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THE SHORT PATH

1

 

"LITURGY OF FUNERARY OFFERINGS,"

E. A. Wallis Budge.

British Museum,
August 5th, 1909.

THE NINETY NINTH CEREMONY

"Two vessels of Qem wine, or wine of Mareotis, with the formula:-"Osiris Unas, the Eye of Horus which was snared in a net hath been presented unto thee, and thy mouth hath been opened thereby."

http://www.sacred-texts.com/egy/lfo/lfo001.htm

 

6
OSIRIS
89
35
8
4
UNAS
55
19
1
10
Add to Reduce
144
54
9
1+0
Reduce to Deduce
1+4+4
5+4
-
1
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

5
HORUS
81
36
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
MATTER ANTI MATTER
-
-
-
M
=
4
-
3
MATTER
77
23
5
A
=
1
-
7
ANTI
44
17
8
M
=
4
--
5
MATTER
77
23
5
-
-
9
-
15
MATTER ANTI MATTER
198
63
18
-
-
-
-
1+5
-
1+9+8
6+3
1+8
--
--
9
--
6
MATTER ANTI MATTER
18
9
9
-
-
-
--
-
-
1+8
-
-
-
-
9
--
6
MATTER ANTI MATTER
9
9
9

 

 

-
16
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
A
N
T
I
-
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
14
1+4
=
5
-
5
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
14
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
23
2+3
=
5
-
5
-
5
-
16
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
A
N
T
I
-
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
1
2
2
5
9
-
1
-
2
-
-
4
1
2
2
5
9
+
=
49
4+9
=
13
1+3
4
-
4
-
-
13
1
20
20
5
18
-
1
-
20
-
-
13
1
20
20
5
18
+
=
175
1+7+5
=
13
1+3
4
--
4
-
16
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
A
N
T
I
-
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
-
-
13
1
20
20
5
18
-
1
14
20
9
-
13
1
20
20
5
18
+
=
198
1+9+8
=
18
1+8
9
-
9
-
-
4
1
2
2
5
9
-
1
5
2
9
-
4
1
2
2
5
9
+
=
63
6+3
=
9
-
9
--
9
-
16
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
A
N
T
I
-
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-`
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
occurs
x
3
=
3
--
3
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
-
2
occurs
x
5
=
10
1+0
1
3
-
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-`
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
occurs
x
2
=
8
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
5
occurs
x
3
=
15
1+5
6
6
-
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
9
occurs
x
3
=
27
2+7
9
24
16
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
A
N
T
I
-
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
-
21
-
-
20
-
63
-
27
2+4
1+6
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
2+1
-
-
2+0
-
6+3
-
2+7
6
7
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
A
N
T
I
-
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
-
3
-
-
2
-
9
-
9
-
-
4
1
2
2
5
9
-
1
5
2
9
-
4
1
2
2
5
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
7
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
A
N
T
I
-
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
-
3
-
-
2
-
9
-
9

 

 

16
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
A
N
T
I
-
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
14
1+4
=
5
-
5
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
14
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
23
2+3
=
5
-
5
-
5
16
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
A
N
T
I
-
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
1
2
2
5
9
-
1
-
2
-
-
4
1
2
2
5
9
+
=
49
4+9
=
13
1+3
4
-
4
-
13
1
20
20
5
18
-
1
-
20
-
-
13
1
20
20
5
18
+
=
175
1+7+5
=
13
1+3
4
--
4
16
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
A
N
T
I
-
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
-
13
1
20
20
5
18
-
1
14
20
9
-
13
1
20
20
5
18
+
=
198
1+9+8
=
18
1+8
9
-
9
-
4
1
2
2
5
9
-
1
5
2
9
-
4
1
2
2
5
9
+
=
63
6+3
=
9
-
9
--
9
16
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
A
N
T
I
-
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
occurs
x
3
=
3
--
3
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
-
2
occurs
x
5
=
10
1+0
1
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
occurs
x
2
=
8
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
5
occurs
x
3
=
15
1+5
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
9
occurs
x
3
=
27
2+7
9
16
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
A
N
T
I
-
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
-
21
-
-
20
-
63
-
27
1+6
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
2+1
-
-
2+0
-
6+3
-
2+7
7
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
A
N
T
I
-
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
-
3
-
-
2
-
9
-
9
-
4
1
2
2
5
9
-
1
5
2
9
-
4
1
2
2
5
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
A
N
T
I
-
M
A
T
T
E
R
-
-
3
-
-
2
-
9
-
9

