Esperanto was invented in the 1880s by a Pole, Dr Zamenhof. It was hoped that it would become the international language of Europe. It took words from many European countries and has a very easy grammar that can be learned in an hour or two.
The same language

The languages of India and Europe may originally come from just one source. Many words in different languages sound similar. For example, the word for King in Latin is Rex, in Indian, Raj, in Italian Re, in French Roi and in Spanish Rey. The original language has been named Indo-European. Basque, spoken in the French and Spanish Pyrenees, is an exception. It seems to have a different source which is still unknown.

Number of alphabets
There are 65 alphabets in use in the world today. Here are some of them: Roman
ABCDEFGHUKLMNOPQRS Greek  Russian (Cyrillic) Hebrew  Chinese (examples omitted)

 

 

 

26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
-
-
5
6
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
+
=
43
4+3
=
7
-
7
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
-
-
14
15
-
-
-
19
-
-
-
-
24
-
26
+
=
115
1+1+5
=
7
-
7
-
7
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
-
1
2
3
4
-
-
7
8
9
-
2
3
4
5
-
7
-
+
=
83
8+3
=
11
1+1
2
-
2
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
-
10
11
12
13
-
-
16
17
18
-
20
21
22
23
-
25
-
+
=
236
2+3+6
=
11
1+1
2
-
2
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
+
=
351
3+5+1
=
9
-
9
-
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
+
=
126
1+2+6
=
9
-
9
-
9
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
1
occurs
x
3
=
3
-
3
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
2
occurs
x
3
=
6
-
6
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
3
occurs
x
3
=
9
-
9
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
+
=
4
occurs
x
3
=
12
1+2
3
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
+
=
5
occurs
x
3
=
15
1+5
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
+
=
6
occurs
x
3
=
18
1+8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
+
=
7
occurs
x
3
=
21
2+1
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
+
=
8
occurs
x
3
=
24
2+4
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
9
occurs
x
2
=
18
1+8
9
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
45
-
-
26
-
126
-
54
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4+5
-
-
2+6
-
1+2+6
-
5+4
26
A
B
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English alphabet

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"The Alphabet" redirects here. For the short film by David Lynch, see The Alphabet (film).

The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters – the same letters that are found in the ISO basic Latin alphabet:

Majuscule forms (also called uppercase or capital letters)
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Minuscule forms (also called lowercase or small letters)
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

The exact shape of printed letters varies depending on the typeface. The shape of handwritten letters can differ significantly from the standard printed form (and between individuals), especially when written in cursive style. See the individual letter articles for information about letter shapes and origins (follow the links on any of the uppercase letters above).

Written English uses a number of digraphs, such as ch, sh, th, wh, qu, etc., but they are not considered separate letters of the alphabet. Some traditions also use two ligatures, æ and œ,[1] or consider the ampersand (&) part of the alphabet.

English alphabet

Contents
[hide] 1 History 1.1 Old English
1.2 Modern English

2 Diacritics
3 Ampersand
4 Apostrophe
5 Letter names 5.1 Etymology

6 Phonology
7 Letter frequencies
8 See also
9 Footnotes

History[edit]

See also: History of the Latin alphabet and English orthography

Old English[edit]

Main article: Old English Latin alphabet

The English language was first written in the Anglo-Saxon futhorc runic alphabet, in use from the 5th century. This alphabet was brought to what is now England, along with the proto-form of the language itself, by Anglo-Saxon settlers. Very few examples of this form of written Old English have survived, these being mostly short inscriptions or fragments.

The Latin script, introduced by Christian missionaries, began to replace the Anglo-Saxon futhorc from about the 7th century, although the two continued in parallel for some time. Futhorc influenced the emerging English alphabet by providing it with the letters thorn (Þ þ) and wynn (Ƿ ƿ). The letter eth (Ð ð) was later devised as a modification of dee (D d), and finally yogh (Ȝ ȝ) was created by Norman scribes from the insular g in Old English and Irish, and used alongside their Carolingian g.

