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A

MAZE

IN

ZAZAZA ENTERS AZAZAZ

AZAZAZAZAZAZAZZAZAZAZAZAZAZA

ZAZAZAZAZAZAZAZAZAAZAZAZAZAZAZAZAZAZ

THE

MAGICALALPHABET

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11
THE ADVENT
-
-
-
3
THE
33
15
6
6
ADVENT
66
21
3
9
THE ADVENT
99
36
9
-
-
9+9
3+6
-
2
THE ADVENT
9
9
9

 

WISE WISDOM LOST AT SEA DROWNED IN A SEE OF KNOWLEDGE

 

 

 

 

...

 

 

 

 

 

26
A
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X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
-
-
5
6
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
+
=
43
4+3
=
7
=
7
=
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
-
-
14
15
-
-
-
19
-
-
-
-
24
-
26
+
=
115
1+1+5
=
7
=
7
=
7
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
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V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
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4
5
6
7
-
-
1
2
3
4
-
-
7
8
9
-
2
3
4
5
-
7
-
+
=
83
8+3
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
-
10
11
12
13
-
-
16
17
18
-
20
21
22
23
-
25
-
+
=
236
2+3+6
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
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T
U
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W
X
Y
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
+
=
351
3+5+1
=
9
=
9
=
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
+
=
126
1+2+6
=
9
=
9
=
9
26
A
B
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D
E
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-
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-
-
-
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-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
1
occurs
x
3
=
3
=
3
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
2
occurs
x
3
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
3
occurs
x
3
=
9
=
9
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
+
=
4
occurs
x
3
=
12
1+2
3
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
+
=
5
occurs
x
3
=
15
1+5
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
+
=
6
occurs
x
3
=
18
1+8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
+
=
7
occurs
x
3
=
21
2+1
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
+
=
8
occurs
x
3
=
24
2+4
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
9
occurs
x
2
=
18
1+8
9
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
45
-
-
26
-
126
-
54
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4+5
-
-
2+6
-
1+2+6
-
5+4
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
9
-
-
8
-
9
-
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
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M
N
O
P
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R
S
T
U
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X
Y
Z
-
-
9
-
-
8
-
9
-
9

 

 

THE LIGHT IS RISING NOW RISING IS THE LIGHT

 

 

18
THE ENGLISH ALPHABET
-
-
-
1
THE
33
15
6
-
ENGLISH
74
38
2
1
ALPHABET
65
29
2
18
THE ENGLISH ALPHABET
172
82
10
1+8
-
1+7+2
8+2
1+0
9
THE ENGLISH ALPHABET
10
10
10
-
-
1+0
1+0
1+0
9
THE ENGLISH ALPHABET
1
1
1

 

 

BEYOND THE VEIL ANOTHER VEIL ANOTHER VEIL BEYOND

 

 

A

HISTORY OF GOD

Karen Armstrong 1993

The God of the Mystics

Page 250

"Perhaps the most famous of the early Jewish mystical texts is the fifth century Sefer Yezirah (The Book of Creation). There is no attempt to describe the creative process realistically; the account is unashamedly symbolic and shows God creating the world by means of language as though he were writing a book. But language has been entirely transformed and the message of creation is no longer clear. Each letter of the Hebrew alphabet is given a numerical value; by combining the letters with the sacred numbers, rearranging them in endless configurations, the mystic weaned his mind away from the normal connotations of words."

 

Page 250

THERE IS NO ATTEMPT MADE TO DESCRIBE THE CREATIVE PROCESS REALISTICALLY THE ACCOUNT

IS UNASHAMEDLY SYMBOLIC AND SHOWS GOD CREATING THE WORLD BY MEANS OF LANGUAGE AS

THOUGH HE WERE WRITING A BOOK. BUT LANGUAGE HAS BEEN ENTIRELY TRANSFORMED AND THE

MESSAGE OF CREATION IS NO LONGER CLEAR EACH LETTER OF THE HEBREW ALPHABET IS GIVEN

A NUMERICAL VALUE BY COMBINING THE LETTERS WITH THE SACRED NUMBERS REARRANGING

THEM IN ENDLESS CONFIGURATIONS THE MYSTIC WEANED THE MIND AWAY FROM THE NORMAL

CONNOTATIONS OF WORDS

 

 

THE LIGHT IS RISING NOW RISING IS THE LIGHT

 

....

 

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
=
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
=
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
1+0
1+1
1+2
1+3
1+4
1+5
1+6
1+7
1+8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
=
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
=
S
T
U
V
W
X
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I
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
9
1+9
2+0
2+1
2+2
2+3
2+4
2+5
2+6
ME
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
=
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
=
I
ME
I
ME
I
ME
I
ME
I
9
18
9
18
9
18
9
18
9
=
1+8
=
1+8
=
1+8
=
1+8
=
=
9
=
9
=
9
=
9
=
I
ME
I
ME
I
ME
I
ME
1
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
I
ME
I
ME
I
ME
I
ME
1

 

 

 

A
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+0
1+1
1+2
1+3
1+4
1+5
1+6
1+7
1+8
1+9
2+0
2+1
2+2
2+3
2+4
2+5
2+6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
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5
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1
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-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
A
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LIGHT AND LIFE

Lars Olof Bjorn 1976

Page 197

"By writing the 26 letters of the alphabet in a certain order one may put down almost any message (this book 'is written with the same letters' as the Encyclopaedia Britannica and Winnie the Pooh, only the order of the letters differs). In the same way Nature is able to convey with her language how a cell and a whole organism is to be constructed and how it is to function. Nature has succeeded better than we humans; for the genetic code there is only one universal language which is the same in a man, a bean plant and a bacterium."

"BY WRITING THE 26 LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET IN A CERTAIN ORDER

ONE MAY PUT DOWN ALMOST ANY MESSAGE"

 

 

"FOR THE GENETIC CODE THERE IS ONLY ONE UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE"

 

DNA AND DNA DNA AND DNA DNA AND DNA

DNA AND DNA DNA AND DNA DNA AND DNA

 

 

 

A QUEST FOR THE BEGINNING AND THE END

Graham Hancock 1995

Chapter 32

Speaking to the Unborn

Page 285

"It is understandable that a huge range of myths from all over the ancient world should describe geological catastrophes in graphic detail. Mankind survived the horror of the last Ice Age, and the most plausible source for our enduring traditions of flooding and freezing, massive volcanism and devastating earthquakes is in the tumultuous upheavals unleashed during the great meltdown of 15,000 to 8000 BC. The final retreat of the ice sheets, and the consequent 300-400 foot rise in global sea levels, took place only a few thousand years before the beginning of the historical period. It is therefore not surprising that all our early civilizations should have retained vivid memories of the vast cataclysms that had terrified their forefathers.
Much harder to explain is the peculiar but distinctive way the myths of cataclysm seem to bear the intelligent imprint of a guiding hand.l Indeed the degree of convergence between such ancient stories is frequently remarkable enough to raise the suspicion that they must all have been 'written' by the same 'author'.
Could that author have had anything to do with the wondrous deity, or superhuman, spoken of in so many of the myths we have reviewed, who appears immediately after the world has been shattered by a horrifying geological catastrophe and brings comfort and the gifts of civilization to the shocked and demoralized survivors?
White and bearded, Osiris is the Egyptian manifestation of this / Page 286 / universal figure, and it may not be an accident that one of the first acts he is remembered for in myth is the abolition of cannibalism among the primitive inhabitants of the Nile Valley.2 Viracocha, in South America, was said to have begun his civilizing mission immediately after a great flood; Quetzalcoatl, the discoverer of maize, brought the benefits of crops, mathematics, astronomy and a refined culture to Mexico after the Fourth Sun had been overwhelmed by a destroying deluge.
Could these strange myths contain a record of encounters between scattered palaeolithic tribes which survived the last Ice Age and an as yet unidentified high civilization which passed through the same epoch?
And could the myths be attempts to communicate?

A message in the bottle of time

'Of all the other stupendous inventions,' Galileo once remarked,

what sublimity of mind must have been his who conceived how to communicate his most secret thoughts to any other person, though very distant either in time or place, speaking with those who are in the Indies, speaking to those who are not yet born, nor shall be this thousand or ten thousand years? And with no greater difficulty than the various arrangements of two dozen little signs on paper? Let this be the seal of all the admirable inventions of men.3

If the 'precessional message' identified by scholars like Santillana, von Dechend and Jane Sellers is indeed a deliberate attempt at communication by some lost civilization of antiquity, how come it wasn't just written down and left for us to find? Wouldn't that have been easier than encoding it in myths? Perhaps.
Nevertheless, suppose that whatever the message was written on got destroyed or worn away after many thousands of years? Or suppose that the language in which it was inscribed was later forgotten utterly (like the enigmatic Indus Valley script, which has been studied closely for more than half a century but has so far resisted all attempts at decoding)? It must be obvious that in such circumstances a written / Page 287 / legacy to the future would be of no value at all, because nobody would be able to make sense of it.
What one would look for, therefore, would be a universal language, the kind of language that would be comprehensible to any technologically advanced society in any epoch, even a thousand or ten thousand years into the future. Such languages are few and far between, but mathematics is one of them - and the city of Teotihuacan may be the calling-card of a lost civilization written in the eternal language of mathematics.
Geodetic data, related to the exact positioning of fixed geographical points and to the shape and size of the earth, would also remain valid and recognizable for tens of thousands of years, and might be most conveniently expressed by means of cartography (or in the construction of giant geodetic monuments like the Great Pyramid of Egypt, as we shall see).
Another 'constant' in our solar system is the language of time: the great but regular intervals of time calibrated by the inch-worm creep of precessional motion. Now, or ten thousand years in the future, a message that prints out numbers like 72 or 2160 or 4320or 25,920 should be instantly intelligible to any civilization that has evolved a modest talent for mathematics and the ability to detect and measure the almost imperceptible reverse wobble that the sun appears to make along the ecliptic against the background of the fixed stars..."

"What one would look for, therefore, would be a universal language, the kind of language that would be comprehensible to any technologically advanced society in any epoch, even a thousand or ten thousand years into the future. Such languages are few and far between, but mathematics is one of them"

"WRITTEN IN THE ETERNAL LANGUAGE OF MATHEMATICS"

 

 

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-
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-
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1+0
1+1
1+2
1+3
1+4
1+5
1+6
1+7
1+8
1+9
2+0
2+1
2+2
2+3
2+4
2+5
2+6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
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1
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8
A
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-
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THERE IS NO ATTEMPT MADE TO DESCRIBE THE CREATIVE PROCESS REALISTICALLY

THE ACCOUNT IS SYMBOLIC AND SHOWS GOD CREATING THE WORLD BY MEANS OF LANGUAGE

AS THOUGH WRITING A BOOK BUT LANGUAGE ENTIRELY TRANSFORMED

THE MESSAGE OF CREATION IS CLEAR EACH LETTER OF

THE

ALPHABET

IS

GIVEN

A

NUMERICAL

VALUE BY COMBINING THE LETTERS WITH THE SACRED NUMBERS

REARRANGING THEM IN ENDLESS CONFIGURATIONS

THE MYSTIC WEANED THE MIND AWAY FROM THE NORMAL CONNOTATIONS OF WORDS

 

....

 

THE LIGHT IS RISING NOW RISING IS THE LIGHT

 

 

 

 

Daily Mail, Wednesday, June 28, 2017

QUESTION

The sentence 'amazingly few discotheques provide jukeboxes' contains all the alphabet's letters. Are there any shorter ones?

THIS is a pangram. Others include 'Pack my box with five dozen liquor jugs' and `Jackdaws love my big sphinx of quartz'.

A 'perfect' one uses each letter once. The Guinness Book of Records-called this example the world's most contrived sentence: 'Cwm fjord-bank glyphs vext quiz', meaning 'annoying question concerning letters carved into a glaciated hollow on the bank of a sea inlet'.

Pangrams can be found in many other languages, too.

John Ward, Bristol.

THE best-known pangram in English is `The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog' (35 letters). Dating back to 1888, it is famous for its coherency and often used for touch-typing practice. Robert Baden-Powell's book Scouting For Boys (1908) uses it as a practice for signalling.

The shortest in English without abbreviations are 'Nymphs blitz quick vex dwarf jog', 'Big fiords vex quick waltz nymph', and 'Bawds jog, flick quartz, vex nymph' (all 27 letters).

The question's pangram is shortest in terms of words. An equivalent is `Sympathizing would fix Quaker objectives' but contains a proper noun and an American spelling. Other good pangrams include: 'Fox nymphs grab quick jived waltz', 'My ex pub quiz crowd gave joyful thanks', 'Pack my box with five dozen liquor jugs', `Schwarzkopf vexed Iraq big-time in July', 'Waxy and quivering, jocks fumble the pizza' and 'Foxy diva Jennifer Lopez wasn't baking my quiche'.

Ian Dean, Birmingham.

 

 

Daily Mail, Monday, June 26, 2017

QUESTION A common misconception is -that sushi mans 'raw flsh'.1n fact, it means 'sour rice'. What other words are commonly mistranslated?

THERE are a number of 'false friends' in French, words that sound similar to English counterparts, but have different eanings and are often mistranslated.

Assister does not mean 'assist' but to `attend an event' e.g. 'Joanna assiste au concert' —Joanne attends the concert.'

Deception doesn't mean 'deception' but `disappointment' e.g. `une immense deception' — 'a huge disappointment.'

In English, sympathetic is an adjective based on the noun sympathy. In French sympathique means nice or friendly.
Demander means 'ask for', exiger means to demand; habit means outfit, habitude means habit; place means seat, endroit means place; resumer means to summarise, reprendre is to resume; trouble means indistinct or murky, probleme or difficulte means trouble.

Watch out for excite — this usually means excited in a sexual sense! Go with anime e.g. 'Jeanne est toute animee a cause de la parrure' — 'Jeanne is very excited about the necklace'.

Mary Wilson, London SW7.

 


ANCIENT religious texts are a source for many translation errors. One famous example is the belief that the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden was an apple. This originates from a mistranslation of the Latin word malum, meaning both `apple' and 'evil'.

Ian Peel, Bray, Berks.

 

 

16
EXTRATERRESTRIAL
-
-
-
-
E+X+T
49
13
4
-
R
18
9
9
-
A+T+E
26
8
8
-
R
18
9
9
-
R
18
9
9
-
E+S+T
44
8
8
-
R
18
9
9
-
I
9
9
9
-
A+L
13
4
4
16
EXTRATERRESTRIAL
213
78
69
1+6
-
2+1+3
7+8
6+9
7
EXTRATERRESTRIAL
6
15
15
-
-
-
1+5
1+5
7
EXTRATERRESTRIAL
6
6
6

 

 

THIS IS THE SCENE OF THE SCENE UNSEEN THE UNSEEN SEEN OF THE SCENE UNSEEN THIS IS THE SEEN

 

-
THE UNKNOWN GOD
-
-
-
3
THE
33
15
6
7
UNKNOWN
112
31
4
3
GOD
26
17
8
13
THE UNKNOWN GOD
171
63
18
1+3
-
1+7+1
6+3
1+8
4
THE UNKNOWN GOD
9
9
9

 

 

THE STAIRWAY TO HEAVEN

BOOK

II

THE EARTH CHRONICLES

Zecharia Sitchin 1980

Page 275

"solar disk"

".........represented by the symbol for the Solar Disk........."

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
SOLAR DISK
-
-
-
S
=
1
-
5
SOLAR
65
20
2
D
=
4
-
4
DISK
43
16
7
-
-
5
-
9
SOLAR DISK
108
36
9
-
-
-
-
4
-
1+0+8
3+6
4
Q
-
5
-
9
SOLAR DISK
9
9
9

 

 

D
=
4
-
-
DESCENDANTS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
D+E
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
3
S+C+E
27
9
9
-
-
-
-
2
N+D
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
4
A+N+T+S
54
9
9
D
=
4
-
11
DESCENDANTS
108
36
36
-
-
-
-
1+1
-
1+0+8
3+6
3+6
D
=
4
-
2
DESCENDANTS
9
9
9

 

 

FINGERPRINTS OF THE GODS
 

G Hancock1995

Page 287

"What one would look for, therefore, would be a universal language"

 "WHAT ONE WOULD LOOK FOR, THEREFORE, WOULD BE A UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE"

 

 

LIGHT AND LIFE

  Lars Olof Bjorn
 
1976

"BY WRITING THE 26 LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET IN A CERTAIN ORDER

ONE MAY PUT DOWN ALMOST ANY MESSAGE"

(THIS BOOK IS WRITTEN WITH THE SAME LETTERS AS THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA AND WINNIE THE POOH, ONLY THE ORDER OF THE LETTERS DIFFERS).

IN THE SAME WAY NATURE IS ABLE TO CONVEY WITH HER LANGUAGE HOW A CELL AND A WHOLE ORGANISM IS TO BE CONSTRUCTED AND HOW IT IS TO FUNCTION. NATURE HAS SUCCEEDED BETTER THAN WE HUMANS; FOR THE GENETIC CODE THERE IS ONLY ONE UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE WHICH IS THE SAME IN A MAN, A BEAN PLANT AND A BACTERIUM.

 
THE DNA MESSAGE IN A HUMAN CELL COMPRISES ABOUT
 

1 000 000 000 'LETTERS'."

 

 AND DNA AND DNA AND DNA AND DNA AND DNA AND DNA AND DNA AND DNA AND DNA

 

"BY WRITING THE 26 LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET IN A CERTAIN ORDER

ONE MAY PUT DOWN ALMOST ANY MESSAGE"

 

 

Daily Mail 13, July 2017

Page 64

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS

Compiled by Charles Legge

QUESTION Scientists claim that all the computer data produced last year could be stored on 4g of DNA. What do they mean by this?

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) consists of sequences of the nucleobases adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine (abbreviated to A, G, C and T).

DNA represents a storage mechanism for a 'programme' which allows it to replicate itself so that life can exist. DNA can potentially retain its programme for hundreds or even thousands of years.

In the laboratory, DNA sequencers can read the DNA programme from samples taken from living and dead organisms. There are companies who write a specific programme into synthetic DNA if supplied with the required sequence, which can later be read back.

You can immediately see how this could be used to store specific non-biological information if a sequence were written to synthetic DNA for that purpose.

The trick to being able to store usable computer data is not so much to do with synthesising the DNA, but in encoding the data to be used in the sequence in the first place so it can be later recovered. Without going into the absolute detail, researchers have been using synthesised DNA where the bases T and G represent binary '1', and A and C represent binary '0'.