 

 

Niels Bohr - Wikiquote
https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Niels_Bohr

Variants: Those who are not shocked when they first come across quantum mechanics cannot possibly have understood it. Those who are not shocked when they first come across quantum theory cannot possibly have understood it. Anyone who is not shocked by quantum theory has not understood a single word.
Anyone who is not shocked by quantum theory has not understood it. As quoted in Meeting the Universe Halfway (2007) by Karen Michelle Barad, p. 254, with a footnote citing The Philosophical Writings of Niels Bohr (1998).
Variants: Those who are not shocked when they first come across quantum mechanics cannot possibly have understood it.
Those who are not shocked when they first come across quantum theory cannot possibly have understood it.
Anyone who is not shocked by quantum theory has not understood a single word.
If you think you can talk about quantum theory without feeling dizzy, you haven't understood the first thing about it.

Anyone who is not shocked by quantum theory has not understood it.

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
=
1
-
1
6
ANYONE
74
29
2
-
-
2
3
-
5
6
7
-
-
W
=
5
-
2
3
WHO
46
19
1
-
1
-
3
-
5
6
7
8
-
I
=
9
-
3
2
IS
28
10
1
-
1
-
3
-
5
6
7
-
-
N
=
5
-
4
3
NOT
49
13
4
-
-
-
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
S
=
1
-
5
7
SHOCKED
65
29
2
-
-
2
3
-
5
6
7
-
-
B
=
2
-
6
2
BY
27
9
9
-
-
-
3
-
5
6
7
-
9
Q
=
8
-
7
7
QUANTUM
107
26
8
-
-
-
3
-
5
6
7
8
-
T
=
2
-
8
6
THEORY
91
37
1
-
1
-
3
-
5
6
7
8
-
H
=
8
-
9
3
HAS
28
10
1
-
1
-
3
-
5
6
7
8
-
N
=
5
-
10
3
NOT
49
13
4
-
-
-
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
U
=
3
-
11
10
UNDERSTOOD
135
45
9
-
-
-
3
-
5
6
7
-
9
I
=
9
-
12
2
IT
29
11
2
-
-
2
3
-
5
6
7
-
-
-
-
58
-
4
54
First Total
728
251
44
-
4
6
3
8
5
6
7
8
18
-
-
5+8
-
-
5+4
Add to Reduce
7+2+8
2+5+1
4+4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+8
Q
-
13
-
-
9
Second Total
17
8
8
-
4
6
3
8
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
1+3
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Q
-
4
-
-
9
Essence of Number
8
8
8
-
34
6
3
8
5
6
7
8
9

 


www.innerpearls.co.uk/2018/01/

 

Inner Pearls: Janu

11 Jan 2018 - ... we call real is made up of things that cannot be regarded as real” and “anyone who is not shocked by quantum theory has not understood it”.

January 2018

Building Blocks of Reality ~ Part 1

I have just recently watched the documentary 'The Secrets of Quantum Physics (Part 1: Einstein's Nightmare) and thought it would be beneficial to make some notes from the content. So here goes.

Professor Jim Al-Khalil opens the documentary by saying that “beneath the complexities of everyday life, the rules of our universe seem reassuringly simple”. He provides the examples of a bridge that is supporting his weight, of water flowing downhill and of throwing a stone which flies through the air in a predictable path. So it follows that as a species we are able to say that there is evidence of some components in life which are consistent and predictable; this in turn ignites our curiosity to seek out other certainties by which we can chart and navigate our consensus of ‘reality’.

The documentary informs that it was about 100 years ago that some of the world’s greatest scientists began to peer into the building blocks of matter and discovered a world of quantum mechanics in which things could be in two places at once, that their fates are seemingly dictated by chance and that reality defies common sense.

Imagine the level of shock and amazement that must have emerged in those who first began to peer into the realm of the unknown – what was at stake was everything we thought we knew (from a basis of everyday observation and experience). It would seem that the act of observation is itself transient and that what we determine as conclusive or as reality only takes on form after we have concluded that we ‘know’ something; what we determine as ‘reality’ isn’t reality per se, but is a conclusion that we arrive at through our level of observation and our interpretation of events. Niels Bohr, one of the founders of what we now refer to as quantum mechanics, has been quoted as saying ‘everything we call real is made up of things that cannot be regarded as real” and “anyone who is not shocked by quantum theory has not understood it”.