The a-e ligature ash (Æ æ) was adopted as a letter its own right, named after a futhorc rune æsc. In very early Old English the o-e ligature ethel (Œ œ) also appeared as a distinct letter, likewise named after a rune, œðel. Additionally, the v-v or u-u ligature double-u (W w) was in use.

In the year 1011, a writer named Byrhtferð ordered the Old English alphabet for numerological purposes.[2] He listed the 24 letters of the Latin alphabet (including ampersand) first, then 5 additional English letters, starting with the Tironian note ond (⁊) an insular symbol for and:
A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T V X Y Z & ⁊ Ƿ Þ Ð Æ
Modern English[edit]

In the orthography of Modern English, thorn (þ), eth (ð), wynn (ƿ), yogh (ȝ), ash (æ), and ethel (œ) are obsolete. Latin borrowings reintroduced homographs of ash and ethel into Middle English and Early Modern English, though they are not considered to be the same letters[citation needed] but rather ligatures, and in any case are somewhat old-fashioned. Thorn and eth were both replaced by th,[citation needed] though thorn continued in existence for some time, its lowercase form gradually becoming graphically indistinguishable from the minuscule y in most handwriting. Y for th can still be seen in pseudo-archaisms such as "Ye Olde Booke Shoppe". The letters þ and ð are still used in present-day Icelandic and Faroese. Wynn disappeared from English around the fourteenth century when it was supplanted by uu, which ultimately developed into the modern w. Yogh disappeared around the fifteenth century and was typically replaced by gh.

The letters u and j, as distinct from v and i, were introduced in the 16th century, and w assumed the status of an independent letter, so that the English alphabet is now considered to consist of the following 26 letters:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
The variant lowercase form long s (ſ) lasted into early modern English, and was used in non-final position up to the early 19th century.

The ligatures æ and œ are still used in formal writing for certain words of Greek or Latin origin, such as encyclopædia and cœlom. Lack of awareness and technological limitations (such as their absence from the standard qwerty keyboard) have made it common to see these rendered as "ae" and "oe", respectively, in modern, non-academic usage. These ligatures are not used in American English, where a lone e has mostly supplanted both (for example, encyclopedia for encyclopædia, and fetus for fœtus).

Diacritics[edit]

Main article: English terms with diacritical marks

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Diacritic marks mainly appear in loanwords such as naïve and façade. As such words become naturalised In English, there is a tendency to drop the diacritics, as has happened with old borrowings such as hôtel, from French. Informal English writing tends to omit diacritics because of their absence from the computer keyboard, while professional copywriters and typesetters tend to include them. Words that are still perceived as foreign tend to retain them; for example, the only spelling of soupçon found in English dictionaries (the OED and others) uses the diacritic. Diacritics are also more likely to be retained where there would otherwise be confusion with another word (for example, résumé rather than resume), and, rarely, even added (as in maté, from Spanish yerba mate, but following the pattern of café, from French).

Occasionally, especially in older writing, diacritics are used to indicate the syllables of a word: cursed (verb) is pronounced with one syllable, while cursèd (adjective) is pronounced with two. È is used widely in poetry, e.g. in Shakespeare's sonnets. Similarly, while in chicken coop the letters -oo- represent a single vowel sound (a digraph), in zoölogist and coöperation, they represent two. An acute, grave or diaeresis may also be placed over an 'e' at the end of a word to indicate that it is not silent, as in saké. However, in practice these devices are often not used even where they would serve to alleviate some degree of confusion.

Ampersand[edit]

The & has sometimes appeared at the end of the English alphabet, as in Byrhtferð's list of letters in 1011.[2] Historically, the figure is a ligature for the letters Et. In English it is used to represent the word and and occasionally the Latin word et, as in the abbreviation &c (et cetera).