It's a lot more involved, as the data in each DNA strand consists of an address ) block followed by the actual data, and the sequence which is subsequently read back has to be reassembled using these t address blocks. It is a similar approach to what is used within the computer industry, though more advanced.

It should be borne in mind that this i DNA has nothing to do with life or genetics. Its purpose is totally non-biological.

The storage capacity of DNA has been going up as experiments continue. In 2012, Harvard scientists managed to get 700 terabytes (TB) of data into lg of DNA. This year, over 200 petabytes (PB) has been crammed into a single gram.

To put this in perspective, a typical DVD can hold up to 4.7 gigabytes (GB) of data. A terabyte (TB) is 1,000 times bigger than a GB, and could hold the
equivalent data of around 210 DVDs.

A petabyte (PB) is 1,000 times bigger than a TB, so scientists have managed to pack the equivalent of around 42 million DVDs into that gram of DNA. Going up the ladder, an exabyte (EB) is 1,000 times bigger than a PB, and a zettabyte (ZB) is 1,000 times bigger again.

Some scientists have suggested that a single gram of DNA can potentially hold up to 455 EB of data (96 billion DVDs), though others have estimated a lower figure of 270 PB.

As of 2011, total world data was estimated at just under 2 ZB (380 billion DVDs), meaning all of it could be stored. on 4g of DNA (a teaspoon) if this upper storage limit could be realised.

Even with the recent results, all human knowledge would easily fit in a bucket or n two! Or a swimming pool—as of 2017 the entire content of the worldwide web is estimated at 1 yottabyte (YB), where a YB is 1,000 times larger than a ZB.

Searching and indexing that amount of data would still be problematic. The numbers involved are hard to imagine, but 1 YB of data would take trillions of years to download on even the fastest broadband connection, so searching through it would take a lot of time.

It is amazing science, and Microsoft is said to be working on the technique.
Martin Sisson, Nbttingham.

 

 

THE GROWTH OF SCIENCE

A.P.Rossiter 1939

Page 15

"The Egyptians,…" "…made good observations on the stars and were able to say when the sun or moon would become dark in an eclipse (a most surprising event even in our times), and when the land would be covered by the waters of the Nile: they were expert at building and made some discoveries about the relations of lines and angles - among them one very old rule for getting a right-angle by stretching out knotted cords with 5, 4 And 3 units between the knots."

"...among them one very old rule for getting a right-angle by stretching out knotted cords with

5, 4 And 3 units between the knots."

 

 

CIVILIZATION, SCIENCE AND RELIGION

A. D. RITCHIE 1945

THE ART OF THINKING

Page 39

"The Egyptians could set out a right-angle on the ground,

for building or for land surveying,

by means of a cord knotted at intervals of

3, 4 and 5 units of length."

 

3
-
5
THREE
56
29
2
4
-
4
FOUR
60
24
6
5
-
4
FIVE
42
24
6
12
-
13
First Total
158
77
14
1+2
-
1+3
Add to Reduce
1+5+8
7+7
1+4
3
-
4
Second Total
14
14
5
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+4
1+4
--
3
-
4
Essence of Number
5
5
5

 

 

3
-
T
=
2
-
5
THREE
56
29
2
4
-
F
=
6
-
4
FOUR
60
24
6
5
-
F
=
6
-
4
FIVE
42
24
6
12
-
-
-
14
-
13
First Total
158
77
14
1+2
-
-
-
1+4
-
1+3
Add to Reduce
1+5+8
7+7
1+4
12
-
-
-
5
-
4
Second Total
14
14
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+4
1+4
--
3
-
-
-
5
-
4
Essence of Number
5
5
5

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
PYTHAGORAS
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
P
=
7
-
1
P
16
7
7
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
Y
=
7
-
1
Y
25
7
7
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
T
=
2
-
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
3
4
5
-
-
-
-
H
=
8
-
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
-
8
-
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
3
4
5
-
-
-
-
G
=
7
-
1
G
7
7
7
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
O
=
6
-
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
-
3
4
5
6
-
-
-
R
=
9
-
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
-
-
9
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
3
4
5
-
-
-
-
S
=
1
-
1
S
19
10
1
-
1
-
3
4
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
49
-
10
PYTHAGORAS
130
58
49
-
3
2
3
4
5
6
21
8
9
-
-
4+9
-
1+0
-
1+3+0
5+8
4+9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2+1
-
-
-
-
13
-
1
PYTHAGORAS
4
13
13
-
3
2
3
4
5
6
3
8
9
-
-
1+3
-
-
-
-
1+3
1+3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
1
PYTHAGORAS
4
4
4
-
3
2
3
4
5
6
3
8
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
PYTHAGORAS
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
3
4
5
-
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
3
4
5
-
-
-
-
S
=
1
-
1
S
19
10
1
-
1
-
3
4
5
-
-
-
-
T
=
2
-
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
3
4
5
-
-
-
-
O
=
6
-
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
-
3
4
5
6
-
-
-
P
=
7
-
1
P
16
7
7
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
Y
=
7
-
1
Y
25
7
7
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
G
=
7
-
1
G
7
7
7
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
H
=
8
-
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
-
8
-
R
=
9
-
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
-
-
9
-
-
49
-
10
PYTHAGORAS
130
58
49
-
3
2
3
4
5
6
21
8
9
-
-
4+9
-
1+0
-
1+3+0
5+8
4+9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2+1
-
-
-
-
13
-
1
PYTHAGORAS
4
13
13
-
3
2
3
4
5
6
3
8
9
-
-
1+3
-
-
-
-
1+3
1+3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
1
PYTHAGORAS
4
4
4
-
3
2
3
4
5
6
3
8
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
PYTHAGORAS
-
-
-
-
1
2
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
S
=
1
-
1
S
19
10
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
T
=
2
-
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
O
=
6
-
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
P
=
7
-
1
P
16
7
7
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
Y
=
7
-
1
Y
25
7
7
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
G
=
7
-
1
G
7
7
7
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
H
=
8
-
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
R
=
9
-
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
49
-
10
PYTHAGORAS
130
58
49
-
3
2
6
21
8
9
-
-
4+9
-
1+0
-
1+3+0
5+8
4+9
-
-
-
-
2+1
-
-
-
-
13
-
1
PYTHAGORAS
4
13
13
-
3
2
6
3
8
9
-
-
1+3
-
-
-
-
1+3
1+3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
1
PYTHAGORAS
4
4
4
-
3
2
6
3
8
9

 

 

MAGICIANS OF THE GODS

Graham Hancock 2016

Page 425
Astronomy and earth measuring
Archaeoastronomer James Q. Jacobs has noticed something rather odd about Harran. The city's latitude, 36.87 degrees north of the equator, appears to be non-random, since the figure is the same as that for the acute angle of a 3:4:5 right triangle' - i.e. a triangle which contains one 90 degree right angle and whose side lengths are in the ratio 3:4:5. In all such triangles - which form the basis for trigonometry and are thus fundamental to astronomy and geodesy - the other two angles are, with rounding, 53.13 degrees and 36.87 degrees.
Is it a coincidence that a 3:4:5 right triangle with the same internal angles exists inside the King's Chamber of the Great Pyramid of Egypt? The floor of this austere and uninscribed red granite room, in which no pharaoh was ever found entombed, forms a 2:1 rectangle, exactly 20 Egyptian royal cubits in length and io royal cubits in width (10.46 x 5.23 metres). The right triangle is formed with its shortest dimension (15 cubits) represented by the diagonal across the west wall from the lower south-west corner to the upper north-west corner; its median dimension (2o cubits) is drawn along the entire length of the floor on the south side of the chamber; its long dimension (25 cubits) is drawn from the upper north-west corner of the chamber to the lower southeast corner.s3
These side lengths of 15 cubits, 20 cubits and 25 cubits can be expressed as the ratio 3:4:5 because if we allocate the value '3' to the length of 15 cubits then zo cubits must naturally have a value of '4' and 25 cubits must have a value of '5' All right-angled triangles with side lengths in this special 3:4:5 ratio are called 'Pythagorean' - after Pythagoras, the Greek philosopher and mathematician of the sixth century BC, who was supposedly the first to discover that they share a unique characteristic. This is that the square of the short side
(3 units x 3 units = 9 units), added to the square of the median side
(4 units x 4 units = 16 units), together result in a figure equal to the square of the long side (5 units x 5 units = 25 units, i.e. the sum of 9 plus 16).84 The real 'secret magic' of the triangle, however, as the Icelandic mathematician Einar Palsson has pointed out, is only revealed when the numbers are cubed.85 Then we get:

Page 354

King's Chamber N 15:20:25 c 14:5
Figure 58: The 3:4:5 right triangle hidden within the King's Chamber of the Great Pyramid.
3 x 3 x 3 = 27 4x 4 4 = 64 5 x 5 x 5 = 125
The total of 27 plus 64 plus 125 is 216, and as the reader will recall from earlier chapters, 216 is one of the sequence of numbers identified by historians of science Giorgio de Santillana and Hertha von Dechend as being derived from precise observations of the precession of the equinoxes, those long-term changes in the sky that unfold at the rate of one degree every 72 years. Numbers derived from this precessional sequence turn out to be encoded in ancient myths and monuments all around the world, tracing their origins back to what Santillana and von Dechend can only conclude was some 'almost unbelievable' ancestor civilization of prehistoric antiquity that 'first dared to understand the world as created according to number, measure and weight'.86
The heartbeat of the cycle, as we've seen, is 72 - the number of years required for the unfolding of one degree of precessional change. In observational terms a one degree shift over 72 years - effectively an entire human lifetime - is barely perceptible, being roughly equivalent to the width of a forefinger held up towards the horizon. A 3o degree shift - through one entire zodiacal constellation, requiring 3o x 72 = 2,16o years to complete - is impossible to miss, but its progression could only be precisely recorded and noted by many generations of conscientious and accurate observers. A 6o degree shift,
20
10
Cubits
Cubits
20 Cubits

Page 355

i.e. through two zodiacal constellations, takes 4,320 years (2,16o x 2 = 4,320), which is why a 36o degree shift (all 12 zodiacal constellations - 'the Great Year') requires a grand total of 25,92o years.
Within the 'precessional code' as Santillana and von Dechend showed conclusively, it is permissible to divide and multiply the `heartbeat number' of 72 (the number of years required for one degree of precessional change). This is done in myths and monuments all around the world (for example at Angkor, in Cambodia, as we saw in Chapter Twelve, and at Borobudur, in Indonesia, as we will see in Chapter Eighteen). Thus 216 is 3 x 72 (or 2,16o divided by io). Its derivation from the 3:4:5 triangle inside the King's Chamber of the Great Pyramid is therefore most unlikely to be an accident and the relationship of all this to astronomy and geodesy - earth-measuring - is clear. This is further confirmed by the external dimensions of the Great Pyramid which, as It showed in Fingerprints of the Gods, encode the dimensions of our planet on the precessional scale of 1:43,200.87
Essentially, if you measure the height of the Great Pyramid and multiply it by 43,200 you get the polar radius of the earth and if you measure the base perimeter of the Great Pyramid and multiply by 43,200 you get the equatorial circumference of the earth. The fact that 43,200 is one of the sequence of precessional numbers identified by Santillana and von Dechend further reduces the likelihood of coincidence, and requires us to take seriously the proposition that we are indeed looking at part of the intellectual legacy of some 'almost unbelievable' ancestor civilization that had measured the earth and observed the changes in the stars with scientific accuracy, long before what we understand as 'history' began.
So, to return to Harran, James Q. Jacobs' discovery certainly suggests that the founders of this city made a deliberate geodetic choice when they set it at latitude 36.87 degrees north. What adds to this impression is that Jacobs has also found a geodetic relationship between Harran and the fabled Mesopotamian city of Ur with which it was known to have enjoyed a close relationship in antiquity:88

 

 

TO SLEEP PERCHANCE TO DREAM.
NO TIME!
AWAKEN FOR THE TIME THAT IS COMING NOW IS.

FRATERNAL GREETINGS CITIZEN OF THE CITY OF NINE GATES.
FRATERNAL GREETINGS CITIZEN OF PLANET EARTH.
FRATERNAL GREETINGS CITIZEN OF THE UNIVERSE.
FRATERNAL GREETINGS UNIVERSAL CITIZEN.

MESSAGE TO THE PEOPLE OF PLANET EARTH.
A PRESENT FROM THE PAST TO THE FUTURE PRESENT.
ANOTHER SIGN OF A SIGNAL.
IS 1836 IS


TO YOU THAT HAVE THE EYES THAT READ A BEATING ART.
THE WATER OF LIFE BORN OUT THE IN OF THE HOLY MOTHERS WOMB
THE SELF EVIDENT TRUTH

LET THOSE WHO HAVE EARS TO HEAR LET THEM HEAR.

CREATION REACTION
ELECTRIC = ET CIRCLE


ESOTERIC = O SECRET I = ESOTERIC
ESOTERIC 6 SECRET 9 = ESOTERIC

ESOTERIC = I SECRET O = ESOTERIC
ESOTERIC 9 SECRET 6 = ESOTERIC

EARTH HEART TERAH THERA

READ DEAR READ

REAL REALITY REVEALED
REALREALITYREVEALED
9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
REALREALITYREVEALED

AMEN THE NAME
NAME MAN E MAN NAME
NAM E MAN
MAN 5 NAM
AMEN MANE MEAN

THE 6
HOLY 6
NAME 6


LIVE EVIL VEIL VILE LEVI
LIVED DEVIL
LIGHT DARK

SOUL SO U LIVE
SOUL SO U LEARN
SOUL SO U LOVE

OUT OF ZERO COMETH ONE.
1 - 8 – 3 - 6.

1 ONE YOU
8 EIGHT
3 THREE
6 SIX.

MAN NAM
NAM E MAN
MAN I NAME THEE E

RU LUCIFER.
L U C FIRE

3-3-3-FIRE
LET U C FIRE
PROMETHEUS
PROMETHEUS = MET ORPHEUS

PROMISETHEEUS
PROMISE THEE US MOTHER

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
9
AKHENATEN
79
34
7
N
=
6
-
9
NEFERTITI
106
52
7
-
-
7
-
18
First Total
185
86
14
-
-
-
-
1+8
Add to Reduce
1+8+5
8+6
1+4
-
-
5
-
9
Second Total
14
14
5
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+4
1+4
-
-
-
5
-
9
Essence of Number
5
5
5

 

AKHENATEN NEFERTITI

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
=
1
-
9
AKHENATEN
79
34
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
N
=
6
-
9
NEFERTITI
106
52
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
18
-
185
86
14
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+8
-
1+8+5
8+6
1+4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
9
-
14
14
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+4
1+4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
9
-
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
=
1
1
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
3
4
-
-
7
-
-
K
=
2
2
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
3
4
-
-
7
-
-
H
=
8
3
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
3
4
-
-
7
8
-
E
=
5
4
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
N
=
5
5
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
A
=
1
6
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
3
4
-
-
7
-
-
T
=
2
7
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
3
4
-
-
7
-
-
E
=
5
8
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
N
=
5
9
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
34
-
6
-
79
34
34
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
N
=
5
10
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
E
=
5
11
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
F
=
6
12
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
3
4
-
6
7
-
-
E
=
5
11
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
R
=
4
14
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
3
4
-
-
7
-
9
T
=
2
15
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
3
4
-
-
7
-
-
I
=
9
16
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
3
4
-
-
7
-
9
T
=
2
17
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
3
4
-
-
7
-
-
I
=
9
18
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
3
4
-
-
7
-
9
52
-
8
-
106
52
52
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
8
3
4
35
6
7
8
27
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3+5
-
-
-
2+7
N
=
5
-
9
NEFERTITI
106
52
7
-
2
8
3
4
8
6
7
8
9
A
=
1
-
9
AKHENATEN
79
34
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
18
First Total
185
86
14
-
2
8
3
4
8
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
1+8
Add to Reduce
1+8+5
8+6
1+4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
9
Second Total
14
14
5
-
2
8
3
4
8
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+4
1+4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
9
Essence of Number
5
5
5
-
4
8
3
4
8
6
7
8
9

 

AKHENATEN NEFERTITI

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
=
1
-
9
AKHENATEN
79
34
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
N
=
6
-
9
NEFERTITI
106
52
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
18
-
185
86
14
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+8
-
1+8+5
8+6
1+4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
9
-
14
14
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+4
1+4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
9
-
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
=
1
1
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
3
4
-
-
7
-
-
K
=
2
2
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
3
4
-
-
7
-
-
H
=
8
3
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
3
4
-
-
7
8
-
E
=
5
4
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
N
=
5
5
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
A
=
1
6
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
3
4
-
-
7
-
-
T
=
2
7
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
3
4
-
-
7
-
-
E
=
5
8
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
N
=
5
9
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
N
=
5
10
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
E
=
5
11
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
F
=
6
12
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
3
4
-
6
7
-
-
E
=
5
11
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
R
=
4
14
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
3
4
-
-
7
-
9
T
=
2
15
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
3
4
-
-
7
-
-
I
=
9
16
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
3
4
-
-
7
-
9
T
=
2
17
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
3
4
-
-
7
-
-
I
=
9
18
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
3
4
-
-
7
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
8
3
4
35
6
7
8
27
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3+5
-
-
-
2+7
N
=
5
-
9
NEFERTITI
106
52
7
-
2
8
3
4
8
6
7
8
9
A
=
1
-
9
AKHENATEN
79
34
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
18
First Total
185
86
14
-
2
8
3
4
8
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
1+8
Add to Reduce
1+8+5
8+6
1+4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
9
Second Total
14
14
5
-
2
8
3
4
8
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+4
1+4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
9
Essence of Number
5
5
5
-
4
8
3
4
8
6
7
8
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
=
1
-
9
AKHENATEN
79
34
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
N
=
6
-
9
NEFERTITI
106
52
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
18
-
185
86
14
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+8
-
1+8+5
8+6
1+4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
9
-
14
14
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+4
1+4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
9
-
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
=
1
1
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
3
4
-
-
7
-
-
A
=
1
6
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
3
4
-
-
7
-
-
K
=
2
2
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
3
4
-
-
7
-
-
T
=
2
7
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
3
4
-
-
7
-
-
T
=
2
15
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
3
4
-
-
7
-
-
T
=
2
17
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
3
4
-
-
7
-
-
E
=
5
4
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
N
=
5
5
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
E
=
5
8
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
N
=
5
9
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
N
=
5
10
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
E
=
5
11
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
E
=
5
11
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
-
F
=
6
12
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
3
4
-
6
7
-
-
H
=
8
3
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
3
4
-
-
7
8
-
R
=
4
14
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
3
4
-
-
7
-
9
I
=
9
16
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
3
4
-
-
7
-
9
I
=
9
18
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
3
4
-
-
7
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
8
3
4
35
6
7
8
27
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3+5
-
-
-
2+7
N
=
5
-
9
NEFERTITI
106
52
7
-
2
8
3
4
8
6
7
8
9
A
=
1
-
9
AKHENATEN
79
34
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
18
First Total
185
86
14
-
2
8
3
4
8
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
1+8
Add to Reduce
1+8+5
8+6
1+4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
9
Second Total
14
14
5
-
2
8
3
4
8
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+4
1+4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
9
Essence of Number
5
5
5
-
4
8
3
4
8
6
7
8
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
5
6
8
9
A
=
1
-
9
AKHENATEN
79
34
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
N
=
6
-
9
NEFERTITI
106
52
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
18
-
185
86
14
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+8
-
1+8+5
8+6
1+4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
9
-
14
14
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+4
1+4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
9
-
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
5
6
8
9
A
=
1
1
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
A
=
1
6
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
K
=
2
2
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
T
=
2
7
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
T
=
2
15
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
T
=
2
17
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
E
=
5
4
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
N
=
5
5
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
E
=
5
8
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
N
=
5
9
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
N
=
5
10
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
E
=
5
11
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
E
=
5
11
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
F
=
6
12
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
H
=
8
3
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
R
=
4
14
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
I
=
9
16
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
I
=
9
18
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
8
35
6
8
27
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3+5
-
-
2+7
N
=
5
-
9
NEFERTITI
106
52
7
-
2
8
8
6
8
9
A
=
1
-
9
AKHENATEN
79
34
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
18
First Total
185
86
14
-
2
8
8
6
8
9
-
-
-
-
1+8
Add to Reduce
1+8+5
8+6
1+4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
9
Second Total
14
14
5
-
2
8
8
6
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+4
1+4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
9
Essence of Number
5
5
5
-
4
8
8
6
8
9