In 1890 Germany was a new country, recently unified and hungry to industrialise. The Germans had spent millions buying the European patent for Edison’s new invention, the light bulb (although Edison has been credited as being a genius behind and the inventor of the lightbulb, other people were already working on similar technologies). Furthermore, engineering companies were swift to realise that there were fortunes to be made building street lights for an emerging German Empire. It was this impetus to create a strong foothold upon the world stage and to establish an industrial and economical advantage that would give rise to a scientific revolution – the world of quantum mechanics.

It transpires that the light bulb presented something of a problem, in that although engineers knew that if you heated the filament with electricity, it glowed, the physics underpinning this was a mystery. In 1887 the German government invested millions in a new technical research institute in Berlin and in 1900 enlisted the scientist Max Planck to work there.

Planck and his colleagues built a black-body radiator, a special tube which they could heat to a precise temperature and as a way to measure the colour or frequency of light it produced. Although very bright, red-white light could be produced, there was very little blue. Why is it that little ultraviolet is produced at all, even when we look at things as hot as the sun? This perplexed the scientists of the late 19th century and they named it the ‘ultraviolet catastrophe’. Planck looked into solving this and found precise mathematical links between the colour of light, its frequency and its energy, although he didn’t understand the connection.

At this same time, scientists were studying the newly discovered radio waves and how they were transmitted. They discovered that huge voltages would cause sparks to jump across a gap between two metal spheres. By shining a powerful light on the spheres, they could make the sparks jump across more easily, which suggested a connection between light and electricity.

To understand this phenomenon more, scientists used a gold leaf electroscope. Once this apparatus was charged, an excess of electrons would push two gold leaves apart. The leaves weren’t affected by shining red light (and no matter how bright) upon the metal surface. However, if blue light and rich in ultraviolet was used, the gold leaves immediately collapsed. It was evident from this that light could knock out electrons and remove the static electric charge from the leaves. The puzzle as to why ultraviolet light was so much better at doing this than red light became known as the ‘photoelectric effect’. However, neither the ultraviolet catastrophe nor the photoelectric effect could be understood using the best science of the time, which had put forward that light was a wave.

The documentary pointed out that if we were to observe how waves in water behave, it would be evident that bigger and more intense waves have more power. If light was a wave, then it would follow that more intensity should knock out more electrons. But in the experiments with the gold leaf electroscope, it didn’t seem to matter how intense the red light was, as it didn’t move the electrons from the metal and yet the weak ultraviolet worked within seconds. Was light more than or something other than a wave?

It was in 1905 that Albert Einstein came up with a new theory to explain the photoelectric effect. He put forward that we have to dismiss the idea that light is a wave and to regard it instead as a stream of tiny particles. The term he used to describe a particle of light as a tiny lump of energy was a quantum. According to Einstein, each particle of red light carries very little energy because red light has a low frequency, so even a very bright red light with many red light particles can’t dislodge electrons from the metal places. Each particle of ultraviolet light carries more energy because ultraviolet is a higher frequency and so a few of them, as with a dim ultraviolet light, are enough to knock the electrons out of the metal plate and collapse the gold leaf. Einstein’s idea helped to solve the ultraviolet catastrophe and Planck’s mystery of the light bulb, in that there was more red than ultraviolet because ultraviolet quanta took considerably more energy to make.

This marked the beginning of a scientific revolution, in that it demonstrated that a new approach was needed to the kind of physical science that people had previously been engaging with. However Einstein’s theory left physicists with a paradox that defied common sense. Light was a wave which explained shadows and bubbles and yet it was also a particle – a quanta which explained the photoelectric effect and the ultraviolet catastrophe.

A few years later and the Western world was in the grip of a cultural revolution marking the birth of modernism; the paradox of light was to become a battleground about the nature of reality itself, with the Danish physicist Niels Bohr on one side and Einstein on the other. What was now in question wasn’t about light but about the particles that make electricity. It had previously been understood that electrons were tiny lumps of matter, small but solid particles. An experiment was carried out at Bell Laboratories in New Jersey whereby they fired a beam of electrons at a crystal and watched how they scattered. What they discovered was that each single electron was behaving like a wave. It was to explore this phenomenon and other theories about light and matter that Niels Bohr and his colleagues created quantum mechanics.