Apostrophe[edit]

Question book-new.svg
This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2011)

The apostrophe, while not considered part of the English alphabet, is used to abbreviate English words. A few pairs of words, such as its (belonging to it) and it's (it is or it has), were (plural of was) and we're (we are), and shed (to get rid of) and she'd (she would or she had) are distinguished in writing only by the presence or absence of an apostrophe. The apostrophe also distinguishes the possessive endings -'s and -s' from the common plural ending -s, a practice introduced in the 18th century; before, all three endings were written -s, which could lead to confusion (as in, the Apostles words).

Letter names[edit]

The names of the letters are rarely spelled out, except when used in derivations or compound words (for example tee-shirt, deejay, emcee, okay, aitchless, wye-level, etc.), derived forms (for example exed out, effing, to eff and blind, etc.), and in the names of objects named after letters (for example em (space) in printing and wye (junction) in railroading). The forms listed below are from the Oxford English Dictionary. Vowels stand for themselves, and consonants usually have the form consonant + ee or e + consonant (e.g. bee and ef). The exceptions are the letters aitch, jay, kay, cue, ar, ess (but es- in compounds ), wye, and zed. Plurals of consonants end in -s (bees, efs, ems) or, in the cases of aitch, ess, and ex, in -es (aitches, esses, exes). Plurals of vowels end in -es (aes, ees, ies, oes, ues); these are rare. Of course, all letters may stand for themselves, generally in capitalized form (okay or OK, emcee or MC), and plurals may be based on these (aes or A's, cees or C's, etc.)

Letter

Letter name

Pronunciation

A a /eɪ/[3]
B bee /biː/
C cee /siː/
D dee /diː/
E e /iː/
F ef (eff as a verb) /ɛf/
G gee /dʒiː/
H aitch /eɪtʃ/
haitch[4] /heɪtʃ/
I i /aɪ/
J jay /dʒeɪ/
jy[5] /dʒaɪ/
K kay /keɪ/
L el or ell /ɛl/
M em /ɛm/
N en /ɛn/
O o /oʊ/
P pee /piː/
Q cue /kjuː/
R ar /ɑr/[6]
S ess (es-)[7] /ɛs/
T tee /tiː/
U u /juː/
V vee /viː/
W double-u /ˈdʌbəl.juː/[8]
X ex /ɛks/
Y wy or wye /waɪ/
Z zed[9] /zɛd/
zee[10] /ziː/
izzard[11] /ˈɪzərd/

Some groups of letters, such as pee and bee, or em and en, are easily confused in speech, especially when heard over the telephone or a radio communications link. Spelling alphabets such as the ICAO spelling alphabet, used by aircraft pilots, police and others, are designed to eliminate this potential confusion by giving each letter a name that sounds quite different from any other.

Etymology[edit]

The names of the letters are for the most part direct descendents, via French, of the Latin (and Etruscan) names. (See Latin alphabet: Origins.)

Letter

Latin

Old French

Middle English

Modern English

A á /aː/ /aː/ /aː/ /eɪ/
B bé /beː/ /beː/ /beː/ /biː/
C cé /keː/ /tʃeː/ → /tseː/ → /seː/ /seː/ /siː/
D dé /deː/ /deː/ /deː/ /diː/
E é /eː/ /eː/ /eː/ /iː/
F ef /ɛf/ /ɛf/ /ɛf/ /ɛf/
G gé /ɡeː/ /dʒeː/ /dʒeː/ /dʒiː/
H há /haː/ → /aha/ → /akːa/ /aːtʃ/ /aːtʃ/ /eɪtʃ/
I í /iː/ /iː/ /iː/ /aɪ/
J – – – /dʒeɪ/
K ká /kaː/ /kaː/ /kaː/ /keɪ/
L el /ɛl/ /ɛl/ /ɛl/ /ɛl/
M em /ɛm/ /ɛm/ /ɛm/ /ɛm/
N en /ɛn/ /ɛn/ /ɛn/ /ɛn/
O ó /oː/ /oː/ /oː/ /oʊ/
P pé /peː/ /peː/ /peː/ /piː/
Q qú /kuː/ /kyː/ /kiw/ /kjuː/
R er /ɛr/ /ɛr/ / ɛr/ → /ar/ /ɑr/
S es /ɛs/ /ɛs/ /ɛs/ /ɛs/
T té /teː/ /teː/ /teː/ /tiː/
U ú /uː/ /yː/ /iw/ /juː/
V – – – /viː/
W – – – /ˈdʌbəl.juː/
X ex /ɛks, iks/ /iks/ /ɛks/ /ɛks/
Y hý /hyː, iː/
í graeca /ˈɡraɪka/ ui, gui ?
i grec /iː ɡrɛːk/ /wiː/ ? /waɪ/
Z zéta /zeːta/ zed /zɛːd/
et zed /et zeːd/ → /e zed/ /zɛd/
/ɛˈzɛd/ /zɛd, ziː/
/ˈɪzəd/