 

 

N
=
5
-
9
NEFERTITI
106
52
7
A
=
1
-
9
AKHENATEN
79
34
7
-
-
6
-
18
First Total
185
86
14
-
-
-
-
1+8
Add to Reduce
1+8+5
8+6
1+4
-
-
6
-
9
Second Total
14
14
5
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+4
1+4
-
-
-
6
-
9
Essence of Number
5
5
5

 

 

Akhenaten - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Amenophis IV, Naphu(`)rureya, Ikhnaton. Statue of Akhenaten in the early ... of his reign as Amenhotep IV (sometimes given its Greek form, Amenophis IV, ...
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Early life - Religious policies - Pharaoh and family depictions
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akhenaten



Akhenaten
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search
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Akhenaten
Amenhotep IV
Amenophis IV, Naphu(`)rureya, Ikhnaton[1]

Statue of Akhenaten in the early Amarna style.
Pharaoh of Egypt
Reign 1353 BC – 1336 BC[2] or
1351–1334 BC[3], Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt
Predecessor Amenhotep III
Successor Smenkhkare? or Tutankhamun
Royal titulary[show]Prenomen: Neferkheperure-waenre Beautiful are the Manifestations of Re[4] the one of Re

Nomen: Akhenaton Enlightened spirit of the Aton [4]
(after Year 4 of his reign)
Amenhotep

Horus name: Kanakht-Meryaten The strong bull, beloved of the Aten

Nebty name: Wernesytemakhetaten Great of kingship in Akhetaten

Golden Horus: Wetjesrenenaten Who upholds the name of the Aten
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Consort(s) Nefertiti
Kiya
Meritaten?
Ankhesenamun?
An unidentified sister
Children Smenkhkare?
Meritaten
Meketaten
Ankhesenamun
Neferneferuaten Tasherit
Neferneferure
Setepenre
Tutankhamun
Ankhesenpaaten-ta-sherit?
Father Amenhotep III
Mother Tiye
Died 1336 or 1334 BC
Burial Royal Tomb of Akhenaten KV55
Monuments Akhetaten, Gempaaten, Hwt-Benben

Akhenaten (pronounced /???k?'n??t?n/;[1] often also spelled Echnaton, Akhnaton, or rarely Ikhnaton; meaning Effective spirit of Aten) was known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV (sometimes given its Greek form, Amenophis IV, and meaning Amun is Satisfied), a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, ruled for 17 years and died in 1336 BC or 1334 BC. He is especially noted for abandoning traditional Egyptian polytheism and introducing worship centered on the Aten, which is sometimes described as monotheistic or henotheistic. An early inscription likens him to the sun as compared to stars, and later official language avoids calling the Aten a god, giving the solar deity a status above mere gods.

Akhenaten tried to bring about a departure from traditional religion, yet in the end it would not be accepted. After his death, traditional religious practice was gradually restored, and when some dozen years later rulers without clear rights of succession from the Eighteenth Dynasty founded a new dynasty, they discredited Akhenaten and his immediate successors, referring to Akhenaten himself as 'the enemy' in archival records.[5]

He was all but lost from history until the discovery, in the 19th century, of Amarna, the site of Akhetaten, the city he built for the Aten. Early excavations at Amarna by Flinders Petrie sparked interest in the enigmatic pharaoh, which increased with the discovery in the Valley of the Kings, at Luxor, of the tomb of King Tutankhamun, who has been proved to be Akhenaten's son according to DNA testing in 2010 by Dr. Zahi Hawass, Cairo.[6] Akhenaten remains an interesting figure, as does his Queen, Nefertiti. Their modern interest comes partly from his connection with Tutankhamun, partly from the unique style and high quality of the pictorial arts he patronized, and partly from ongoing interest in the religion he attempted to establish.

Contents [hide]
1 Early life
2 Religious policies
3 Pharaoh and family depictions
3.1 Family and relations
4 International relations
5 Death, burial and succession
5.1 Plague and pandemic
6 The Implementation of Atenism
7 Speculative theories
7.1 Akhenaten and Judeo-Christian monotheism
7.2 Possible illness
7.3 First "individual"
7.4 Smenkhkare
8 In the arts
8.1 Plays
8.2 Novels
8.3 Music
8.4 Other
9 See also
10 Notes and references
10.1 Notes
10.2 Bibliography
10.3 Further reading
11 External links

[edit] Early life
The future Akhenaten was a younger son of Amenhotep III and his Chief Queen Tiye, his elder brother Crown Prince Thutmose having died when both were children. Thus, Akhenaten's early education might have prepared him for the priesthood like his maternal uncle Anen; at any rate, in an inscription dating to his early reign he emphasized his familiarity with ancient temple documents.[7]

Amenhotep IV succeeded his father after Amenhotep III's death at the end of his 38-year reign, or possibly after a coregency lasting one to two years. Suggested dates for Akhenaten's reign (subject to the debates surrounding Egyptian chronology) are from 1353 BC-1336 BC or 1351 BC–1334 BC. Akhenaten's chief wife was Nefertiti, made famous to the modern world by her exquisitely sculpted and painted bust, now displayed in the Neues Museum of Berlin, and among the most recognized works of art surviving from the ancient world.

After four years of reign, Akhenaten began building a new city to serve as the seat of the Aten and a governmental capital of Egypt. Its buildings were decorated in a startling new style which was intended to express the tenets of the new worship.

[edit] Religious policies
Some recent debate has focused on the extent to which Akhenaten forced his religious reforms on his people. Certainly, as time drew on, he revised the names of the Aten, and other religious language, to increasingly exclude references to other gods; at some point, also, he embarked on the wide-scale erasure of traditional gods' names, especially those of Amun. Some of his court changed their names to remove them from the patronage of other gods and place them under that of Aten (or Ra, with whom Akhenaten equated the Aten). Yet, even at Amarna itself, some courtiers kept such names as Ahmose ("child of the moon god", the owner of tomb 3), and the sculptor's workshop where the famous Nefertiti bust, and other works of royal portraiture, were found, is associated with an artist known to have been called Thutmose ("child of Thoth"). An overwhelmingly large number of faience amulets at Amarna also show that talismans of the household-and-childbirth gods Bes and Taweret, the eye of Horus, and amulets of other traditional deities, were openly worn by its citizens. Indeed, a cache of royal jewelry found buried near the Amarna royal tombs (now in the National Museum of Scotland) includes a finger ring referring to Mut, the wife of Amun. Such evidence suggests that though Akhenaten shifted funding away from traditional temples, his policies were fairly tolerant until some point, perhaps a particular event as yet unknown, toward the end of the reign.

Following Akhenaten's death, change was gradual at first. Within a decade a comprehensive political, religious and artistic reformation began promoting a return of Egyptian life to the norms it had followed during his father's reign. Much of the art and building infrastructure created during Akhenaten's reign was defaced or destroyed in the period following his death, particularly during the reigns of Horemheb and the early Nineteenth Dynasty kings. Stone building blocks from Akhenaten's construction projects were later used as foundation stones for subsequent rulers' temples and tombs.

[edit] Pharaoh and family depictions

Talatat blocks from Akhenaten's Aten temple in KarnakStyles of art that flourished during this short period are markedly different from other Egyptian art. In some cases, representations are more naturalistic, especially in depictions of animals and plants, of commoners, and in a sense of action and movement—for both nonroyal and royal people. However, depictions of members of the court, especially members of the royal family, are extremely stylized, with elongated heads protruding stomachs, heavy hips, thin arms and legs, and exaggerated facial features. Questions also remain whether the beauty of Nefertiti is portraiture or idealism. Significantly, and for the only time in the history of Egyptian royal art, Akhenaten's family are shown taking part in decidedly naturalistic activities, showing affection for each other, and being caught in mid-action (in traditional art, a pharaoh's divine nature was expressed by repose, even immobility).

Small statue of Akhenaten wearing the Egyptian Blue Crown of WarThe depictions of action may correspond to the emphasis on the active creative and nurturing emphasized of the Aten in the "Great Hymn to the Aten" and elsewhere. Nefertiti also appears, both beside the king and alone (or with her daughters), in actions usually reserved for a Pharaoh, suggesting that she enjoyed unusual status for a queen. Early artistic representations of her tend to be indistinguishable from her husband's except by her regalia, but soon after the move to the new capital, Nefertiti begins to be depicted with features specific to her. Why Akhenaten had himself represented in the bizarre, strikingly androgynous way he did, remains a vigorously debated question. Religious reasons have been suggested, such as to emulate the creative nature of the Aten, who is called in Amarna tomb texts, "mother and father" of all that is. Or, it has been suggested, Akhenaten's (and his family's) portraiture exaggerates his distinctive physical traits. Until Akhenaten's mummy is positively identified, such theories remain speculative. Some scholars do identify Mummy 61074, found in KV55, an unfinished tomb in the Valley of the Kings, as Akhenaten's.[8] If so—or if the KV 55 mummy is that of his close relative, Smenkhkare—its measurements tend to support the theory that Akhenaten's depictions exaggerate his actual appearance. Though the "mummy" consists only in disarticulated bones, the skull is long and has a prominent chin and the limbs are light and long. However, in 2007, Zahi Hawass and a team of researchers made CT Scan images of the KV 55 mummy. They have concluded that the elongated skull, cheek bones, cleft palate, and impacted wisdom tooth suggest that the mummy is the father of Tutankhamun, also commonly known as Akhenaten.

[edit] Family and relations
See also: Family tree of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt

Akhenaten, Nefertiti and their childrenAs Amenhotep IV, Akhenaten was married to Nefertiti at the very beginning of his reign, and six daughters were identified from inscriptions. Recent DNA analysis has revealed he also fathered Tutankhaten (later Tutankhamen) with his biological sister, whose mummy remains unidentified.[9] The parentage of Smenkhkare, his successor, is unknown, and Akhenaten and an unknown wife have been proposed to be his parents.

A secondary wife of Akhenaten named Kiya is known from inscriptions. Some have theorized that she gained her importance as the mother of Tutankhamen, Smenkhkare, or both.

This is a list of Akhenaten's children (known and theoretical) with suggested years of birth:

Smenkhkare?– year 35 or 36 of Amenhotep III's reign
Meritaten – year 1.
Meketaten – year 3, possibly earlier.
Ankhesenpaaten, later Queen of Tutankhamun – year 4.
Neferneferuaten Tasherit – year 8.
Neferneferure – year 9.
Setepenre – year 9.
Tutankhaten–year 8 or 9 – renamed Tutankhamun later.[10]
His known consorts were:

Nefertiti, his Great Royal Wife.
Kiya, a lesser Royal Wife.
It has also been suggested that, like his father Amunhotep III, Akhenaten may have taken some of his daughters as consorts:

Meritaten, recorded as Great Royal Wife late in his reign, though it is more likely that she got this title due to her marriage to Smenkhkare, Akhenaten's co-regent.
Meketaten, Akhenaten's second daughter. The reason for this suggestion is Meketaten's death due to childbirth in, or after, the fourteenth year of Akhenaten's reign, though nowhere does she have the title or cartouche of a queen.
Ankhesenpaaten, his third daughter, also on tenuous evidence. In his final year or after his death, Ankhesenpaaten married her brother Tutankhamun.
Inscriptions refer to a daughter of Meritaten, Meritaten-ta-sherit and may record a daughter for Ankhesenpaaten, Ankhesenpaaten-ta-sherit, though the latter depends on a questionable reading of a single fragmentary inscription. The texts in question all once belonged to Kiya and were re-inscribed for the princesses later. The daughter (or, perhaps, hoped-for future daughter) might have replaced Kiya's daughter in those scenes.[11]

Two other lovers have been suggested, but are not widely accepted:

Smenkhkare, Akhenaten's successor and/or co-ruler for the last years of his reign. Rather than a lover, however, Smenkhkare is likely to have been a half-brother or a son to Akhenaten. Some have even suggested that Smenkhkare was actually an alias of Nefertiti or Kiya, and therefore one of Akhenaten's wives (see below).
Tiye, his mother. Twelve years after the death of Amenhotep III, she is still mentioned in inscriptions as Queen and beloved of the King, but kings' mothers often were. The few supporters of this theory (notably Immanuel Velikovsky) consider Akhenaten to be the historical model of legendary King Oedipus of Thebes, Greece and Tiye the model for his mother/wife Jocasta.
[edit] International relations
Important evidence about Akhenaten's reign and foreign policy has been provided by the discovery of the Amarna Letters, a cache of diplomatic correspondence discovered in modern times at el-Amarna, the modern designation of the Akhetaten site. This correspondence comprises a priceless collection of incoming messages on clay tablets, sent to Akhetaten from various subject rulers through Egyptian military outposts, and from the foreign rulers (recognized as "Great Kings") of the kingdom of Mitanni, Babylon, Assyria and Hatti. The governors and kings of Egypt's subject domains also wrote frequently to plead for gold from Pharaoh, and also complained of being snubbed and cheated by him.

Early on in his reign, Akhenaten fell out with the king of Mitanni, Tushratta, who had been courting favor with his father against the Hittites. Tushratta complains in numerous letters that Akhenaten had sent him gold plated statues rather than statues made of solid gold; the statues formed part of the bride price which Tushratta received for letting his daughter Tadukhepa be married to Amenhotep III and then Akhenaten. Amarna letter EA 27 preserves a complaint by Tushratta to Akhenaten about the situation:

"I...asked your father, Mimmureya, for statues of solid cast gold, one of myself and a second statue, a statue of Tadu-Heba (Tadukhepa), my daughter, and your father said, "Don't talk of giving statues just of solid cast gold. I will give you ones made also of lapis lazuli. I will give you, too, along with the statues, much additional gold and (other) goods beyond measure." Every one of my messengers that were staying in Egypt saw the gold for the statues with their own eyes. Your father himself recast the statues [i]n the presence of my messengers, and he made them entirely of pure gold....He showed much additional gold, which was beyond measure and which he was sending to me. He said to my messengers, "See with your own eyes, here the statues, there much gold and goods beyond measure, which I am sending to my brother." And my messengers did see with their own eyes! But my brother (ie: Akhenaten) has not sent the solid (gold) statues that your father was going to send. You have sent plated ones of wood. Nor have you sent me the goods that your father was going to send me, but you have reduced (them) greatly. Yet there is nothing I know of in which I have failed my brother. Any day that I hear the greetings of my brother, that day I make a festive occasion...May my brother send me much gold. [At] the kim[ru fe]ast...[...with] many goods [may my] brother honor me. In my brother's country gold is as plentiful as dust. May my brother cause me no distress. May he send me much gold in order that my brother [with the gold and m]any [good]s, may honor me". (EA 27)[12]

While Akhenaten was certainly not a close friend of Tushratta, he was evidently concerned at the expanding power of the Hittite Empire under its powerful ruler Suppiluliuma I. A successful Hittite attack on Mitanni and its ruler Tushratta would have disrupted the entire international balance of power in the Ancient Middle East at a time when Egypt had made peace with Mitanni; this would cause some of Egypt's vassals to switch their allegiances to the Hittites, as time would prove. A group of Egypt's allies who attempted to rebel against the Hittites were captured, and wrote letters begging Akhenaten for troops, but he did not respond to most of their pleas. Evidence suggests that the troubles on the northern frontier led to difficulties in Canaan, particularly in a struggle for power between Labaya of Shechem and Abdi-Heba of Jerusalem, which required the Pharaoh to intervene in the area by dispatching Medjay troops northwards. Akhenaten pointedly refused to save his vassal Rib-Hadda of Byblos whose kingdom was being besieged by the expanding state of Amurru under Abdi-Ashirta and later Aziru, son of Abdi-Ashirta, despite Rib-Hadda's numerous pleas for help from the pharaoh. Rib-Hadda wrote a total of 60 letters to Akhenaten pleading for aid from the pharaoh. Akhenaten wearied of Rib-Hadda's constant correspondences and once told Rib-Hadda: "You are the one that writes to me more than all the (other) mayors" or Egyptian vassals in EA 124.[13] What Rib-Hadda did not comprehend was that the Egyptian king would not organize and dispatch an entire army north just to preserve the political status quo of several minor city states on the fringes of Egypt's Asiatic Empire.[14] Rib-Hadda would pay the ultimate price; his exile from Byblos due to a coup led by his brother Ilirabih is mentioned in one letter. When Rib-Hadda appealed in vain for aid to Akhenaten and then turned to Aziru, his sworn enemy to place him back on the throne of his city, Aziru promptly had him dispatched to the king of Sidon where Rib-Hadda was almost certainly executed.[15]

William L. Moran[16] notes that the Amarna corpus of 380+ letters counters the conventional view that Akhenaten neglected Egypt's foreign territories in favour of his internal reforms. There are several letters from Egyptian vassals notifying Pharaoh that the king's instructions have been followed:

To the king, my lord, my god, my Sun, the Sun from the sky: Message of Yapahu, the ruler of Gazru, your servant, the dirt at your feet. I indeed prostrate myself at the feet of the king, my lord, my god, my Sun...7 times and 7 times, on the stomach and on the back. I am indeed guarding the place of the king, my lord, the Sun of the sky, where I am, and all the things the king, my lord, has written me, I am indeed carrying out--everything! Who am I, a dog, and what is my house...and what is anything I have, that the orders of the king, my lord, the Sun from the sky, should not obey constantly? (EA 378)[17]

When the loyal but unfortunate Rib-Hadda was killed at the instigation of Aziru,[15] Akhenaten sent an angry letter to Aziru containing a barely veiled accusation of outright treachery on the latter's part.[18] Akhenaten wrote:

Say to Aziru, ruler of Amurru: Thus the king, your lord (ie: Akhenaten), saying: The ruler of Gubla (ie: Byblos), whose brother had cast him away at the gate, said to you, "Take me and get me into the city. There is much silver, and I will give it to you. Indeed there is an abundance of everything, but not with me [here]." Thus did the ruler (Rib-Hadda) speak to you. Did you not write to the king, my lord saying, "I am your servant like all the previous mayors (ie: vassals) in his city"? Yet you acted delinquently by taking the mayor whose brother had cast him away at the gate, from his city.