It would appear that an electron is ethereal and representative of some form of probability event. If it were a coin spinning, then it would be both heads and tails but if we were to intervene and to stop it spinning by putting a hand on it flat, then it would be one or the other. The moment we observe it with intent to measure it is when it behaves as a particle. To anyone who believes in an objective reality as something which is tangible and can be consistently measured and dissected, any theories about what had been previously been regarded as amongst the commonest and most basic building blocks of reality as instead being ethereal probability particles would be crazy-making; as weird as snapping our fingers and being able to make something appear out of thin air as if by magic! As the Professor in the documentary said, “It’s like there’s a curtain between us and the quantum world and behind it there is no solid reality, just the potential for reality”. This new theory with regards to the nature of electrons became known as the ‘Copenhagen interpretation’.

Albert Einstein did not favour this interpretation of reality. He has been famously quoted as saying, “Does the moon cease to exist when I don’t look at it?” He and Niels Bohr would debate passionately about whether quantum mechanics meant giving up on reality or not. Then, along with two other scientists, Nathan Rosen and Boris Podolsky, Einstein thought they’d found a flaw in the Copenhagen interpretation and it had to do with an aspect of quantum mechanics called ‘entanglement’. Entanglement has to do with the relationship that exists between a pair of quantum particles whose fates are intertwined. If for example, they were created in the same event, it would not matter if there appeared to be any measurable distance between them as many of their properties would be linked. The Copenhagen interpretation says that, in the example of two spinning coins, neither of them is heads or tails. In the case of entanglement, once one coin is stopped and becomes heads, the second coin will simultaneously become tails. This suggested that somehow the two coins had to be communicating instantaneously across space and time.

Einstein refused to believe this faster than light communication as his theory of relativity said that nothing could travel that fast, not even information. He referred to the phenomenon of apparent communication between two quantum particles as ‘spooky action at a distance’ and claimed that it was a flaw in the Copenhagen interpretation. Einstein’s theory was that instead of there being any spontaneous occurrence, somehow the destiny of the two quantum particles was already fixed long before we were able to observe them and had instead been hidden from us.

Einstein did not view quantum particles as being anything like spinning coins that are representative of a field of spontaneous potential or probabilities, but as components of a larger picture of reality that we are simply becoming aware of at any moment of observation. An example would be say, a pair of gloves that are separated into boxes. We wouldn’t know which box contained which glove until we opened one, but would then know instantly that the other box contained the other glove to the set. Neither glove would have been altered by an act of observation; it didn’t demonstrate any spooky action at a distance and preserved his theory that nothing, not even information, could travel faster than light. The only thing that had changed was our knowledge.

Is there an objective reality or not? Does something only come into existence when we look at it, i.e. is the moon not there otherwise, or are we simply turning over pieces and becoming aware of a giant jigsaw in which everything has its place and is inter-related? In the late 1930s, war moved across Europe and many of the leading scientists fled to the United States. The Second World War led to the Cold War and an abundance of American money that was available to invest in continuing research and technologies, together with a new vision of the future took hold. The philosophical side of things was rendered into having a back seat. The modern electronic age was coming into view and has given us revolutionary telecommunications, lasers and other medical advances as well as nuclear power. Aside from any industrial advantage, the technological leap has been profound not simply in terms of yielding information, but of providing a context by which we are shaping our cultural response and values.

The documentary asserts that quantum mechanics was so successful that most working physicists deliberately chose to ignore Einstein’s objections. The yield that this new industry was generating was so great that for anyone to get in its way brought forward the phrase, “shut up and calculate”, causing for Bohr and Einstein’s debate on the reality of the quantum world to move into having less focus.

It was whilst working at Harwell, Britain’s atomic research centre, that physicist John Stewart Bell started to ponder on the mystery and questions that quantum mechanics had raised and in particular, the Copenhagen interpretation. He became troubled about the direction that quantum mechanics had taken and said, “I hesitate to think it might be wrong, but I know it is rotten”. In the early 1960s he embarked on a challenge to try and resolve the crisis of how to check without looking if something is or isn’t there and is real. Bell’s Theorem was shown to demonstrate that Einstein’s views on the incompleteness of quantum mechanics and in particular the action of hidden local variables was incorrect. His theories were such that they would have a lasting impact on physics, laying the foundations for quantum information technology, most especially cryptography which has been so greatly prized by the financial services and cyber-security industries.

To sum this up and what does it mean?