The regular phonological developments (in rough chronological order) are:
palatalization before front vowels of Latin /k/ successively to /tʃ/, /ts/, and finally to Middle French /s/. Affects C.
palatalization before front vowels of Latin /ɡ/ to Proto-Romance and Middle French /dʒ/. Affects G.
fronting of Latin /uː/ to Middle French /yː/, becoming Middle English /iw/ and then Modern English /juː/. Affects Q, U.
the inconsistent lowering of Middle English /ɛr/ to /ar/. Affects R.
the Great Vowel Shift, shifting all Middle English long vowels. Affects A, B, C, D, E, G, H, I, K, O, P, T, and presumably Y.

The novel forms are aitch, a regular development of Medieval Latin acca; jay, a new letter presumably vocalized like neighboring kay to avoid confusion with established gee (the other name, jy, was taken from French); vee, a new letter named by analogy with the majority; double-u, a new letter, self-explanatory (the name of Latin V was ū); wye, of obscure origin but with an antecedent in Old French wi; zee, an American leveling of zed by analogy with the majority; and izzard, from the Romance phrase i zed or i zeto "and Z" said when reciting the alphabet.

Phonology[edit]

Main article: English phonology

The letters A, E, I, O, and U are considered vowel letters, since (except when silent) they represent vowels; the remaining letters are considered consonant letters, since when not silent they generally represent consonants. However, Y commonly represents vowels as well as a consonant (e.g., "myth"), as very rarely does W (e.g., "cwm"). Conversely, U sometimes represents a consonant (e.g., "quiz").

Letter frequencies[edit]

Main article: Letter frequency

The letter most frequently used in English is E. The least frequently used letter is Z.

The list below shows the frequency of letter use in English.[12]

Letter

Frequency

A 8.17%
B 1.49%
C 2.78%
D 4.25%
E 12.70%
F 2.23%
G 2.02%
H 6.09%
I 6.97%
J 0.15%
K 0.77%
L 4.03%
M 2.41%
N 6.75%
O 7.51%
P 1.93%
Q 0.10%
R 5.99%
S 6.33%
T 9.06%
U 2.76%
V 0.98%
W 2.36%
X 0.15%
Y 1.97%
Z 0.07%

See also[edit]
English orthography
English spelling reform
American manual alphabet
Two-handed manual alphabets
English braille
American braille
New York Point

Footnotes[edit]

1.^ See also the section on Ligatures
2.^ a b Michael Everson, Evertype, Baldur Sigurðsson, Íslensk Málstöð, On the Status of the Latin Letter Þorn and of its Sorting Order
3.^ Sometimes /æ/ in Hiberno-English
4.^ sometimes in Australian and Irish English, and usually in Indian English (although often considered incorrect)
5.^ in Scottish English
6.^ /ɔr/ (/ɔər/?) in Hiberno-English[citation needed]
7.^ in compounds such as es-hook
8.^ Especially in American English, the /l/ is not often pronounced in informal speech. (Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed). Common colloquial pronunciations are /ˈdʌbəjuː/, /ˈdʌbəjə/, and /ˈdʌbjə/, as in the nickname "Dubya", especially in terms like www.
9.^ in British and Commonwealth English
10.^ in American English
11.^ in Scottish English
12.^ Beker, Henry; Piper, Fred (1982). Cipher Systems: The Protection of Communications. Wiley-Interscience. p. 397. Table also available from Lewand, Robert (2000). Cryptological Mathematics. The Mathematical Association of America. p. 36. ISBN 978-0883857199. and [1]