Head of AkhenatenHe (Rib-Hadda) was residing in Sidon and, following your own judgment, you gave him to (some) mayors. Were you ignorant of the treacherousness of the men? If you really are the king's servant, why did you not denounce him before the king, your lord, saying, "This mayor has written to me saying, 'Take me to yourself and get me into my city'"? And if you did act loyally, still all the things you wrote were not true. In fact, the king has reflected on them as follows, "Everything you have said is not friendly." Now the king has heard as follows, "You are at peace with the ruler of Qidsa. (Kadesh) The two of you take food and strong drink together." And it is true. Why do you act so? Why are you at peace with a ruler whom the king is fighting? And even if you did act loyally, you considered your own judgment, and his judgment did not count. You have paid no attention to the things that you did earlier. What happened to you among them that you are not on the side of the king, your lord? Consider the people that are training you for their own advantage. They want to throw you into the fire....If for any reason whatsoever you prefer to do evil, and if you plot evil, treacherous things, then you, together with your entire family, shall die by the axe of the king. So perform your service for the king, your lord, and you will live. You yourself know that the king does not fail when he rages against all of Canaan. And when you wrote saying, 'May the king, my Lord, give me leave this year, and then I will go next year to the king, my Lord. (ie: to Egypt) If this is impossible, I will send my son in my place'--the king, your Lord, let you off this year in accordance with what you said. Come yourself, or send your son [now], and you will see the king at whose sight all lands live."(EA 162)[19]

This letter shows that Akhenaten paid close attention to the affairs of his vassals in Canaan and Syria. Akhenaten commanded Aziru to come to Egypt and proceeded to detain him there for at least one year. In the end, Akhenaten was forced to release Aziru back to his homeland when the Hittites advanced southwards into Amki thereby threatening Egypt's series of Asiatic vassal states including Amurru.[20] Sometime after his return to Amurru, Aziru defected to the Hittite side with his kingdom.[21] While it is known from an Amarna letter by Rib-Hadda that the Hittites "seized all the countries that were vassals of the king of Mitanni"(EA 75)[22] Akhenaten managed to preserve Egypt's control over the core of her Near Eastern Empire which consisted of present day Palestine as well as the Phoenician coast while avoiding conflict with the increasingly powerful Hittite Empire of Suppiluliuma I. Only the Egyptian border province of Amurru in Syria around the Orontes river was permanently lost to the Hittites when its ruler Aziru defected to the Hittites. Finally, contrary to the conventional view of a ruler who neglected Egypt's international relations, Akhenaten is known to have initiated at least one campaign into Nubia in his regnal Year 12, where his campaign is mentioned in Amada stela CG 41806 and on a separate companion stela at Buhen.[23]

[edit] Death, burial and succession
Further information: Amarna succession

Plaster portrait study of a pharaoh, Ahkenaten or a coregent or successor. Discovered within the workshop of the royal sculptor Thutmose at Amarna, now part of the Ägyptisches Museum collection in Berlin.The last dated appearance of Akhenaten and the Amarna family is in the tomb of Meryre II, and dates from second month, year 12 of his reign.[24] After this the historical record is unclear, and only with the succession of Tutankhamun is somewhat clarified.

Akhenaten planned to relocate Egyptian burials on the East side of the Nile (sunrise) rather than on the West side (sunset), in the Royal Wadi in Akhetaten.[citation needed] His body was removed after the court returned to Thebes, and recent genetic tests have confirmed that the body found buried in tomb KV55 was the father of Tutankhamun, and is therefore "most probably" Akhenaten,[25] although this is disputed.[26] The tomb contained numerous Amarna era objects including a royal funerary mask which had been deliberately destroyed. His sarcophagus was destroyed but has since been reconstructed and now sits outside in the Cairo Museum.

There is much controversy around whether Amenhotep IV succeeded to the throne on the death of his father, Amenhotep III, or whether there was a coregency (lasting as long as 12 years according to some Egyptologists). Current literature by Eric Cline, Nicholas Reeves, Peter Dorman and other scholars comes out strongly against the establishment of a long coregency between the two rulers and in favour of either no coregency or a brief one lasting one to two years, at the most.[27] Other literature by Donald Redford, William Murnane, Alan Gardiner and more recently by Lawrence Berman in 1998 contests the view of any coregency whatsoever between Akhenaten and his father.[28]

Similarly, although it is accepted that Akhenaten himself died in Year 17 of his reign, the question of whether Smenkhkare became co-regent perhaps two or three years earlier or enjoyed a brief independent reign is unclear.[29] If Smenkhkare outlived Akhenaten, and became sole Pharaoh, he likely ruled Egypt for less than a year. The next successor was Neferneferuaten, a female Pharaoh who reigned in Egypt for two years and one month.[30] She was, in turn, probably succeeded by Tutankhaten (later, Tutankhamun), with the country being administered by the chief vizier, and future Pharaoh, Ay. Tutankhamun was believed to be a younger brother of Smenkhkare and a son of Akhenaten, and possibly Kiya although one scholar has suggested that Tutankhamun may have been a son of Smenkhkare instead. DNA tests in 2010 indicated Tutankhamun was indeed the son of Akhenaten.[6] It has been suggested that after the death of Akhenaten, Nefertiti reigned with the name of Neferneferuaten[31] but other scholars believe this female ruler was rather Meritaten. The so-called Coregency Stela, found in a tomb in Amarna possibly shows his queen Nefertiti as his coregent, ruling alongside him[citation needed], but this is not certain as the names have been removed and recarved to show Ankhesenpaaten and Neferneferuaten.[32]

With Akhenaten's death, the Aten cult he had founded gradually fell out of favor.[citation needed] Tutankhaten changed his name to Tutankhamun in Year 2 of his reign (1332 BC) and abandoned the city of Akhetaten, which eventually fell into ruin. His successors Ay and Horemheb disassembled temples Akhenaten had built, including the temple at Thebes, using them as a source of easily available building materials and decorations for their own temples.

Finally, Akhenaten, Neferneferuaten, Smenkhkare, Tutankhamun, and Ay were excised from the official lists of Pharaohs, which instead reported that Amenhotep III was immediately succeeded by Horemheb. This is thought to be part of an attempt by Horemheb to delete all trace of Atenism and the pharaohs associated with it from the historical record.[citation needed] Akhenaten's name never appeared on any of the king lists compiled by later Pharaohs and it was not until the late 19th century that his identity was re-discovered and the surviving traces of his reign were unearthed by archaeologists.

[edit] Plague and pandemic
This Amarna Period is also associated with a serious outbreak of a pandemic, possibly the plague, or polio, or perhaps the world's first recorded outbreak of influenza,[33] which came from Egypt and spread throughout the Middle East, killing Suppiluliuma I, the Hittite King. Influenza is a disease associated with the close proximity of water fowl, pigs and humans, and its origin as a pandemic disease may be due to the development of agricultural systems that allow the mixing of these animals and their wastes.[34] Some of the first archaeological evidence for this agricultural system is during the Amarna period of Ancient Egypt, and the pandemic that followed this period throughout the Ancient Near East may have been the earliest recorded outbreak of influenza.[35] However, the precise nature of this Egyptian plague remains unknown and Asia has also been suggested as a possible site of origin of pandemic influenza in humans.[36][37][38] The prevalence of disease may help explain the rapidity with which the site of Akhetaten was subsequently abandoned. It may also explain why later generations considered the gods to have turned against the Amarna monarchs. Arielle Kozloff discusses the evidence, arguing that the epidemic was caused by Bubonic plague over polio. However, her argument that "polio is only fractionally as virulent as some other diseases" ignores the evidence that diseases become less virulent the longer they are present in the human population, as demonstrated with syphilis and tuberculosis.[39]

[edit] The Implementation of Atenism
Main article: Atenism
In the early years of his reign, Amenhotep IV lived at Thebes with Nefertiti and his 6 daughters. Initially, he permitted worship of Egypt's traditional deities to continue but near the Temple of Karnak (Amun-Ra's great cult center), he erected several massive buildings including temples to the Aten. These buildings at Thebes were later dismantled by his successors and used as infill for new constructions in the Temple of Karnak; when they were later dismantled by archaeologists, some 36,000 decorated blocks from the original Aton building here were revealed which preserve many elements of the original relief scenes and inscriptions.[40]

Akhenaten depicted as a sphinx at Amarna.The relationship between Amenhotep IV and the priests of Amun-Re gradually deteriorated. In Year 5 of his reign, Amenhotep IV took decisive steps to establish the Aten as the exclusive, monotheistic god of Egypt: the pharaoh "disbanded the priesthoods of all the other gods...and diverted the income from these [other] cults to support the Aten. To emphasize his complete allegiance to the Aten, the king officially changed his name from Amenhotep IV to Akhenaten or 'Servant of the Aten.'[40] Akhenaten's fifth year also marked the beginning of construction on his new capital, Akhetaten or 'Horizon of Aten', at the site known today as Amarna. Very soon afterwards, he centralized Egyptian religious practices in Akhetaten, though construction of the city seems to have continued for several more years. In honor of Aten, Akhenaten also oversaw the construction of some of the most massive temple complexes in ancient Egypt. In these new temples, Aten was worshipped in the open sunlight, rather than in dark temple enclosures, as had been the previous custom. Akhenaten is also believed to have composed the Great Hymn to the Aten.

Initially, Akhenaten presented Aten as a variant of the familiar supreme deity Amun-Re (itself the result of an earlier rise to prominence of the cult of Amun, resulting in Amun becoming merged with the sun god Ra), in an attempt to put his ideas in a familiar Egyptian religious context. However, by Year 9 of his reign, Akhenaten declared that Aten was not merely the supreme god, but the only god, and that he, Akhenaten, was the only intermediary between Aten and his people. He ordered the defacing of Amun's temples throughout Egypt and, in a number of instances, inscriptions of the plural 'gods' were also removed.

Aten's name is also written differently after Year 9, to emphasize the radicalism of the new regime, which included a ban on images, with the exception of a rayed solar disc, in which the rays (commonly depicted ending in hands) appear to represent the unseen spirit of Aten, who by then was evidently considered not merely a sun god, but rather a universal deity. Representations of the Aten were always accompanied with a sort of "hieroglyphic footnote", stating that the representation of the sun as All-encompassing Creator was to be taken as just that: a representation of something that, by its very nature as some time transcending creation, cannot be fully or adequately represented by any one part of that creation.[citation needed]

[edit] Speculative theories
Akhenaten's status as a religious revolutionary has led to much speculation, ranging from bona fide scholarly hypotheses to the non-academic fringe theories.

[edit] Akhenaten and Judeo-Christian monotheism
Further information: Moses and Monotheism
The idea of Akhenaten as the pioneer of a monotheistic religion that later became Judaism has been considered by various scholars.[41][42][43][44][45][46] One of the first to mention this was Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, in his book Moses and Monotheism.[47] Freud argued that Moses had been an Atenist priest forced to leave Egypt with his followers after Akhenaten's death. Freud argued that Akhenaten was striving to promote monotheism, something that the biblical Moses was able to achieve.[41] Following his book, the concept entered popular consciousness and serious research.

Other scholars and mainstream Egyptologists point out that there are direct connections between early Judaism and other Semitic religious traditions.[48] They also state that two of the three principal Judaic terms for God, Yahweh, Elohim (morphologically plural), and Adonai (meaning "our lord", also morphologically plural) have no connection to Aten. Freud commented on the connection between Adonai, the Egyptian Aten and the Syrian divine name of Adonis as a primeval unity of language between the factions;[41] in this he was following the argument of Egyptologist Arthur Weigall, but the argument was groundless as 'Aten' and 'Adonai' are not, in fact, linguistically related.[49]

Akhenaten appears in history almost two-centuries prior to the first archaeological and written evidence for Judaism and Israelite culture is found in the Levant. Abundant visual imagery of the Aten disk was central to Atenism, which celebrated the natural world, while such imagery is not a feature of early Israelite culture.[50] Although pottery found throughout Judea dated to the end of the 8th century BC has seals resembling a winged sun disk burned on their handles, presumedly thought to be the royal seal of the Judean Kingdom.[51]

Ahmed Osman has claimed that Akhenaten's maternal grandfather Yuya was the same person as the Biblical Joseph. Yuya held the title "Overseer of the Cattle of Min at Akhmin" during his life.[52]

He likely belonged to the local nobility of Akhmim. Egyptologists hold this view because Yuya had strong connections to the city of Akhmin in Upper Egypt. This makes it unlikely that he was a foreigner since most Asiatic settlers tended to cloister around the Nile Delta region of Lower Egypt[53][54] Some Egyptologists,[55] however, give him a Mitannian origin. It is widely accepted that there are strong similarities between Akhenaten's Great Hymn to the Aten and the Biblical Psalm 104, though this form is found widespread in ancient Near Eastern hymnology both before and after the period and whether this implies a direct influence or a common literary convention remains in dispute.

Others have likened some aspects of Akhenaten's relationship with the Aten to the relationship, in Christian tradition, of Jesus Christ with God - particularly in interpretations that emphasise a more monotheistic interpretation of Atenism than henotheistic. Donald B. Redford has noted that some have viewed Akhenaten as a harbinger of Jesus. "After all, Akhenaten did call himself the son of the sole god: "'Thine only son that came forth from thy body.'"[56] James Henry Breasted likened him to Jesus[57] Arthur Weigall saw him as a failed precursor of Christ and Thomas Mann saw him "as right on the way and yet not the right one for the way".[58]

Redford argued that while Akhenaten called himself the son of the Sun-Disc and acted as the chief mediator between god and creation, it must be noted that kings for thousands of years before Akhenaten's time had claimed the same relationship and priestly role. However Akhenaton's case may be different through the emphasis placed on the heavenly father and son relationship. Akhenaten described himself as "thy son who came forth from thy limbs", "thy child", "the eternal son that came forth from the Sun-Disc", and "thine only son that came forth from thy body". The close relationship between father and son is such that only the king truly knows the heart of "his father", and in return his father listens to his son's prayers. He is his father's image on earth and as Akhenaten is king on earth his father is king in heaven. As high priest, prophet, king and divine he claimed the central position in the new religious system. Since only he knew his father's mind and will, Akhenaten alone could interpret that will for all mankind with true teaching coming only from him.[56]

Redford concluded:

Before much of the archaeological evidence from Thebes and from Tell el-Amarna became available, wishful thinking sometimes turned Akhenaten into a humane teacher of the true God, a mentor of Moses, a Christlike figure, a philosopher before his time. But these imaginary creatures are now fading away one by one as the historical reality gradually emerges. There is little or no evidence to support the notion that Akhenaten was a progenitor of the full-blown monotheism that we find in the Bible. The monotheism of the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament had its own separate development—one that began more than half a millenium after the pharaoh's death.[59]

[edit] Possible illness
The rather strange and eccentric portrayals of Akhenaten, with a sagging stomach, thick thighs, larger breasts, and long, thin face — so different from the athletic norm in the portrayal of Pharaohs — has led certain Egyptologists to suppose that Akhenaten suffered some kind of genetic abnormality. Various illnesses have been put forward. On the basis of his longer jaw and his feminine appearance, Cyril Aldred[60] suggested he may have suffered from Froelich's Syndrome. However, this is unlikely because this disorder results in sterility and Akhenaten is believed to have fathered numerous children — at least six daughters by Nefertiti, and his successor Tutankhamen by a minor wife.

Another suggestion by Burridge[61] is that Akhenaten may have suffered from Marfan's Syndrome. Marfan's syndrome, unlike Froelich's, does not result in any lack of intelligence or sterility. It is associated with a sunken chest, long curved spider-like fingers (arachnodactyly), occasional congenital heart difficulties, a high curved or slightly cleft palate, and a highly curved cornea or dislocated lens of the eye, with the requirement for bright light to see well. Marfan's sufferers tend towards being taller than average, with a long, thin face, and elongated skull, overgrown ribs, a funnel or pigeon chest, and larger pelvis, with enlarged thighs and spindly calves.[62] Marfan's syndrome is a dominant characteristic, and sufferers have a 50% chance of passing it on to their children.[63] All of these symptoms appear in depictions of Akhenaten and of his children. Recent CT scans of Tutankhamun report a cleft palate and a fairly long head, as well as an abnormal curvature of the spine and fusion of the upper vertebrae, a condition associated with scoliosis, all conditions associated with Marfan's syndrome.[64] Marfan Syndrome was ruled out following DNA tests on Tutankhamun in 2010.[65]

However, Dominic Montserrat in Akhenaten: History, Fantasy and Ancient Egypt argues that "there is now a broad consensus among Egyptologists that the exaggerated forms of Akhenaten's physical portrayal... are not to be read literally"[45] Montserrat and others[66] argue that the body-shape relates to some form of religious symbolism. Because the god Aten was referred to as "the mother and father of all humankind" it has been suggested that Akhenaten was made to look androgynous in artwork as a symbol of the androgyny of the god. This required "a symbolic gathering of all the attributes of the creator god into the physical body of the king himself", which will "display on earth the Aten's multiple life-giving functions".[45] Akhenaten did refer to himself as "The Unique One of Re", and he may have used his control of artistic expression to distance himself from the common people, though such a radical departure from the idealised traditional representation of the image of the Pharaoh would be truly extraordinary. Representations of other persons than Akhenaten in the 'Amarna style' are equally unflattering — for example, a carving of his father Amenhotep III as an overweight figure;[67] Nefertiti is shown in some statues as well past her prime, with a severe face and a stomach swollen by repeated pregnancies.