In simple terms, why was Bell’s contribution to physics so revolutionary? Because physicists since the time of Newton, had been using concepts from classical mechanics, the field that studied the nature and motion of objects. Classical mechanics had put forward that measurable properties such as position, momentum and acceleration etc. of an object had to be well-defined before it is measured.

An example would be that if you were to pick up a ball and observe that it is red, then you are assuming that the ball was already red prior to your picking it up. Quantum mechanics on the other hand, would argue that a measurable property is not well-defined before you measure it and that it exists in a combination of certain possible states or a field of probabilities; that it is only when you measure it does the combination filter out to just one possible final state. This filtering out of possible states is referred to as ‘quantum decoherence’ or wavefunction collapse. Physicists know that such a phenomenon exists but as to how it works is completely unknown.

Are we information gatherers or passive travellers moving along pre-ordained pathways? Are we autonomous beings in so far as we are capable of choosing to be at cause in the events of life – our own, others and the planet? Are we literally birthing reality into existence moment by moment or are we waking up to a primordial state of consciousness – are the two mutually exclusive or could both Einstein and Bohr be right?

How does the nature of how we regard ourselves and our purpose shape our motivations and behaviours? How does this in turn impact upon and influence others, both within our own culture and without? What sort of timeline, or field of probabilities, are we creating that will inform and influence future – and if time is not linear, perhaps even previous generations? Are we able to become super-conscious beings, what factors are contingent upon this and how might that change every facet of our experience?


Niels Bohr, one of the founders of what we now refer to as quantum mechanics, has been quoted as saying

everything we call real is made up of things that cannot be regarded as real” and “anyone who is not shocked by quantum theory has not understood it”

 

Everything we call real is made of things that cannot be regarded as real.” —Niels Bohr (1885–1962), Noble Prize-winning physicist ...

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
E
=
5
-
1
10
EVERYTHING
133
61
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
7
8
-
W
=
5
-
2
5
WE
28
10
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
-
C
=
3
-
3
6
CALL
28
10
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
-
R
=
9
-
4
2
REAL
36
18
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
9
I
=
9
-
5
2
IS
28
10
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
M
=
4
-
6
4
MADE
23
14
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
6
8
-
-
O
=
6
-
7
1
OF
21
12
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
6
-
-
-
T
=
2
-
8
6
THINGS
77
32
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
6
8
-
-
T
=
2
-
9
5
THAT
49
13
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
6
-
8
-
C
=
3
-
10
6
CANNOT
67
22
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
6
-
8
-
B
=
2
-
11
2
BE
7
7
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
7
8
-
R
=
9
-
12
10
REGARDED
62
44
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
-
A
=
1
-
13
3
AS
20
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
R
=
9
-
14
2
REAL
36
18
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
9
-
-
66
-
4
60
First Total
615
273
66
-
3
2
3
8
10
6
14
8
18
-
-
6+6
-
-
6+0
Add to Reduce
6+1+5
2+7+3
6+6
-
-
-
-
-
1+0
-
1+4
-
1+8
Q
-
12
-
-
6
Second Total
12
12
12
-
3
2
3
8
1
6
5
8
9
-
-
1+2
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+2
1+2
1+2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Q
-
3
-
-
6
Essence of Number
3
3
3
-
3
2
3
8
1
6
5
8
9

 

and “anyone who is not shocked by quantum theory has not understood it”

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
=
1
-
1
3
AND
19
10
1
-
1
-
3
-
5
6
7
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
2
6
ANYONE
74
29
2
-
-
2
3
-
5
6
7
-
-
W
=
5
-
3
3
WHO
46
19
1
-
1
-
3
-
5
6
7
8
-
I
=
9
-
4
2
IS
28
10
1
-
1
-
3
-
5
6
7
-
-
N
=
5
-
5
3
NOT
49
13
4
-
-
-
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
S
=
1
-
6
7
SHOCKED
65
29
2
-
-
2
3
-
5
6
7
-
-
B
=
2
-
7
2
BY
27
9
9
-
-
-
3
-
5
6
7
-
9
Q
=
8
-
8
7
QUANTUM
107
26
8
-
-
-
3
-
5
6
7
8
-
T
=
2
-
9
6
THEORY
91
37
1
-
1
-
3
-
5
6
7
8
-
H
=
8
-
10
3
HAS
28
10
1
-
1
-
3
-
5
6
7
8
-
N
=
5
-
11
3
NOT
49
13
4
-
-
-
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
U
=
3
-
12
10
UNDERSTOOD
135
45
9
-
-
-
3
-
5
6
7
-
9
I
=
9
-
13
2
IT
29
11
2
-
-
2
3
-
5
6
7
-
-
-
-
59
-
4
57
First Total
747
261
45
-
5
6
3
8
5
6
7
8
18
-
-
5+9
-
-
5+7
Add to Reduce
7+4+7
2+6+1
4+5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+8
Q
-
14
-
-
12
Second Total
18
9
9
-
5
6
3
8
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
1+4
-
-
1+2
Reduce to Deduce
1+8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Q
-
5
-
-
3
Essence of Number
9
9
9
-
5
6
3
8
5
6
7
8
9