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LANGUAGE LAND ENGAGE LAND LANGUAGE

LETTERS AND NUMBERS AND LETTERS

 

 

THE JESUS MYSTERIES

Timothy Freke & Peter Gandy

1

999

Page 177

The gospels are actually anonymous works, in which everything, without exception, is written in capital letters, with no headings, chapter or verse divisions, and practically no punctuation or spaces between words.61 They were not even written in the Aramic of the Jews but in Greek.62

 

THE GOSPELS ARE ACTUALLY ANONYMOUS WORKS,

IN WHICH EVERYTHING WITHOUT EXCEPTION, IS WRITTEN IN CAPITAL LETTERS,

WITH NO PUNCTUATION OR SPACES BETWEEN WORDS.

 

 

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GODS PEOPLES GODS

GOD SPELLS GOSPELS SPELLS GOD

 

 

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Essenes - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essenes‎

The Essenes (in Modern but not in Ancient Hebrew: אִסִּיִים, Isiyim; Greek: Εσσήνοι, Εσσαίοι, or Οσσαίοι, Essḗnoi, Essaíoi, Ossaíoi) were a sect of Second ...

Essenes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Essene" redirects here. For the bread, see sprouted bread.

Part of a series on Jews and Judaism

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­Etymology·
­Who is a Jew?
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Religion[show]

The Essenes (in Modern but not in Ancient Hebrew: אִסִּיִים, Isiyim; Greek: Εσσήνοι, Εσσαίοι, or Οσσαίοι, Essḗnoi, Essaíoi, Ossaíoi) were a sect of Second Temple Judaism that flourished from the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century CE which some scholars claim seceded from the Zadokite priests.[1] Being much fewer in number than the Pharisees and the Sadducees (the other two major sects at the time), the Essenes lived in various cities but congregated in communal life dedicated to asceticism, voluntary poverty, daily immersion, and abstinence from worldly pleasures, including (for some groups) celibacy. Many separate but related religious groups of that era shared similar mystic, eschatological, messianic, and ascetic beliefs. These groups are collectively referred to by various scholars as the "Essenes." Josephus records that Essenes existed in large numbers, and thousands lived throughout Roman Judæa.

The Essenes have gained fame in modern times as a result of the discovery of an extensive group of religious documents known as the Dead Sea Scrolls, which are commonly believed to be Essenes' library—although there is no proof that the Essenes wrote them. These documents include preserved multiple copies of the Hebrew Bible untouched from as early as 300 BCE until their discovery in 1946. Some scholars, however, dispute the notion that the Essenes wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls.[2] Rachel Elior questions even the existence of the Essenes.[3][4][5]

The first reference is by the Roman writer Pliny the Elder (died c. 79 CE) in his Natural History.[6] Pliny relates in a few lines that the Essenes do not marry, possess no money, and had existed for thousands of generations. Unlike Philo, who did not mention any particular geographical location of the Essenes other than the whole land of Israel, Pliny places them in Ein Gedi, next to the Dead Sea.