Another claim was made by Immanuel Velikovsky, who hypothesized an incestuous relationship with his mother, Tiye. Velikovsky also posited that Akhenaten had elephantiasis, producing enlarged legs. Based on this, he identified Akhenaten as the history behind the Oedipus myth, Oedipus being Greek for "swollen feet", and moved the setting from the Greek Thebes to the Egyptian Thebes. As part of his argument, Velikovsky uses the fact that Akhenaten viciously carried out a campaign to erase the name of his father, which he argues could have developed into Oedipus killing his father. This point seems to be disproved, however, in that Akhenaten in fact mummified and buried his father in the honorable traditional Egyptian fashion prior to beginning his monotheistic revolution.[68]

In the same 1960 work, Oedipus and Akhnaton, Velikovsky not only saw Akhenaten as the origin of Oedipus, but also identified him with a Pharaoh mentioned only in Herodotus, "Anysis of the city of the same name" — Akhenaten of Akhetaten. Like Oedipus, Anysis was blinded, deposed and exiled. Some scholars have argued that Akhenaten went blind at the end of his life and was supported by his wife Nefertiti.

[edit] First "individual"
Akhenaten has been called by historian James Henry Breasted "the first individual in history",[45] as well as the first monotheist, first scientist, and first romantic. As early as 1899 Flinders Petrie declared that,

If this were a new religion, invented to satisfy our modern scientific conceptions, we could not find a flaw in the correctness of this view of the energy of the solar system. How much Akhenaten understood, we cannot say, but he certainly bounded forward in his views and symbolism to a position which we cannot logically improve upon at the present day. Not a rag of superstition or of falsity can be found clinging to this new worship evolved out of the old Aton of Heliopolis, the sole Lord of the universe.[69]
H.R. Hall even claimed that the pharaoh was the "first example of the scientific mind".[70]

Nicholas Reeves, in his book Akhenaten: Egypt's False Prophet, portrays a totally different image of Pharaoh, seeing his religious reformations simply as attempts to centralize power and solidify his role as "divine monarch".

[edit] Smenkhkare
Main article: Smenkhkare
There has also been interest in the identity of the Pharaoh Smenkhkare, who was the immediate successor to Akhenaten. In particular, descriptions on a small box seemed to refer to "Smenkhkare beloved of Akhenaten".[45]

This gave rise to the idea that Akhenaten might have been bisexual. This theory seems to originate from objects found in the tomb of Tutankhamen in the 1920s. The Egyptologist Percy Newberry[45] then linked this to one of the stele exhibited in the Berlin Museum which pictured two rulers, naked and seated together – the older caressing the younger and the shoulder offering support. He identified these as the rulers Akhenaten and Smenkhkare.

In the 1970s John Harris identified the figure pictured alongside Akhenaten as Nefertiti, arguing that she may have actually been elevated to co-regent and perhaps even succeeded temporarily as an independent ruler, changing her name to Smenkhkare.[45]

Nicholas Reeves and other Egyptologists contend that Smenkhkare was the same person as Neferneferuaten, who ruled together with Akhenaten as co-regent for the final one or two years of Akhenaten's reign. On several monuments, the two are shown seated side by side.[71]

Some others[who?] believe Smenkhkare was likely to have been a half-brother or a son to Akhenaten.[citation needed]

[edit] In the arts

Drawing of Akhnaton Cairo Cast[edit] Plays
Savitri Devi: play Akhnaton: A Play (Philosophical Publishing House [London], 1948)
Agatha Christie: play, Akhnaton (written in 1937, published by Dodd, Mead and Company [New York], 1973, ISBN 0-396-06822-7; Collins [London], 1973, ISBN 0-00-211038-5)
[edit] Novels
Thomas Mann, in his fictional biblical tetralogy Joseph and His Brothers (1933–1943), makes Akhenaten the "dreaming pharaoh" of Joseph's story.
Tom Holland: The Sleeper in the Sands (Little, Brown & Company, 1998, ISBN 0-316-64480-3)
Mika Waltari: The Egyptian, first published in Finnish (Sinuhe egyptiläinen) in 1945, translated by Naomi Walford (G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1949, ISBN 0-399-10234-5; Chicago Review Press, 2002, paperback, ISBN 1-55652-441-2)
Gwendolyn MacEwen: King of Egypt, King of Dreams (1971, ISBN 1-894663-60-8)
Allen Drury: A God Against the Gods (Doubleday, 1976) and Return to Thebes (Doubleday, 1976)
Philip K. Dick: Valis (1981) under the name Ikhnathon.
Naguib Mahfouz: Akhenaten, Dweller in Truth (?????? ?? ???????) (1985)
Andree Chedid: " Akhenaten and Nefertiti's dream"
Wolfgang Hohlbein: Die Prophezeihung (The Prophecy), in which Echnaton is killed by Ay and curses him into eternal life until a prophecy is fulfilled.
Moyra Caldecott: Akhenaten: Son of the Sun (1989; eBook, 2000, ISBN 1-899142-86-X; 2003, ISBN 1-899142-25-8)
P.B. Kerr: The Akhenaten Adventure Akhenaten is said to be the holder of 70 lost Djinn
Pauline Gedge: The Twelfth Transforming (1984), set in the reign of Akhenaten, details the construction of Akhetaten and fictionalized accounts of his sexual relationships with Nefertiti, Tiye and successor Smenkhkare.
Dorothy Porter: verse novel, Akhenaten (1991)
Judith Tarr: Pillar of Fire (1995)
Moyra Caldecott: The Ghost of Akhenaten (eBook, 2001, ISBN 1-899142-89-4; 2003, ISBN 1-84319-024-9)
Lynda Robinson: mystery, Drinker of Blood (2001, ISBN 0-446-67751-5)
Gilbert Sinoue: Akhenaton, Le Dieu Maudit (Akhenaten, the Cursed God) (2005, ISBN 2070300331)
Spelled 'Akenhaten', he appears as a major character in the first of a trilogy of historical novels by P. C. Doherty, "An Evil Spirit out of the West".
Michelle Moran: Nefertiti (2007)
[edit] Music
Ikhnaton is referenced in the title of a section of the epic progressive rock song Supper's Ready by the English rock band Genesis on their album Foxtrot (1972). The section is named "Ikhnaton and Itsacon and their band of Merry Men".
Philip Glass: opera, Akhnaten: An Opera in Three Acts (1983; CBS Records, 1987)
'Akhenaten', track on Julian Cope's 1992 album Jehovahkill
The song 'Son Of The Sun' by Swedish Symphonic Metal band Therion on the album Sirius B (2004).
The song 'Cast Down the Heretic' by the death metal band Nile on the album Annihilation of the Wicked (2005).
The piece 'Sadness of Echnaton Losing the World Child' by Tangerine Dream, appearing first on the album One Times One (2007).
The song 'Cursing Akhenaten' by the metalcore band After The Burial on the album Rareform (2008).
Roy Campbell, Jr., The Akhnaten Suite - A Modern Jazz Epic: read the review. Released in 2008 by AUM Fidelity.
Nefertiti: The Musical (2009), a stage musical based on the Amarna period in the life of Akhenaten. Book by Christopher Gore and Rick Gore, music by David Spangler.
Akhenaten is featured on the album cover of Those Whom the Gods Detest by the band Nile (2009).
The song 'Night Enchanted' by the Trans-Siberian Orchestra on the 2009 album Night Castle.
[edit] Other
Edgar P. Jacobs: comic book, Blake et Mortimer: La Mystère de la Grande Pyramide vol. 1+2 (1950), adventure story in which the mystery of Akhenaten provides much of the background.
The Egyptian, motion picture (1954, directed by Michael Curtiz, Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation), based on the novel by Mika Waltari.
Nefertiti, Queen of the Nile, motion picture (1961, directed by Fernando Cherchio, starring Jeanne Crain and Vincent Price).
Joshua Norton, artist: Die! Akhnaten Die! series of sequential woodcut prints and book recreates the story of Akhenaten as a Wild West tale.
La Reine Soleil (2007 animated film by Philippe Leclerc), features Akhenaten, Tutankhaten (later Tutankhamun), Akhesa (Ankhesenepaten, later Ankhesenamun), Nefertiti, and Horemheb in a complex struggle pitting the priests of Amun against Akhenaten's intolerant monotheism.
[edit] See also
Pharaoh of the Exodus
Osarseph
[edit] Notes and references
[edit] Notes
1.^ a b "Akhenaten". dictionary.com. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/akhenaten. Retrieved 2008-10-02.
2.^ "Akhenaton". Encyclopaedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9005276/Akhenaton.
3.^ Beckerath (1997) p.190
4.^ a b Clayton (2006), p.120
5.^ Trigger et al. (2001), pp.186-7
6.^ a b "A Frail King Tut Died From Malaria, Broken Leg - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=9850747. Retrieved 2010-05-30.
7.^ Donald B. Redford, Akhenaten: the Heretic King. Princeton UP, 1984, p. 172.
8.^ S. McAvoy, "Mummy 61074: a Strange Case of Mistaken Identity", Antiguo Oriente 5 (2007): 183-194.
9.^ "A Frail King Tut Died From Malaria, Broken Leg - Page 3". http://abcnews.go.com/International/wirestory?id=9850747&page=3.
10.^ "The family of Akhenaton". http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/ideology/king/familyakhenaton.html. Retrieved 2008-10-02.
11.^ Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson (2004), p.154
12.^ Moran (1992), pp.87-89
13.^ Moran (1992), p.203
14.^ "Akhenaten and Rib Hadda from Byblos". http://72.14.253.104/search?q=cache:HgOzj3EYEU8J:www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/199906/correspondence.in.clay.htm+akhenaten+Rib+Hadda+Byblos&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=5&gl=ca.
15.^ a b Bryce (1998), p.186
16.^ Moran (1992), p.xxvi
17.^ Moran (2003) pp.368-69
18.^ Moran (1992), pp.248-250
19.^ Moran (1992), pp.248-249
20.^ Bryce (1998), p.188
21.^ Bryce (1998), p.p.189
22.^ Moran (1992), p.145
23.^ Schulman (1982), pp.299-316
24.^ Allen (2006), p.1
25.^ Hawass, Zahi et al. "Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's Family" The Journal of the American Medical Association p.644
26.^ "DNA Shows that KV55 Mummy Probably Not Akhenaten". http://www.kv64.info/2010/03/dna-shows-that-kv55-mummy-probably-not.html.
27.^ Reeves (2000) p.77
28.^ Berman (1998) p.23
29.^ Allen (2006), p.5
30.^ Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss and David Warburton (editors), Handbook of Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Handbook of Oriental Studies), Brill: 2006, pp.207 & 493
31.^ Pocket Guides: Egypt History, p.37, Dorling Kindersley, London 1996.(the Neferneferuaten part is taken from Wikipedia Nefertiti entry)
32.^ Nicholas Reeves. "Book Review: Rolf Krauss, Das Ende der Amarnazeit (Hildesheimer Ägyptologische Beiträge, 1978)". http://www.nicholasreeves.com/item.aspx?category=Writing&id=71. Retrieved 2008-10-02.
33.^ "Akhenaten". Ancientegyptonline.co.uk. 2007-02-06. http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/akhenaten.html. Retrieved 2010-05-30.
34.^ Scholtissek C, Naylor E (1988). "Fish farming and influenza pandemics". Nature 331 (6153): 215. doi:10.1038/331215a0. PMID 2827036.
35.^ Ancient Egypt Online Akhenaten. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
36.^ Choi, et al. (2001) pp.361-8
37.^ Webster (2001), pp.1817–28
38.^ Shortridge (1992), pp.11–25
39.^ Arielle Kozloff (2006), pp.36-46
40.^ a b David (1998), p.125
41.^ a b c Freud, S. (1939). Moses and Monotheism: Three Essays.
42.^ Gunther Siegmund Stent, Paradoxes of Free Will. American Philosophical Society, DIANE, 2002. 284 pages. Pages 34 - 38. ISBN 0871699265
43.^ Jan Assmann, Moses the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt in Western Monotheism. Harvard University Press, 1997. 288 pages. ISBN 0674587391
44.^ N. Shupak, The Monotheism of Moses and the Monotheism of Akhenaten. Sevivot, 1995.
45.^ a b c d e f g Montserrat, (2000)
46.^ William F. Albright, From the Patriarchs to Moses II. Moses out of Egypt. The Biblical Archaeologist, Vol. 36, No. 2 (May, 1973), pp. 48-76. doi 10.2307/3211050
47.^ S. Freud, The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume XXIII (1937-1939), "Moses and monotheism". London: Hogarth Press, 1964.
48.^ Curtis, Samuel (2005), "Primitive Semitic Religion Today" (Kessinger Publications)
49.^ Assmann, Jan. (1997). Moses the Egyptian. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; pp. 23-24, fn. 2.
50.^ The first commandment prohibits the making of images of God. Judaism is an aniconic religion.
51.^ The Bible Unearthed p. 255-257
52.^ Yuya's titles included "Overseer of the Cattle of Amun and Min (Lord of Akhmin)", "Bearer of the Ring of the King of Lower Egypt", "Mouth of the King of Upper Egypt", and "The Holy Father of the Lord of the Two Lands", among others. For more see: Osman, A. (1987). Stranger in the Valley of the Kings: solving the mystery of an ancient Egyptian mummy. San Francisco: Harper & Row. pp.29-30
53.^ Montet, Pierre (1964), Eternal Egypt (New American Press)
54.^ Redford, Donald B. (1993), Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, Princeton University Press
55.^ Petri (19th century Egyptologist) Petri Museum in London, England named after him
56.^ a b "The Monotheism of the Heretic Pharaoh: Precursor of Mosiac monotheism or Egyptian anomaly?", Donald B. Redford, Biblical Archaeology Review, May–June edition 1987
57.^ "Creation and the persistence of evil", Jon Douglas Levenson, p. 60, Princeton University Press, 1994, ISBN 0691029504
58.^ Akhenaten and the religion of light, Erik Hornung, David Lorton, p. 14, Cornell University Press, 2001, ISBN 978-0-8014-8725-5
59.^ "Aspects of Monotheism", Donald B. Redford, Biblical Archeology Review, 1996
60.^ Aldred, C. (1988). Akhenaten, King of Egypt. (Thames and Hudson, Ltd.,)
61.^ Burridge, A., (1995) "Did Akhenaten Suffer From Marfan's Syndrome?" (Akhenaten Temple Project Newsletter No. 3, September 1995)
62.^ Megaera Lorenz. "Lorenz, Maegara "The Mystery of Akhenaton: Genetics or Aesthetics"". Heptune.com. http://www.heptune.com/Marfans.html. Retrieved 2010-03-21.
63.^ Marfan Syndrome UK National Health Service "Did Akhenaton Suffer from Marfan's Syndrome"
64.^ BBC.co.uk. Retrieved June 23, 2009.
65.^ "A Frail King Tut Died From Malaria, Broken Leg - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. 2007-11-04. http://abcnews.go.com/International/wirestory?id=9850747&page=3. Retrieved 2010-05-30.
66.^ Reeves, Nicholas (2005) "Akhenaten: Egypt's False Prophet" (Thames and Hudson)
67.^ Johnson (1998), p.91
68.^ Immanuel Velikovsky, Oedipus and Akhnaton, Myth and History, Doubleday, 1960.
69.^ Sir Flinders Petrie, History of Egypt (edit. 1899), Vol. II, p. 214.
70.^ H. R. Hall, Ancient History of the Near East, p. 599.
71.^ Nicholas Reeves and Richard H. Wilkinson, The Complete Valley of the Kings. Thames & Hudson, 1996.
[edit] Bibliography
Jürgen von Beckerath, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten. Philipp von Zabern, Mainz, (1997)
Berman, Lawrence. 'Overview of Amenhotep III and His Reign,' and Raymond Johnson, 'Monuments and Monumental Art under Amenhotep III' in 'Amenhotep III: Perspectives on his Reign' 1998, ed: David O'Connor & Eric Cline, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 0-472-10742-9
Rosalie David, Handbook to Life in Ancient Egypt, Facts on File Inc., 1998
Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames and Hudson, 2006
Trigger, B.G, Kemp, B.G, O'Conner, D and Lloyd, A.B (2001). Ancient Egypt, A Social History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
William L. Moran, The Amarna Letters, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992
Trevor Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, Clarendon Press, 1998.
A.R. Schulman, "The Nubian War of Akhenaten" in L'Egyptologie en 1979: Axes prioritaires de recherchs II (Paris: 1982)
James H. Allen (2006). "The Amarna Succession" (PDF). Archived from the original on May 28, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080528234949/http://history.memphis.edu/murnane/Allen+-+Amarna+Succession.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
Nicholas Reeves, Akhenaten: Egypt's False Prophet, Thames & Hudson, 2000
Montserrat, Dominic (2000). Akhenaten: History, Fantasy and ancient Egypt. Routledge. OCLC 0-415-30186-6.
Kozloff, Arielle (2006). "Bubonic Plague in the Reign of Amenhotep III?". KMT 17 (3).
Choi B, Pak A (2001). "Lessons for surveillance in the 21st century: a historical perspective from the past five millennia". Soz Praventivmed 46 (6): 361–8. doi:10.1007/BF01321662. PMID 11851070.
Shortridge K (1992). "Pandemic influenza: a zoonosis?". Semin Respir Infect 7 (1): 11–25. PMID 1609163.
Webby R, Webster R (2001). "Emergence of influenza A viruses". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 356 (1416): 1817–28. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0997. PMID 11779380.
[edit] Further reading
Aldred, Cyril (1991) [1988]. Akhenaten: King of Egypt. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27621-8.
Bilolo, Mubabinge (2004) [1988]. "Sect. I, vol. 2" (in French). Le Créateur et la Création dans la pensée memphite et amarnienne. Approche synoptique du Document Philosophique de Memphis et du Grand Hymne Théologique d'Echnaton (new ed.). Munich-Paris: Academy of African Thought.
Devi, Savitri, Tripod.com A Son of God (Philosophical Publishing House [London], 1946); subsequent editions published as Son of the Sun: The Life and Philosophy of Akhnaton, King of Egypt (Supreme Grand Lodge of A.M.O.R.C., 1956); part III of The Lightning and the Sun is focused on Akhnaten.
El Mahdy, Christine (1999). Tutankhamen: The Life and Death of a Boy King. Headline. ISBN 0-7472-6000-1.
Rita E. Freed, Yvonne J. Markowitz, and Sue H. D'Auria (ed.) (1999). Pharaohs of the Sun: Akhenaten - Nefertiti - Tutankhamen. Bulfinch Press. ISBN 0-8212-2620-7.
Gestoso Singer, Graciela (2008) El Intercambio de Bienes entre Egipto y Asia Anterior. Desde el reinado de Tuthmosis III hasta el de Akhenaton Free Access (Spanish) Ancient Near East Monographs, Volume 2.Buenos Aires, Society of Biblical Literature - CEHAO. ISBN 978-987-20606-4-0
Holland, Tom, The Sleeper in the Sands (novel), (Abacus, 1998, ISBN 0-349-11223-1), a fictionalised adventure story based closely on the mysteries of Akhenaten's reign
Hornung, Erik, Akhenaten and the Religion of Light, translated by David Lorton, Cornell University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-8014-3658-3)
Najovits, Simson. Egypt, Trunk of the Tree, Volume I, The Contexts, Volume II, The Consequences, Algora Publishing, New York, 2003 and 2004. On Akhenaten: Vol. II, Chapter 11, pp. 117–173 and Chapter 12, pp. 205–213
Phillips, Graham, Act of God: Moses, Tutankhamun and the Myth of Atlantis, (London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1998, ISBN 0-283-06314-9); republished as Atlantis and the Ten Plagues of Egypt: The Secret History Hidden in the Valley of the Kings (Bear & Co., 2003, paperback, ISBN 1-59143-009-7)
Redford, Donald B., Akhenaten: The Heretic King (Princeton University Press, 1984, ISBN 0-691-03567-9)
Reeves, Nicholas (2001). Akhenaten: Egypt's False Prophet. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05106-2.
Velikovsky, Immanuel (1960). Oedipus and Akhnaton: Myth and History. Garden City, New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-00529-6.
[edit] External links
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Akhenaten
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Akhenaten