 

 

7
ANOTHER
81
36
9
14
NINE NINETY NINE
171
81
9
21
Add to Reduce
252
117
18
2+1
Reduce to Deduce
2+5+2
1+1+7
1+8
3
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

4
LOVE
54
18
9
3
ONE
34
16
7
7
ANOTHER
81
36
9

 

 

1
I
9
9
9
4
LOVE
54
18
9
3
YOU
61
16
7
3
YOU
61
16
7
1
I
9
9
9
4
LOVE
54
18
9

 

 

6
OSIRIS
89
35
8
8
WENNOFER
100
46
1
14
I
189
81
9
1+4
-
1+8+9
8+1
-
5
-
18
9
9
-
-
1+8
-
-
5
TO
9
9
9

 

 

5
HETEP
54
27
9

 

 

P
=
7
4
PAST
56
11
2
P
=
7
7
PRESENT
97
34
7
F
=
6
6
FUTURE
91
28
1
`-
-
20
17
-
244
73
10
`-
-
2+0
1+7
-
2+4+4
7+3
1+0
`-
-
2
8
-
10
10
1
`-
-
-
-
-
1+0
1+0
-
-
-
2
8
-
1
1
1

 

 

Y
=
7
9
YESTERDAY
122
41
5
T
=
2
5
TODAY
65
20
2
T
=
2
8
TOMORROW
137
47
2
`-
-
11
22
-
324
108
9
`-
-
1+1
2+2
-
3+2+4
1+0+8
-
`-
-
2
4
-
9
9
9

 

 

11
PAST + PRESENT
153
45
9
14
YESTERDAY TODAY
187
61
7
6
FUTURE
91
28
1
8
TOMORROW
137
47
2

 

 

4
BODY
46
19
1
4
SOUL
67
13
4
6
SPIRIT
91
37
1
14
I
204
69
6
1+4
-
2+0+4
6+9
-
5
-
6
15
6
-
-
-
1+5
-
5
TO
6
6
6

 

 

6
SPIRIT
91
37
1
4
SOUL
67
13
4
4
MIND
40
22
4
14
I
198
72
9
1+4
-
1+9+8
7+2
-
5
-
18
9
9
-
-
1+8
-
-
5
TO
9
9
9

 

 

4
BODY
46
19
1
4
SOUL
67
13
4
4
MIND
40
22
4
12
I
153
54
9
1+2
-
1+5+3
5+4
-
3
-
9
9
9

 

 

7
PHARAOH
67
40
4
7
PYRAMID
86
41
5
14
I
153
81
9
1+4
-
1+5+3
8+1
-
5
-
9
9
9

 

 

14
ALBERT EINSTEIN
153
63
9
12
QUETZALCOATL
153
45
9
12
BODY SOUL MIND
153
54
9

 

 

-
SAGITTARIUS
-
-
-
3
SAG
27
18
9
1
I
9
9
9
3
TTA
41
5
5
1
R
18
9
9
1
I
9
9
9
2
US
40
13
4
11
SAGITTARIUS
144
63
45
1+1
-
1+4+4
6+3
4+5
2
SAGITTARIUS
9
9
9

 

 

On Love. Kahlil Gibran - 1883-1931. Then said Almitra, Speak to us of Love. ...

All these things shall love do unto you that you may know the secrets of your heart ...

Kahlil Gibran on Love

When love beckons to you, follow him,
Though his ways are hard and steep.
And when his wings enfold you yield to him,
Though the sword hidden among his pinions may wound you.
And when he speaks to you believe in him,
Though his voice may shatter your dreams
as the north wind lays waste the garden.

For even as love crowns you so shall he crucify you. Even as he is for your growth so is he for your pruning.
Even as he ascends to your height and caresses your tenderest branches that quiver in the sun,
So shall he descend to your roots and shake them in their clinging to the earth.