A little later Josephus gave a detailed account of the Essenes in The Jewish War (c. 75 CE), with a shorter description in Antiquities of the Jews (c. 94 CE) and The Life of Flavius Josephus (c. 97 CE). Claiming first hand knowledge, he lists the Essenoi as one of the three sects of Jewish philosophy[7] alongside the Pharisees and the Sadducees. He relates the same information concerning piety, celibacy, the absence of personal property and of money, the belief in communality and commitment to a strict observance of Sabbath. He further adds that the Essenes ritually immersed in water every morning, ate together after prayer, devoted themselves to charity and benevolence, forbade the expression of anger, studied the books of the elders, preserved secrets, and were very mindful of the names of the angels kept in their sacred writings.

 

CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Essenes - New Advent

www.newadvent.org › Catholic Encyclopedia › E‎

One of three leading Jewish sects mentioned by Josephus as flourishing in the second century B.C., the others being the Pharisees and the Sadducees.

 

ESSENES

 

T
=
2
-
7
THE
33
15
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
E
=
5
-
-
ENNEAD
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
2
A+D
5
5
5
E
=
5
-
6
ENNEAD
43
25
25
-
-
-
-
-
-
4+3
2+5
2+5
E
=
5
-
6
ENNEAD
7
7
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+4
-
-
E
=
5
-
6
ENNEAD
7
7
7

 

 

T
=
2
-
7
THE
33
15
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
E
=
5
-
-
ENNEA
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
2
A
1
1
1
E
=
5
-
6
ENNEA
39
21
21
-
-
-
-
-
-
3+9
2+1
2+1
E
=
5
-
6
ENNEA
12
3
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+2
-
-
E
=
5
-
6
ENNEA
3
3
3

 

 

T
=
2
-
3
THE
33
15
6
E
=
5
-
5
ENNEA
39
21
3
-
-
7
-
8
Add to Reduce
72
36
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
7+2
3+6
-
-
-
7
-
8
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
THE
-
-
-
T
=
2
-
1
T
20
2
2
H
=
8
-
1
H
8
8
8
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
15
-
3
THE
33
15
15
-
-
-
-
-
FAMILY
-
-
-
F
=
6
-
1
F
6
6
6
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
M
=
4
-
1
M
13
4
4
I
=
9
-
1
I
9
9
9
L
=
3
-
1
L
12
3
3
Y
=
7
-
1
Y
25
7
7
-
-
30
-
6
FAMILY
66
30
30
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
45
-
9
First Total
99
45
45
-
-
4+5
-
-
Add to Reduce
9+9
4+5
4+5
-
-
9
-
9
Second Total
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+8
-
-
-
-
9
-
9
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
THE
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
T
=
2
-
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
H
=
8
-
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
15
-
3
THE
33
15
15
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
FAMILY
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
F
=
6
-
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
M
=
4
-
1
M
13
4
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
I
=
9
-
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
L
=
3
-
1
L
12
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
Y
=
7
-
1
Y
25
7
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
30
-
6
FAMILY
66
30
30
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
45
-
9
First Total
99
45
45
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
4+5
-
-
Add to Reduce
9+9
4+5
4+5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
9
Second Total
18
9
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
9
Essence of Number
9
9
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
THE
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
T
=
2
-
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
H
=
8
-
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
F
=
6
-
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
M
=
4
-
1
M
13
4
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
I
=
9
-
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
L
=
3
-
1
L
12
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
Y
=
7
-
1
Y
25
7
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
FAMILY
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
45
-
9
First Total
99
45
45
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
4+5
-
-
Add to Reduce
9+9
4+5
4+5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
9
Second Total
18
9
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
9
Essence of Number
9
9
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
THE
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
T
=
2
-
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
L
=
3
-
1
L
12
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
M
=
4
-
1
M
13
4
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
F
=
6
-
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
Y
=
7
-
1
Y
25
7
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
H
=
8
-
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
I
=
9
-
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
FAMILY
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
45
-
9
First Total
99
45
45
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
4+5
-
-
Add to Reduce
9+9
4+5
4+5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
9
Second Total
18
9
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
9
Essence of Number
9
9
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

 

 

T
=
2
-
3
THE
33
15
6
F
=
6
-
6
FAMILY
66
30
3
-
-
8
</