Akhenaten on In Our Time at the BBC. (listen now)
Akhenaten and the Hymn to the Aten
The City of Akhetaten
The Great Hymn to the Aten
M.A. Mansoor Amarna Collection
Moses and Akhenaten: The Secret History of Egypt at the Time of the Exodus
Grim secrets of Pharaoh's city BBC
The Androgynous Pharaoh? Akhenaten had feminine physique
Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun's Family Hawass
Belief Of Akhenaten - The introduction of a New Note into the Religious Thought of the World
The Long Coregency Revisited: the Tomb of Kheruef by Peter Dorman, University of Chicago
Royal Relations, Tut’s father is very likely Akhenaten. National Geographic 09. 2010
[show]v • d • eAmarna Period

Pharaohs Amenhotep III · Akhenaten · Smenkhkare · Neferneferuaten · Tutankhamun · Ay · Horemheb

Royal Family Nefertiti · Tiye · Kiya · Mutnedjmet

Royal Children Meritaten · Meketaten · Ankhesenpaaten · Neferneferuaten Tasherit · Neferneferure · Setepenre · Baketaten · Meritaten Tasherit · Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit

Nobles and officials Meryre II · Huya · Bek

Locations Akhetaten · Malkata · Valley of the Kings · Karnak · KV55

Other Amarna Letters · Amarna succession · Aten · Atenism · Dakhamunzu · Amarna Art Style

[show]v • d • ePharaohs (List)

Early Dynastic Period of Egypt rulers Narmer · Menes · Hor-Aha · Djer · Khasekhemwy

Old Kingdom rulers Djoser · Sneferu · Khufu · Djedefre · Khafra · Menkaura · Sahure · Pepi II

Middle Kingdom of Egypt rulers Mentuhotep II · Amenemhat I · Senusret I · Senusret III · Amenemhat III · Sobekneferu

Second Intermediate Period rulers Khendjer · Neferhotep I · Sobekhotep IV · Merneferre Ay · Nebiriau I · Apophis · Sobekemsaf II · Intef VII · Seqenenre · Kamose

New Kingdom rulers Ahmose I · Hatshepsut · Thutmose III · Amenhotep II · Amenhotep III · Akhenaten · Tutankhamun · Seti I · Ramesses II · Ramesses III

Third Intermediate Period of Egypt rulers Psusennes I · Siamun · Shoshenq I · Osorkon II · Shoshenq III · Osorkon III · Piye · Tefnakht · Shabaka · Taharqa

Other rulers Psamtik I · Necho II · Ahmose II · Nepherites I · Nectanebo I · Alexander the Great · Ptolemy I · Ptolemy II · Ptolemy XIII · Cleopatra VII · Caesarion

Consorts Tetisheri · Ahhotep I · Ahmose-Nefertari · Ahmose · Tiye · Nefertiti · Ankhesenamen · Nefertari · Mark Antony

Court officials Imhotep · Weni · Sobeknakht II · Ahmose-Ebana · Ineni · Senenmut · Rekhmire · Yuya · Amenhotep, son of Hapu · Maya · Yuny · Bay · Manetho · Pothinus

Persondata
NAME Akhenaten
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Amenhotep IV (Initial name)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Egyptian Pharaoh
DATE OF BIRTH
PLACE OF BIRTH
DATE OF DEATH 1336 BC or 1334 BC
PLACE OF DEATH

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akhenaten"
Categories: 1330s BC deaths | 14th-century BC births | 14th-century BC deaths | Amarna Period | Atenism | Egyptian religious leaders | Founders of religions | Historical deletion in ancient Egypt | Pharaohs of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt
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Search ResultsSophia (wisdom) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sophia (S?fía, Greek for "wisdom") is a central term in Hellenistic philosophy and religion, Platonism, Gnosticism, Orthodox Christianity, ...

In Platonism - In Hebrew texts - In Christianity - In Gnosticism
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophia_(wisdom) -

Sophia (wisdom)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search
"Sapientia" redirects here. For the asteroid, see 275 Sapientia.

Personification of wisdom (in Greek, "S?f?a" or "Sophia") at the Celsus Library in Ephesus, Turkey.Sophia (S?fía, Greek for "wisdom") is a central term in Hellenistic philosophy and religion, Platonism, Gnosticism, Orthodox Christianity, Esoteric Christianity, as well as Christian mysticism. Sophiology is a philosophical concept regarding wisdom, as well as a theological concept regarding the wisdom of God.

Contents [hide]
1 In Platonism
2 In Hebrew texts
2.1 Philo and the Logos
3 In Christianity
3.1 In the New Testament
3.2 Eastern Orthodoxy
3.3 Roman Catholic mysticism
3.4 Protestant mysticism
4 In Gnosticism
4.1 Book of Proverbs
4.2 Descent
4.3 Mythos of the soul
4.4 Syrian Gnosis
4.5 Prunikos
4.6 Metra
4.7 Achamoth
4.8 Baruch-Gnosis
4.9 Barbeliotae
4.10 Ophites
4.11 Bardesanes
4.12 Acts of Thomas
4.13 Simon Magus
4.14 Valentinus
4.15 Ptolemaeus
4.16 Pistis Sophia
4.17 Nag Hammadi
4.18 Manichaeism
4.19 Mythology
5 See also
6 References
7 Bibliography
8 External links

[edit] In Platonism
Plato, following his teacher, Socrates (and, it is likely, the older tradition of Pythagoras), understands philosophy as philo-sophia, or, literally, the love of Wisdom. This understanding of philosophia permeates Plato's dialogues, especially the Republic. In that work, the leaders of the proposed utopia are to be philosopher kings: rulers who love sophia, Wisdom.

Sofya is one of the four cardinal virtues of Plato's Protagoras.

The Pythian Oracle (Oracle of Delphi) reportedly answered the question of "who is the wisest man of Greece?" with "Socrates!" Socrates defends this verdict in his Apology to the effect that he, at least, knows that he knows nothing. As is evident in Plato's portrayals of Socrates, this does not mean Socrates' wisdom was the same as knowing nothing; but rather that his skepticism towards his own self-made constructions of knowledge left him free to receive true Wisdom as a spontaneous insight or inspiration. This contrasted with the attitude of contemporaneous Greek Sophists, who claimed to be wise and offered to teach wisdom for pay.

[edit] In Hebrew texts
Further information: Chokhmah
Sophia is adopted as the term in the Septuagint for Hebrew ????? ?okmot. In Judaism, Chokhmah appears alongside the Shekhinah, 'the Glory of God', a figure who plays a key role in the cosmology of the Kabbalists as an expression of the feminine aspect of God. It is a central topic in the "sapiential" books, i.e. Proverbs, Psalms, Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes, Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus, and to some extent Baruch (the last three are Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament.)

[edit] Philo and the Logos
Further information: Logos
Philo, a Hellenized Jew writing in Alexandria, attempted to harmonize Platonic philosophy and Jewish scripture. Also influenced by Stoic philosophical concepts, he used the term Logos for the role and function of Wisdom, a concept later adapted by the author of the Gospel of John in the opening verses and applied to Jesus Christ as the eternal Word (Logos) of God the Father.[1]

[edit] In Christianity
Further information: Sophiology

Russian Icon, Sophia, the Holy Wisdom, 1812.In Christian theology, "wisdom" (Hebrew: Chokhmah, Greek: Sophia, Latin: Sapientia) describes an aspect of God, or the theological concept regarding the wisdom of God.

[edit] In the New Testament
Jesus directly mentions Wisdom in the Gospel of Matthew:

The Son of man came eating and drinking, and they say, Behold a man gluttonous, and a winebibber, a friend of publicans and sinners. But wisdom is justified of her children.
— Matthew 11:19
St. Paul refers to the concept, notably in 1 Corinthians, but obscurely, deconstructing worldly wisdom:

Where is the wise? where is the scribe? where is the disputer of this world? hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world?
—1 Corinthians 1:20
Paul sets worldly wisdom against a higher wisdom of God:

But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world unto our glory.
—1 Corinthians 2:7
The Epistle of James (James 3:13-18; cf. James 1:5) distinguishes between two kinds of wisdom. One is a false wisdom, which is characterized as "earthly, sensual, devilish" and is associated with strife and contention. The other is the 'wisdom that comes from above':

But the wisdom that is from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, [and] easy to be intreated, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy.
—James 3:17
[edit] Eastern Orthodoxy
In the mystical theology of the Eastern Orthodox Church, Holy Wisdom is understood as the Divine Logos who became incarnate as Jesus Christ,[2] this belief being sometimes also expressed in some Eastern Orthodox icons.[3] In Eastern Orthodoxy humility is the highest wisdom and is to be sought more than any other virtue. It is humility that cultivates not only the Holy Wisdom, but humility (in contrast to knowledge) is the defining quality that grants people salvation and entrance into Heaven.[4] The Hagia Sophia or Holy Wisdom church in Constantinople was the religious center of the Eastern Orthodox Church for nearly a thousand years.


Exterior view of the Hagia Sophia or the Holy Wisdom, 2004.In the liturgy of the Orthodox Church, the exclamation Sophia! or in English Wisdom! will be proclaimed by the deacon or priest at certain moments, especially before the reading of scripture, to draw the congregation's attention to sacred teaching.

The concept of Sophia has been championed as a key part of the Godhead by some Eastern Orthodox religious thinkers. These included Vladimir Solovyov, Pavel Florensky, Nikolai Berdyaev, and Sergei Bulgakov whose book Sophia: The Wisdom of God is in many ways the apotheosis of Sophiology. For Bulgakov, the Sophia is co-existent with the Trinity, operating as the feminine aspect of God in concert with the three masculine principles of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Vladimir Lossky rejects Solovyev and Bulgakov's teachings as error. Lossky states that Wisdom as an energy of God (just as love, faith and grace are also energies of God) is not to be ascribed to be the true essence of God, to do so is to deny the apophatic and incomprehensibility of God as God's essence.[5] This is contrary to the official view of the Orthodox Church, where Bulgakov's work was denounced by the Russian Orthodox authorities as heretical.[2][6]


Hildegard of Bingen's art depicting Ecclesia and Sophia.[edit] Roman Catholic mysticism
In Roman Catholic mysticism, Hildegard of Bingen celebrated Sophia as a cosmic figure in both her writing and her art.[7]

[edit] Protestant mysticism

Virgin Sophia design on a Harmony Society doorway in Harmony, Pennsylvania, carved by Frederick Reichert Rapp in 1809.Within the Protestant tradition in England, Jane Leade, 17th-century Christian mystic, Universalist, and founder of the Philadelphian Society, wrote copious descriptions of her visions and dialogues with the "Virgin Sophia" who, she said, revealed to her the spiritual workings of the Universe.[8]

Leade was hugely influenced by the theosophical writings of 16th Century German Christian mystic Jakob Böhme, who also speaks of the Sophia in works such as The Way to Christ.[9] Jakob Böhme was very influential to a number of Christian mystics and religious leaders, including George Rapp and the Harmony Society.[10]

Sophia can be described as the wisdom of God, and, at times, as a pure virgin spirit which emanates from God. The Sophia is seen as being expressed in all creation and the natural world as well as, for some of the Christian mystics mentioned above, integral to the spiritual well-being of humankind, the church, and the cosmos. The Virgin is seen as outside creation but compassionately interceding on behalf of humanity to alleviate its suffering by illuminating true spiritual seekers with wisdom and the love of God.

The main difference between the concept of Sophia found in most traditional forms of Christian mysticism and the one more aligned with the Gnostic view of Sophia is that to many Christian mystics she is not seen as fallen or in need of redemption. Conversely, she is not as central in most forms of established Christianity as she is in Gnosticism, but to some Christian mystics the Sophia is a very important concept.

An interfaith spiritual community currently has its center at what it calls Sancta Sophia Seminary located in Tahlequah, Oklahoma.[11]

[edit] In Gnosticism
Gnosticism

This article is part of a series on Gnosticism
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

History of Gnosticism
Early Gnosticism
Syrian-Egyptic Gnosticism
Gnosticism in modern times
Proto-Gnostics
Philo
Simon Magus
Cerinthus
Valentinus
Basilides
Gnostic texts
Gnostic Gospels
Nag Hammadi library
Codex Tchacos
Askew Codex
Bruce Codex
Gnosticism and the New Testament
Related articles
Gnosis
Neoplatonism and Gnosticism
Mandaeism
Manichaeism
Bosnian Church
Esoteric Christianity
Jnana

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Gnosticism Portal
v • d • e

In Gnostic tradition, Sophia is a feminine figure, analogous to the human soul but also simultaneously one of the feminine aspects of God. Gnostics held that she was the syzygy of Jesus Christ (i.e. the Bride of Christ), and Holy Spirit of the Trinity. She is occasionally referred to by the Hebrew equivalent of Achamoth (??aµ??) and as Prunikos (?????????). In the Nag Hammadi texts, Sophia is the lowest Aeon, or anthropic expression of the emanation of the light of God. She is considered to have fallen from grace in some way, in so doing creating or helping to create the material world.

Almost all Gnostic systems of the Syrian or Egyptian type taught that the universe began with an original, unknowable God, referred to as the Parent or Bythos, or as the Monad by Monoimus. It can also be equated to the concept of Logos in stoic, esoteric, or theosophical terms (The 'Unknown Root') as well as the Ein Sof of the Kabbalah and Brahman in Hinduism. From this initial unitary beginning, the One spontaneously emanated further Aeons, being pairs of progressively 'lesser' beings in sequence. Together with the source from which they emanate they form the Pleroma, or fullness, of God, and thus should not be seen as distinct from the divine, but symbolic abstractions of the divine nature. The transition from the immaterial to the material, from the noumenal to the sensible, is brought about by a flaw, or a passion, or a sin, in one of the Aeons.

In most versions of the Gnostic Mythos, it is Sophia who brings about this instability in the Pleroma, in turn bringing about the creation of materiality. Thus a positive or negative view of the world depends a great deal on the interpretations of Sophia's actions in the Mythos. According to some Gnostic texts, the crisis occurs as a result of Sophia trying to emanate without her syzygy or, in another tradition, because she tries to breach the barrier between herself and the unknowable Bythos. After cataclysmically falling from the Pleroma, Sophia's fear and anguish of losing her life (just as she lost the light of the One) causes confusion and longing to return to it. Because of these longings, matter (Greek: hyle, ???) and soul (Greek: psyche, ????) accidentally come into existence. The creation of the Demiurge (also known as Yaldabaoth, "Son of Chaos") is also a mistake made during this exile. The Demiurge proceeds to create the physical world in which we live, ignorant of Sophia, who nevertheless manages to infuse some spiritual spark or pneuma into his creation.

In the Pistis Sophia, Christ is sent from the Godhead in order to bring Sophia back into the fullness (Pleroma). Christ enables her to again see the light, bringing her knowledge of the spirit (Greek: pneuma, p?e?µa). Christ is then sent to earth in the form of the man Jesus to give men the Gnosis needed to rescue themselves from the physical world and return to the spiritual world. In Gnosticism, the Gospel story of Jesus is itself allegorical: it is the Outer Mystery, used as an introduction to Gnosis, rather than being literally true in a historical context. For the Gnostics, the drama of the redemption of the Sophia through Christ or the Logos is the central drama of the universe. The Sophia resides in all of us as the Divine Spark.

[edit] Book of Proverbs
Jewish Alexandrine religious philosophy was much occupied with the concept of the Divine Sophia, as the revelation of God's inward thought, and assigned to her not only the formation and ordering of the natural universe,[12] but also the communication of all insight and knowledge to mankind. In Proverbs 8 Wisdom (the noun is feminine) is described as God's Counsellor and Workmistress (Master-workman, R.V.), who dwelt beside Him before the Creation of the world and sported continually before Him.

In accordance with the description given in the Book of Proverbs, a dwelling-place was assigned by the Gnostics to the Sophia, and her relation to the upper world defined as well as to the seven planetary powers which were placed under her. The seven planetary spheres or heavens were for the ancients the highest regions of the created universe. They were thought of as seven circles rising one above another, and dominated by the seven Archons. These constituted the (Gnostic) Hebdomad. Above the highest of them, and over-vaulting it, was the Ogdoad, the sphere of immutability, which was nigh to the spiritual world.[13] Now we read in Proverbs 9:1:

Wisdom hath builded her house, she hath hewn out her seven pillars:
These seven pillars being interpreted of the planetary heavens, the habitation of the Sophia herself was placed above the Hebdomad in the Ogdoad.[14] It is said further of the same divine wisdom (Proverbs 8:2):

She standeth in the top of high places, by the way in the places of the paths.
This meant, according to the Gnostic interpretation, that the Sophia has her dwelling-place "on the heights" above the created universe, in the place of the midst, between the upper and lower world, between the Pleroma and the ektismena. She sits at "the gates of the mighty," i.e. at the approaches to the realms of the seven Archons, and at the "entrances" to the upper realm of light her praise is sung. The Sophia is therefore the highest ruler over the visible universe, and at the same time the mediatrix between the upper and the lower realms. She shapes this mundane universe after the heavenly prototypes, and forms the seven star-circles with their Archons under whose dominion are placed, according to the astrological conceptions of antiquity, the fates of all earthly things, and more especially of man. She is "the mother" or "the mother of the living."[15] As coming from above, she is herself of pneumatic essence, the meter photeine[16] or the ano dynamis,[17] from which all pneumatic souls draw their origin.