Like sheaves of corn he gathers you unto himself.
He threshes you to make you naked.
He sifts you to free you from your husks.
He grinds you to whiteness.
He kneads you until you are pliant;
And then he assigns you to his sacred fire, that you may become sacred bread for God's sacred feast.

All these things shall love do unto you that you may know the secrets of your heart, and in that knowledge become a fragment of Life's heart.

But if in your fear you would seek only love's peace and love's pleasure,
Then it is better for you that you cover your nakedness and pass out of love's threshing-floor,
Into the seasonless world where you shall laugh, but not all of your laughter, and weep, but not all of your tears.
Love gives naught but itself and takes naught but from itself.
Love possesses not nor would it be possessed;
For love is sufficient unto love.

When you love you should not say, "God is in my heart," but rather, "I am in the heart of God."
And think not you can direct the course of love, for love, if it finds you worthy, directs your course.

Love has no other desire but to fulfill itself.
But if you love and must needs have desires, let these be your desires:
To melt and be like a running brook that sings its melody to the night.
To know the pain of too much tenderness.
To be wounded by your own understanding of love;
And to bleed willingly and joyfully.
To wake at dawn with a winged heart and give thanks for another day of loving;
To rest at the noon hour and meditate love's ecstasy;
To return home at eventide with gratitude;
And then to sleep with a prayer for the beloved in your heart and a song of praise upon your lips.

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
M
=
4
-
1
7
MESSAGE
69
24
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
8
8
-
F
=
6
-
2
4
FROM
52
25
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
8
-
T
=
2
-
3
3
THE
33
15
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
-
O
=
6
-
4
5
OTHER
66
30
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
8
-
-
S
=
1
-
5
4
SIDE
37
19
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
O
=
6
-
6
2
OF
21
12
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
8
-
-
T
=
2
-
7
3
THE
33
15
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
-
O
=
6
-
8
5
OTHER
66
30
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
8
-
-
S
=
1
-
9
4
SIDE
37
19
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
34
-
4
37
First Total
414
189
36
-
2
2
9
4
5
18
7
8
9
-
-
3+4
-
-
3+7
Add to Reduce
4+1+4
1+8+9
3+6
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+8
-
-
-
Q
-
7
-
-
10
Second Total
9
9
9
-
2
2
9
4
5
9
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
1+0
Reduce to Deduce
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Q
-
7
-
-
1
Essence of Number
9
9
9
-
2
2
9
4
5
9
7
8
9

 

GIVE ME A ONE

I GIVE YOU A

1

GIVE ME AN EIGHT

I GIVE YOU AN

8

GIVE ME A THREE

I GIVE YOU A

3

GIVE ME A SIX

I GIVE YOU A

6

GIVE ME A ONE EIGHT THREE SIX

I GIVE YOU A

1836

 

WELL I NEVER DID YOU EVER

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
T
=
2
-
1
4
TIME
47
20
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
8
8
8
-
T
=
2
-
2
3
THE
33
15
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
-
E
=
5
-
3
7
ETERNAL
75
30
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
M
=
4
-
4
6
MOMENT
80
26
8
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
8
-
I
=
9
-
5
2
IN
23
14
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
8
-
8
-
F
=
6
-
6
7
FOREVER
89
44
8
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
8
-
-
-
28
-
4
39
First Total
347
149
32
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
16
9
-
-
2+8
-
-
3+9
Add to Reduce
3+4+7
1+4+9
3+2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+6
-
Q
-
10
-
-
12
Second Total
14
23
5
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
7
9
-
-
1+0
-
-
1+2
Reduce to Deduce
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Q
-
1
-
-
3
Essence of Number
5
5
5
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
7
9

 

 

Ancient Petra Jordan's Lost Oasis - National Geographic
https://www.nationalgeographic.com/archaeology-and-history/magazine/.../petra/

5 days ago - After the Roman conquest and the shifting of trade routes, the city declined in .... a new wave of settlers arrived, whose vast wealth would turn
Petra into the Rose City. ... If the settlement at this time was a lush urban oasis in the middle of the red desert, ..... Centuries-old irrigation system shows how to manage scarce water.