[edit] Descent
In reconciling the doctrine of the pneumatic nature of the Sophia with the dwelling-place assigned her, according to the Proverbs, in the kingdom of the midst, and so outside the upper realm of light, there was envisioned a descent of Sophia from her heavenly home, the Pleroma, into the void (kenoma) beneath it. The concept was that of a seizure or robbery of light, or of an outburst and diffusion of light-dew into the kenoma, occasioned by a vivifying movement in the upper world. But inasmuch as the light brought down into the darkness of this lower world was thought of and described as involved in suffering, this suffering must be regarded as a punishment. This inference was further aided by the Platonic notion of a spiritual fall.

[edit] Mythos of the soul
Alienated through their own fault from their heavenly home, souls have sunk down into this lower world without utterly losing the remembrance of their former state, and filled with longing for their lost inheritance, these fallen souls are still striving upwards. In this way the Mythos of the fall of Sophia can be regarded as having a typical significance. The fate of the "mother" was regarded as the prototype of what is repeated in the history of all individual souls, which, being of a heavenly pneumatic origin, have fallen from the upper world of light their home, and come under the sway of evil powers, from whom they must endure a long series of sufferings till a return into the upper world be once more vouchsafed them.

But whereas, according to the Platonic philosophy, fallen souls still retain a remembrance of their lost home, this notion was preserved in another form in Gnostic circles. It was taught that the souls of the Pneumatici, having lost the remembrance of their heavenly derivation, required to become once more partakers of Gnosis, or knowledge of their own pneumatic essence, in order to make a return to the realm of light. In the impartation of this Gnosis consists the redemption brought and vouchsafed by Christ to pneumatic souls. But the various fortunes of such souls were wont to be contemplated in those of Sophia, and so it was taught that the Sophia also needed the redemption wrought by Christ, by whom she is delivered from her agnoia and her pathe, and will, at the end of the world's development, be again brought back to her long lost home, the Upper Pleroma, into which this mother will find an entrance along with all pneumatic souls her children, and there, in the heavenly bridal chamber, celebrate the marriage feast of eternity.

[edit] Syrian Gnosis
The Sophia-Mythos has in the various Gnostic systems undergone great variety of treatment. The oldest, the Syrian Gnosis, referred to the Sophia the formation of the lower world and the production of its rulers the Archons; and along with this they also ascribed to her the preservation and propagation of the spiritual seed.


A mystical depiction of Sophia from Geheime Figuren der Rosenkreuzer, Altona, 1785.As described by Irenaeus, the great Mother-principle of the universe appears as the first woman, the Holy Spirit (ruha d'qudsha) moving over the waters, and is also called the mother of all living. Under her are the four material elements—water, darkness, abyss, and chaos. With her, combine themselves the two supreme masculine lights, the first and the second man, the Father and the Son, the latter being also designated as the Father's ennoia. From their union proceeds the third imperishable light, the third man, Christ. But unable to support the abounding fulness of this light, the mother in giving birth to Christ, suffers a portion of this light to overflow on the left side. While, then, Christ as dexios (He of the right hand) mounts upward with his mother into the imperishable Aeon, that other light which has overflowed on the left hand, sinks down into the lower world, and there produces matter. And this is the Sophia, called also Aristera (she of the left hand), Prouneikos and the male-female.

There is here, as yet, no thought of a fall, properly so called, as in the Valentinian system. The power which has thus overflowed leftwards, makes a voluntary descent into the lower waters, confiding in its possession of the spark of true light. It is, moreover, evident that though mythologically distinguished from the humectatio luminis (Greek: ikmas photos, ??µ?? f?t??), the Sophia is yet, really nothing else but the light-spark coming from above, entering this lower material world, and becoming here the source of all formation, and of both the higher and the lower life. She swims over the waters, and sets their hitherto immoveable mass in motion, driving them into the abyss, and taking to herself a bodily form from the hyle. She compasses about, and is laden with material every kind of weight and substance, so that, but for the essential spark of light, she would be sunk and lost in the material. Bound to the body which she has assumed and weighed down thereby, she seeks in vain to make her escape from the lower waters, and hasten upwards to rejoin her heavenly mother. Not succeeding in this endeavour, she seeks to preserve, at least, her light-spark from being injured by the lower elements, raises herself by its power to the realm of the upper region, and these spreading out herself she forms out of her own bodily part, the dividing wall of the visible firmament, but still retains the aquatilis corporis typus. Finally seized with a longing for the higher light, she finds, at length, in herself, the power to raise herself even above the heaven of her own forming, and to fully lay aside her corporeity. The body thus abandoned is called "Woman from Woman." The narrative proceeds to tell of the formation of the seven Archons by Sophia herself, of the creation of man, which "the mother" (i.e. not the first woman, but the Sophia) uses as a mean to deprive the Archons of their share of light, of the perpetual conflict on his mother's part with the self-exalting efforts of the Archons, and of her continuous striving to recover again and again the light-spark hidden in human nature, till, at length, Christ comes to her assistance and in answer to her prayers, proceeds to draw all the sparks of light to Himself, unites Himself with the Sophia as the bridegroom with the bride, descends on Jesus who has been prepared, as a pure vessel for His reception, by Sophia, and leaves him again before the crucifixion, ascending with Sophia into the world or Aeon which will never pass away.[18]

In this system the original cosmogonic significance of the Sophia still stands in the foreground. The antithesis of Christus and Sophia, as He of the right (ho dexios) and She of the Left (he aristera), as male and female, is but a repetition of the first Cosmogonic Antithesis in another form. The Sophia herself is but a reflex of the "Mother of all living" and is therefore also called "Mother." She is the formatrix of heaven and earth, for as much as mere matter can only receive form through the light which, coming down from above has interpenetrated the dark waters of the hyle; but she is also at the same time the spiritual principle of life in creation, or, as the world-soul the representative of all that is truly pneumatic in this lower world: her fates and experiences represent typically those of the pneumatic soul which has sunk down into chaos.

[edit] Prunikos
In the Gnostic system described by Irenaeus,[19] the name Prunikos several times takes the place of Sophia in the relation of her story. The name Prunikos is also given to Sophia in the account of the kindred Barbeliot system, given in the preceding chapter of Irenaeus. Celsus, who shows that he had met with some Ophite work, exhibits acquaintance with the name Prunikos,[20] a name which Origen recognizes as Valentinian. That this Ophite name had really been adopted by the Valentinians is evidenced by its occurrence in a Valentinian fragment preserved by Epiphanius.[21] Epiphanius also introduces Prunikos as a technical word in the system of the Simonians,[22] of those whom he describes under the head of Nicolaitans[23] and of the Ophites.[24]

Neither Irenaeus nor Origen indicates that he knew anything as to the meaning of this word; and we have no better information on this subject than a conjecture of Epiphanius.[25] He says that the word means "wanton" or "lascivious," for that the Greeks had a phrase concerning a man who had debauched a girl, Eprounikeuse tauten. One feels some hesitation in accepting this explanation. Epiphanius was deeply persuaded of the filthiness of Gnostic morals, and habitually put the worst interpretation on their language. If the phrase reported by Epiphanius had been common, it is strange that instances of its use should not have been quoted from the Greek comic writers. It need not be denied that Epiphanius had heard the phrase employed, but innocent words come to be used in an obscene sense, as well by those who think double entendre witty, as by those who modestly avoid the use of plainer language. The primary meaning of the word prouneikos seems to be a porter, or bearer of burdens, the derivation being from enenkein, the only derivation indeed that the word seems to admit of. Then, modifying its meaning like the word agoraios, it came to be used in the sense of a turbulent violent person. The only distinct confirmation of the explanation of Epiphanius is that Hesychius (s. v. Skitaloi) has the words aphrodision kai tes prounikias tes nykterines. This would be decisive, if we could be sure that these words were earlier in date than Epiphanius.

In favour of the explanation of Epiphanius is the fact, that in the Gnostic cosmogonical myths, the imagery of sexual passion is constantly introduced. It seems on the whole probable that prouneikos is to be understood in the sense of propheres which has for one of its meanings[26] "precocious in respect of sexual intercourse." The name is possibly meant to indicate her attempts to entice away again from the lower Cosmic Powers the seed of Divine light.[27] In the account given by Epiphanius[28] the allusion to enticements to sexual intercourse which is involved in this name, becomes more prominent.

[edit] Metra
Nigh related to this is the notion widely diffused among Gnostic sects of the impure metra (womb) from whence the whole world is supposed to have issued. As according to the Italian Valentinians the Soter opens the metra of the lower Sophia, (the Enthymesis), and so occasions the formation of the universe,[29] so on the other hand the metra itself is personified. So Epiphanius reports[30] the following cosmogony as that of a branch of the Nicolaitans.

In the beginning were Darkness, Chaos, and Water (skotos, kai bythos, kai hydor), but the Spirit indwelling in the midst of them, divided them one from another. From the intermingling of Darkness with Spirit proceeds the metra which again is kindled with fresh desire after the Spirit; she gives birth first to four, and then to other four aeons, and so produces a right and a left, light and darkness. Last of all comes forth an aischros aion, who has intercourse with the metra, the offspring whereof are Gods, Angels, Daemons, and Spirits.
The Sethians[31] teach in like manner that from the first concurrence (syndrome) of the three primeval principles arose heaven and earth as a megale tis idea sphragidos. These have the form of a metra with the omphalos in the midst. The pregnant metra therefore contains within itself all kinds of animal forms in the reflex of heaven and earth and all substances found in the middle region. This metra also encounters us in the great Apophasis ascribed to Simon where it is also called Paradise and Edem as being the locality of man's formation.

These cosmogonic theories have their precedent in the Thalatth or Tiamat of Syrian mythology, the life-mother of whom Berossus has so much to relate, or in the world-egg out of which when cloven asunder heaven and earth and all things proceed.[32] The name of this Berossian Thalatth meets us again among the Peratae of the Philosophumena,[33] and is sometimes mistakenly identified with that of the sea—thalassa.

[edit] Achamoth
It has been debated whether the name Achamoth (??aµ??) is originally derived from the Hebrew Chokhmah (????????), in Aramaic ?achmuth or whether it signifies 'She that brings forth'—'Mother.'[34] The Syriac form ?achmuth is testified for us as used by Bardesanes,[35] the Greek form Hachamoth is found only among the Valentinians: the name however probably belongs to the oldest Syrian Gnosis.

[edit] Baruch-Gnosis
A similar part to that of the metra is played by Edem consort of Elohim in the Gnostic book Baruch,[36] who there appears as a two-shaped being formed above as a woman and from the middle downwards as a serpent.

Among the four and twenty Angels which she bears to Elohim, and which form the world out of her members, the second female angelic form is called Achamos [Achamoth]. Like to this legend of the Philosophumena concerning the Baruch-Gnosis is that which is related by Epiphanius of an Ophite Party that they fabled that a Serpent from the Upper World had had sexual intercourse with the Earth as with a woman.[37]

[edit] Barbeliotae
Very nigh related to the doctrines of the Gnostics in Irenaeus are the views of the so-called Barbeliotae.[38] The name Barbelo, which according to one interpretation is a designation of the upper Tetrad, has originally nothing to do with the Sophia. This latter Being called also Spiritus Sanctus and Prunikos is the offspring of the first angel who stands at the side of the Monogenes. Sophia seeing that all the rest have each its syzygos within the Pleroma, desires also to find such a consort for herself; and not finding one in the upper world she looks down into the lower regions and being still unsatisfied there she descends at length against the will of the Father into the deep. Here she forms the Demiurge (the Proarchon), a composite of ignorance and self-exaltation. This Being, by virtue of pneumatic powers stolen from his mother, proceeds to form the lower world. The mother, on the other hand, flees away into the upper regions and makes her dwelling there in the Ogdoad.

[edit] Ophites
We meet this Sophia also among the Ophiana whose "Diagram" is described by Celsus and Origen, as well as among various Gnostic (Ophite) parties mentioned by Epiphanius. She is there called Sophia or Prunikos, the upper mother and upper power, and sits enthroned above the Hebdomad (the seven Planetary Heavens) in the Ogdoad.[39] She is also occasionally called Parthenos,[40] and again is elsewhere identified with the Barbelo or Barbero.[41]

[edit] Bardesanes
Cosmogonic myths play their part also in the doctrine of Bardesanes. The locus foedus whereon the gods (or Aeons) measured and founded Paradise[35] is the same as the impure metra, which Ephraim is ashamed even to name.[42] The creation of the world is brought to pass through the son of the living one and the Ruha d' Qudsha, the Holy Spirit, with whom ?achmuth is identical, but in combination with "creatures," i.e. subordinate beings which co-operate with them.[43] It is not expressly so said, and yet at the same time is the most probable assumption, that as was the case with the father and mother so also their offspring the son of the Living One, and the Ruha d' Qudsha or ?achmuth, are to be regarded as a Syzygy. This last (the ?achmuth) brings forth the two daughters, the "Shame of the Dry Land" i.e. the metra, and the "Image of the Waters" i.e. the Aquatilis Corporis typus, which is mentioned in connection with the Ophitic Sophia.[35] Beside which, in a passage evidently referring to Bardesanes, air, fire, water, and darkness are mentioned as aeons.[44] These are probably the "Creatures" to which in association with the Son and the Ruha d' Qudsha, Bardesanes is said to have assigned the creation of the world. Though much still remains dark as to the doctrine of Bardesanes we cannot nevertheless have any right to set simply aside the statements of Ephraim, who remains the oldest Syrian source for our knowledge of the doctrine of this Syrian Gnostic, and deserves therefore our chief attentions. Bardesanes, according to Ephraim, is able also to tell of the wife or maiden who having sunk down from the Upper Paradise offers up prayers in her dereliction for help from above, and on being heard returns to the joys of the Upper Paradise.[35]

[edit] Acts of Thomas
These statements of Ephraim are further supplemented by the Acts of Thomas in which various hymns have been preserved which are either compositions of Bardesanes himself, or at any rate are productions of his school.[45] In the Syriac text of the Acts,[46] we find the Hymn of the Soul, which has been sent down from her heavenly home to fetch the pearl guarded by the serpent, but has forgotten here below her heavenly mission till she is reminded of it by a letter from "the father, the mother, and the brother," performs her task, receives back again her glorious dress, and returns to her old home. Of the other hymns which are preserved in the Greek version more faithfully than in the Syriac text which has undergone Catholic revision, the first deserving of notice is the Ode to the Sophia[47] which describes the marriage of the "maiden" with her heavenly bridegroom and her introduction into the Upper Realm of Light. This "maiden," called "daughter of light," is not as the Catholic reviser supposes the Church, but ?achmuth (Sophia) over whose head the "king," i.e. the father of the living ones, sits enthroned; her bridegroom is, according to the most probable interpretation, the son of the living one, i.e. Christ. With her the living Ones i.e. pneumatic souls enter into the Pleroma and receive the glorious light of the living Father and praise along with "the living spirit" the "father of truth" and the "mother of wisdom." The Sophia is also invoked in the first prayer of consecration.[48] She is there called the "merciful mother," the "consort of the masculine one," "revelant of the perfect mysteries," "Mother of the Seven Houses," "who finds rest in the eighth house," i.e. in the Ogdoad. In the second Prayer of Consecration[49] she is also designated, the "perfect Mercy" and "Consort of the Masculine One," but is also called "Holy Spirit" (Ruha d' Qudsha) "Revelant of the Mysteries of the whole Magnitude," "hidden Mother," "She who knows the Mysteries of the Elect," and "she who partakes in the conflicts of the noble Agonistes" (i.e. of Christ).[50] There is further a direct reminiscence of the doctrine of Bardesanes when she is invoked as the Holy Dove which has given birth to the two twins (i.e. the two daughters of the Ruha d' Qudsha).[51]

[edit] Simon Magus

Helen of Troy by Evelyn de Morgan (1898, London); an incarnation of the Ennoia the Simonian system.This Mythos of the Soul and her descent into this lower world, with her various sufferings and changing fortunes until her final deliverance, recurs in the Simonian system under the form of the All-Mother who issues as its first thought from the Hestos or highest power of God. She generally bears the name Ennoia, but is also called Wisdom (Sophia), Ruler, Holy Spirit, Prunikos, Barbelo. Having sunk down from the highest heavens into the lowest regions, she creates angels and archangels, and these again create and rule the material universe. Restrained and held down by the power of this lower world, she is hindered from returning to the kingdom of the Father. According to one representation she suffers all manner of insult from the angels and archangels bound and forced again and again into fresh earthly bodies, and compelled for centuries to wander in ever new corporeal forms. According to another account she is in herself incapable of suffering, but is sent into this lower world and undergoes perpetual transformation in order to excite by her beauty the angels and powers, to impel them to engage in perpetual strife, and so gradually to deprive them of their store of heavenly light. The Hestos himself at length comes down from the highest heaven in a phantasmal body in order to deliver the suffering Ennoia, and redeem the souls held in captivity by imparting gnosis to them.

The most frequent designation of the Simonian Ennoia is "the lost" or "the wandering sheep." The Greek divinities Zeus and Athena were interpreted to signify Hestos and his Ennoia, and in like manner the Tyrian sun-god Herakles-Melkart and the moon-goddess Selene-Astarte. So also the Homeric Helena, as the cause of quarrel between Greeks and Trojans, was regarded as a type of the Ennoia. The story which the fathers of the church handed down of the intercourse of Simon Magus with his consort Helena, had probably its origin in this allegorical interpretation.[52]

In the Simonian Apophasis the great dynamis (also called Nous) and the great epinoia which gives birth to all things form a syzygy, from which proceeds the male-female Being, who is called Hestos.[53] Elsewhere nous and epinoia are called the upper-most of the three Simonian Syzygies, to which the Hestos forms the Hebdomad: but on the other hand, nous and epinoia are identified with heaven and earth.[54]

[edit] Valentinus

"Plérome de Valentin," from Histoire critique du Gnosticisme; Jacques Matter, 1826, Vol. II, Plate II.The most significant development of this Sophia-Mythos is found in the Valentinian system. The descent of the Sophia from the Pleroma is ascribed after Plato's manner to a fall, and as the final cause of this fall a state of suffering is indicated which has penetrated into the Pleroma itself. Sophia or Meter is in the doctrine of Valentinus the last, i.e. the thirtieth Aeon in the Pleroma, from which having fallen out, she now in remembrance of the better world which she has thus forsaken, gives birth to the Christus "with a shadow" (meta skias tinos). While Christus returns to the Pleroma, Sophia forms the Demiurge and this whole lower world out of the skia, a right and a left principle.[55] For her redemption comes down to Sophia either Christus himself,[56] or the Soter,[57] as the common product of the Aeons, in order to bring her back to the Pleroma and unite her again with her syzygos. The motive for the Sophia's fall was defined according to the Anatolian school to have lain therein, that by her desire to know what lay beyond the limits of the knowable she had brought herself into a state of ignorance and formlessness. Her suffering extends to the whole Pleroma. But whereas this is confirmed thereby in fresh strength, the Sophia is separated from it and gives birth outside it (by means of her ennoia, her recollections of the higher world), to the Christus who at once ascends into the Pleroma, and after this she produces an ousia amorphos, the image of her suffering, out of which the Demiurge and the lower world come into existence; last of all looking upwards in her helpless condition, and imploring light, she finally gives birth to the spermata tes ekklesias, the pneumatic souls. In the work of redemption the Soter comes down accompanied by the masculine angels who are to be the future syzygoi of the (feminine) souls of the Pneumatici, and introduces the Sophia along with these Pneumatici into the heavenly bridal chamber.[58] The same view, essentially meets us in the accounts of Marcus,[59] and in the Epitomators of the Syntagma of Hippolytus.[60]

[edit] Ptolemaeus
The Italic school distinguished on the other hand a two-fold Sophia, the ano Sophia and the kato Sophia or Achamoth. According to the doctrine of Ptolemaeus and that of his disciples, the former of these separates herself from her syzygos, the theletos through her audacious longing after immediate Communion with the Father of all, falls into a condition of suffering, and would completely melt away in this inordinate desire, unless the Horos had purified her from her suffering and established her again in the Pleroma. Her enthymesis, on the other hand, the desire which has obtained the mastery over her and the consequent suffering becomes an amorphos kai aneideos ousia, which is also called an ektroma, is separated from her and is assigned a place beyond the limits of the Pleroma.

From her dwelling-place above the Hebdomad, in the place of the Midst, she is also called Ogdoad (??d???), and further entitled Meter, Sophia also, and he Hierousalem, Pneuma hagion, and (arsenikos) Kyrios. In these names some partial reminiscences of the old Ophitic Gnosis are retained. The Achamoth first receives (by means of Christus and Pneuma hagion the Pair of Aeons within the Pleroma whose emanation is most recent), the morphosis kat' ousian. Left alone in her suffering she has become endued with penitent mind (epistrophe). Now descends the son as the common fruit of the Pleroma, gives her the morphosis kata gnosin, and forms out of her various affections the Demiurge and the various constituents of this lower world. By his appointment the Achamoth produces the pneumatic seed (the ekklesia). The end of the world's history is here also (as above) the introduction of the lower Sophia with all her pneumatic offspring into the Pleroma, and this intimately connected with the second descent of the Soter and his transient union with the psychical Christus; then follows the marriage-union of the Achamoth with the Soter and of the pneumatic souls with the angels.[61] The same form of doctrine meets us also in Secundus, who is said to have been the first to have made the distinction of an upper and a lower Sophia,[62] and in the account which the Philosophumena give us of a system which most probably referred to the school of Heracleon, and which also speaks of a double Sophia.[63] The name Hierousalem also for the exo Sophia meets us here.[64] It finds its interpretation in the fragments of Heracleon.[65] The name Achamoth, on the other hand, is wanting both in Hippolytus and in Heracleon. One school among the Marcosii seems also to have taught a two-fold Sophia.[66]

[edit] Pistis Sophia
A special and richly coloured development is given to the mythical form of the Sophia of the Gnostic Book Pistis Sophia.[67] The two first books of this writing to which the name Pistis Sophia properly belongs, treat for the greater part[68] of the fall, the Repentance, and the Redemption of the Sophia. She has by the ordinance of higher powers obtained an insight into the dwelling-place appropriated to her in the spiritual world, namely, the thesauros lucis which lies beyond the XIIIth Aeon. By her endeavours to direct thither her upward flight, she draws upon herself the enmity of the Authades, Archon of the XIIIth Aeon, and of the Archons of the XII. Aeons under him; by these she is enticed down into the depths of chaos, and is there tormented in the greatest possible variety of ways, in order that so she may incur the loss of her light-nature. In her utmost need she addresses thirteen penitent prayers (metanoiai) to the Upper Light. Step by step she is led upwards by Christus into the higher regions, though she still remains obnoxious to the assaults of the Archons, and is, after offering her XIIIth Metanoia, more vehemently attacked than ever, till at length Christus leads her down into an intermediate place below the XIIIth Aeon, where she remains till the consummation of the world, and sends up grateful hymns of praise and thanksgiving. The earthly work of redemption having been at length accomplished, the Sophia returns to her original celestial home.

The peculiar feature in this representation consists in the further development of the philosophical ideas which find general expression in the Sophia-Mythos. Sophia is here not merely, as with Valentinus, the representative of the longing which the finite spirit feels for the knowledge of the infinite, but at the same time a type or pattern of faith, of repentance, and of hope.[69] After her restoration she announces to her companions the twofold truth that, while every attempt to overstep the divinely ordained limits, has for its consequence suffering and punishment, so, on the other hand, the divine compassion is ever ready to vouchsafe pardon to the penitent.

We have a further reminiscence of the Sophia of the older Gnostic systems in what is said in the book Pistis Sophia of the Light-Maiden (parthenos lucis), who is there clearly distinguished from the Sophia herself, and appears as the archetype of Astraea, the Constellation Virgo.[70] The station which she holds is in the place of the midst, above the habitation assigned to the Sophia in the XIIIth Aeon. She is the judge of (departed) souls, either opening for them or closing against them the portals of the light-realm.[71] Under her stand yet seven other light-maidens with similar functions, who impart to pious souls their final consecrations.[72] From the place of the parthenos lucis comes the sun-dragon, which is daily borne along by four light-powers in the shape of white horses, and so makes his circuit round the earth.[73]

[edit] Nag Hammadi
In On the Origin of the World, Sophia is depicted as the ultimate destroyer of this material universe, Yaldabaoth and all his Heavens:

She [Sophia] will cast them down into the abyss. They [the Archons] will be obliterated because of their wickedness. For they will come to be like volcanoes and consume one another until they perish at the hand of the prime parent. When he has destroyed them, he will turn against himself and destroy himself until he ceases to exist. And their heavens will fall one upon the next and their forces will be consumed by fire. Their eternal realms, too, will be overturned. And his heaven will fall and break in two. His [...] will fall down upon the [...] support them; they will fall into the abyss, and the abyss will be overturned. The light will [...] the darkness and obliterate it: it will be like something that never was.
[edit] Manichaeism
This light-maiden (parthenos tou photos) encounters us also among the Manichaeans as exciting the impure desires of the Daemons, and thereby setting free the light which has hitherto been held down by the power of darkness.[74] On the other hand, the place of the Gnostic Sophia is among Manichaeans taken by the "Mother of Life" (meter tes zoes), and by the World-Soul (psyche hapanton), which on occasions is distinguished from the Life-Mother, and is regarded as diffused through all living creatures, whose deliverance from the realm of darkness constitutes the whole of the world's history.[75] Their return to the world of light is described in the famous Canticum Amatorium.[76]

[edit] Mythology
The archetypal fall and recovery of Sophia is additionally linked (to a varying degree) to many different myths and stories (see damsel in distress). Among these are:

Isis, who while still in the cosmic womb, brings forth the flawed Elder Horus without a consort[77]
The Christian Church as the bride of Christ
The abduction and rescue of Helen of Troy
Persephone and her descent into Hades, from which she returns to life [but is bound to return to Hades for 3 months every year]
The fall of Eve and the birth of Christ through the Virgin Mary
The descent of Orpheus into the underworld to rescue his wife, Eurydice
The return of Odysseus to his kingdom, Ithaca, to reclaim his wife, Penelope
The rescue of Andromeda by Perseus
Pandora
Cinderella and Sleeping Beauty
The slaying of the Dragon by St. George to rescue the Princess
The rescue of the kidnapped Sita by her husband, the god-king Rama, with the help of Hanuman in the Ramayana
Note that many of these myths have alternative psychological interpretations. For example Jungian psychologist Marie-Louise von Franz interpreted fairly tales like Sleeping Beauty as symbolizing the 'rescue' or reintegration of the anima, the more 'feminine' part of a man's unconscious, but not wisdom or sophia per se.

[edit] See also
-sophy
Sophism
Sufism
Valentinus
Wisdom literature
[edit] References
1.^ Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. "John" p. 302-310
2.^ a b Pomazansky, Protopresbyter Michael (1963, in Russian), Orthodox Dogmatic Theology: A Concise Exposition, Platina CA: St Herman of Alaska Brotherhood (published 1994, Eng. Tr. Hieromonk Seraphim Rose), pp. 357 ff, ISBN 0938635-69-7 Text available online [1]
3.^ [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]
4.^ St. Nikitas Stithatos (1999), ""On the Practice of the Virtues", and also "On the Inner Nature of Things"", The Philokalia: The Complete Text, Four, London: Faber and Faber, ISBN 057119382X
5.^ This was the basis of the theological development of Fr. Bulgakov, and also his fundamental error: for he sought to see in the energy of Wisdom (Sophia), which he identified with the essence, the very principle of the Godhead. In fact, God is not determined by any of his attributes: all determinations are inferior to Him, logically posterior to His being in itself, in its essence. pgs 80-81 The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church, by Vladimir Lossky SVS Press, 1997. (ISBN 0-913836-31-1) James Clarke & Co Ltd, 1991. (ISBN 0-227-67919-9)
6.^ Orthodoxwiki states this also as heresy
7.^ Painting by Hildegard of Bingen depicting Sophia.[7] Also, there's a CD of music written by Hildegard of Bingen entitled "Chants in Praise of Sophia".[8]
8.^ Julie Hirst, Jane Leade: Biography of a Seventeenth-Century Mystic (2005) [9]
9.^ Jakob Böhme, The Way to Christ (1622) [10]
10.^ Arthur Versluis, "Western Esotericism and The Harmony Society", Esoterica I (1999) pp. 20-47 [11]
11.^ Sancta Sophia Seminary website: http://www.sanctasophia.org/
12.^ Comp. Clem. Hom. xvi. 12.
13.^ Clemens Alexandrinus, Stromata, iv. 25,161; comp. vi. 16, 138 sqq.
14.^ Excerpt. ex Theodot. 8, 47.
15.^ Epiph. Haer. 26, 10.
16.^ Epiph. 40, 2.
17.^ Epiph. 39, 2.
18.^ Irenaeus, i. 30; Epiph. 37, 3, sqq.; Theodoret, h. f. i. 14.
19.^ I. xxi. see Ophites.
20.^ Orig. Adv. Cels. vi. 34.
21.^ Epiph. Haer. xxxi. 5.
22.^ Epiph. Haer. xxi. 2.
23.^ Epiph. Haer. xxv. 3, 4.
24.^ Epiph. Haer. xxxvii. 4, 6.
25.^ Epiph. Haer. xxv. 48.
26.^ See the references in Liddell and Scott.
27.^ Cf. Müller, Geschichte der Kosmologie, p. 270 sqq.
28.^ Epiphanius, Haer. 37, 6.
29.^ Iren. I. 3, 4.
30.^ Epiphanius, Haer. 25, 5.
31.^ Hippolytus. Philosophum. v. 19.
32.^ Lipsius, Gnosticismus, p. 119 sqq.
33.^ Hippolytus, Philosophum. v. 14, p. 128
34.^ Hahn, Bardesanes Gnosticus, p. 64 sqq.
35.^ a b c d Ephraim, Hymn 55.
36.^ Hippolytus, Philosoph. v. 26, p. 150 sqq.
37.^ Epiphanius, Haer. 45: 1 cf. 2.
38.^ Iren. I. 29.
39.^ Origen, c. Cels. vi. 31, 34, 35, 38; Epiphan. Haer. 25, 3 sqq. 26, 1,10. 39, 2 ; 40, 2.
40.^ Orig. c. Cels. vi. 31.
41.^ Epiph. Haer. 25, 3 ; 26, 1, 10.
42.^ Cf. also Ephraim, Hymn 14.
43.^ Ephraim, Hymn 3.
44.^ Ithye: Hymn 41.
45.^ Lipsius, Apocrypha Apostolgeschichten, I. pp. 292-321.
46.^ Dr. Wright, Apocryphal Acts of Apostles, pp. 238-245.
47.^ Ap. Bonnet, Supplementum Codicis apocryphi, I. p. 8.
48.^ Bonnet, p. 20 sq.
49.^ Bonnet, p. 36.
50.^ Cf. exc. ex Theod. 58 ho megas agonistes Iesous.
51.^ Ap. Ephraim, Hymn 55.
52.^ Iren. i. 23 ; Tertull. de Anima, 34; Epiphan. Haer. 21; Pseudo-Tertull. Haer. 1; Philaster, Haer. 29; Philos. vi. 19, 20, p. 174 sqq.; Recogn. Clem. ii. 12; Hom. ii. 25; and thereupon Lipsius, Quellenkritik des Epiphan. p. 74 sqq.
53.^ Philos. vi. 18, p. 172
54.^ Philos. vi. 12 sqq., p. 165 sqq.
55.^ Iren. Haer. i. 11, 1.
56.^ Iren. i. 15, 3.
57.^ Iren. i. 11, 1, cf. exc. ex Theod. 23; 41.
58.^ Exc. ex Theod. 29-42; Iren. i. 2, 3.
59.^ Iren. i. 18, 4 ; cf. 15, 3; 16, 1,2; 17, 1.
60.^ Pseudo-Tertull. Haer. 12; Philaster, Haer. 38.
61.^ Iren. i. 1-7; exc. ex Theod. 43-65.
62.^ Iren. i. 11, 2
63.^ Philos. vi. 29-35
64.^ Philos. vi. 32, p. 191; 34.
65.^ Ap. Origen. in Joann. tom. x. 19.
66.^ Iren. i. 16, 3; cf. 21, 5.
67.^ Edd. Schwartze and Petermann, 1851.
68.^ Pp. 42-181.
69.^ Cf. Köstlin, das Gnostische System des Buches Pistis Sophia in Baur und Zeller's theol. Jahrbücher, 1854, p. 189.
70.^ Köstlin, l.c. p. 57 sq.
71.^ Pp. 194-295, ed. Schwartze.
72.^ P. 291 sq. 327 sq. 334.
73.^ P. 183, cf. p. 18, 309.
74.^ Dispuiat. Archelai et Manetis, c. 8, n. 11; Theodoret., h. f. I. 26; Anathemat. Manich. ap. Cotelier on the Recogn. Clement IV., 27 et passim; to which add Thilo, Acta Thomae, p. 128 sqq.; Baur, Manichäische Religionssystem, p. 219 sqq.
75.^ Titus Bostrenus, adv. Manich. I., 29, 36, ed. Lagarde, p. 17 sqq. 23; Alexander Lycopolit. c. 3; Epiphan. Haer. 66, 24; Acta dispatat. Archelai et Manetis, c. 7 sq. et passim; cf. Baur, l. c. p. 51 sqq. 64, 209; Flügel, Mani, p. 201 sq. 210, 233.
76.^ Ap. Augustin. c. Faust, iv. 5 sqq.
77.^ As told by Plutarch, On the Worship of Isis and Osiris, LIV, 5-6. See Mead, G.R.S (1906), Thrice Greatest Hermes: Studies in Hellenistic Theosophy and Gnosis, I, London and Benares: The Theosophical Publishing Society, p. 334, note, http://sacred-texts.com/gno/th1/index.htm
[edit] Bibliography
This article uses text from Volume IV of A Dictionary of Christian Biography, Literature, Sects and Doctrines by William Smith and Henry Wace, a publication now in the public domain.
Caitlin Matthews, Sophia: Goddess of Wisdom (London: Mandala, 1991) ISBN 0044405901
Brenda Meehan, ‘Wisdom/Sophia, Russian identity, and Western feminist theology’, Cross Currents, 46(2), 1996, pp149–168
Thomas Schipflinger, Sophia-Maria (in German: 1988; English translation: York Beach, ME: Samuel Wiser, 1998) ISBN 1578630223
Arthur Versluis, Theosophia: hidden dimensions of Christianity (Hudson, NY: Lindisfarne Press, 1994) ISBN 0940262649
Arthur Versluis, Wisdom’s children: a Christian esoteric tradition (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1999) ISBN 0791443302
Arthur Versluis (ed.) Wisdom’s book: the Sophia anthology (St.Paul, Min: Paragon House, 2000) ISBN 1557787832
Priscilla Hunt, "The Wisdom Iconography of Light: The Genesis, Meaning and Iconographic Realization of a Symbol" due to appear in “'Spor o Sofii' v Khristianskoi Kul’ture", V.L. Ianin, A.E. Musin, ed., Novgorodskii Gos. Universitet, forthcoming in 2008
Priscilla Hunt, "Confronting the End: The Interpretation of the Last Judgment in a Novgorod Wisdom Icon", Byzantino-Slavica, 65, 2007, 275-325
Priscilla Hunt, "The Novgorod Sophia Icon and 'The Problem of Old Russian Culture' Between Orthodoxy and Sophiology", Symposion: A Journal of Russian Thought, vol. 4-5, (2000), 1-41
Priscilla Hunt "Andrei Rublev’s Old Testament Trinity Icon in Cultural Context", The Trinity-Sergius Lavr in Russian History and Culture: Readings in Russian Religious Culture, vol. 3, Deacon Vladimir Tsurikov, ed., Jordanville, NY: Holy Trinity Seminary Press, 2006, 99-122
[edit] External links
Sophia: Goddess of Wisdom & God's Bride
Virgin Sophia - Rosicrucian Library
Divine Wisdom articles compiled by Priscilla Hunt
Dark Mirrors of Heaven: Gnostic Cosmogony
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