 

 

John Burgon - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Burgon

John William Burgon (21 August 1813 – 4 August 1888) was an English Anglican divine who ... During his first year the family moved to London, where he was sent to school. After a few years of business life ... a rose-red city half as old as time.
?Biography · ?Works · Burgon in modern times

John William Burgon[a] (21 August 1813 – 4 August 1888) was an English Anglican divine who became the Dean of Chichester Cathedral in 1876. He is remembe
r his resolute defence of the historicity and Mosaic authorship of Genesis and of biblical inerrancy in general.

In 1845 Burgon won the Newdigate Prize for his poem Petra, with topic Petra, the city now in Jordan, which he had never seen. An excerpt describing the buildings has often been reprinted:

“ It seems no work of Man's creative hand,
by labour wrought as wavering fancy planned;
But from the rock as if by magic grown,
eternal, silent, beautiful, alone!
Not virgin-white like that old Doric shrine,
where erst Athena held her rites divine;
Not saintly-grey, like many a minster fane,
that crowns the hill and consecrates the plain;
But rose-red as if the blush of dawn,
that first beheld them were not yet withdrawn;
The hues of youth upon a brow of woe,
which Man deemed old two thousand years ago,
match me such marvel save in Eastern clime,
a rose-red city half as old as time. ”

The poem is now chiefly remembered for the famous final line above, which quotes the phrase "half as old as time" from Samuel Rogers.[5] (This fourteen-line excerpt is often referred to as a "sonnet," but the poem is 370 lines long, in rhymed couplets. Burgon published it, apparently in a small pamphlet, around 1845. A "Second Edition" "To Which a Few Short Poems Are Now Added," was published in 1846;[6] the text above follows it. It contained some revisions: "sanctifies" had been "consecrates"; "call'd" had been "deemed"; "But rosy-red,—as if the blush of dawn" had been "But rose-red as if the blush of dawn", and so on. There was also an 1885 book containing the poem.)

 

"MATCH ME SUCH MARVEL SAVE IN EASTERN CLIME,

A ROSE RED CITY HALF AS OLD AS TIME

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
M
=
4
-
1
5
MATCH
45
18
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
9
M
=
4
-
2
2
ME
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
9
S
=
1
-
3
4
SUCH
51
24
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
7
-
-
M
=
4
-
4
6
MARVEL
71
26
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
8
-
S
=
1
-
5
4
SAVE
47
11
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
I
=
9
-
6
2
IN
23
14
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
7
-
-
E
=
5
-
7
7
EASTERN
82
28
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
C
=
3
-
8
5
CLIME
42
24
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
7
-
-
-
-
31
-
-
35
-
379
154
46
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
9
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
R
=
9
-
10
4
ROSE
57
21
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
7
8
-
R
=
9
-
11
3
RED
27
18
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
9
C
=
3
-
12
4
CITY
57
21
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
7
-
-
H
=
8
-
13
4
HALF
27
18
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
9
A
=
1
-
14
2
AS
20
11
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
O
=
6
-
15
3
OLD
31
13
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
7
-
-
A
=
1
-
16
2
AS
20
11
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
T
=
2
-
17
4
TIME
47
20
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
7
8
-
-
-
40
-
-
27
-
287
134
35
-
2
8
6
4
5
12
7
8
36
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+2
-
-
3+6
-
-
71
-
4
62
First Total
666
288
81
-
2
8
6
4
5
3
7
8
9
-
-
7+1
-
-
6+2
Add to Reduce
6+6+6
2+8+8
8+1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Q
-
8
-
-
8
Second Total
18
18
9
-
2
8
6
4
5
3
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+8
1+8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Q
-
8
-
-
8
Essence of Number
9
9
9
-
2
8
6
4
5
3
7
8
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
T
=
2
-
1
3
THE
33
15
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
-
P
=
7
-
2
6
PEOPLE
69
33
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
-
O
=
6
-
3
2
OF
21
12
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
T
=
2
-
4
3
THE
33
15
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
-
B
=
2
-
5
4
BOOK
43
16
7
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
7
-
-
-
-
19
-
4
18
First Total
199
91
28
-
1
2
3
4
5
18
7
8
9
-
-
1+9
-
-
1+8
Add to Reduce
1+9+9
9+1
2+8
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+8
-
-
-
Q
-
10
-
-
9
Second Total
19
10
10
-
1
2
3
4
5
9
7
8
9
-
-
1+0
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+9
1+0
1+0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Q
-
1
-
-
9
Third Totalr
10
1
1
-
1
2
3
4
5
9
7
8
9
-
-
1+0
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Q
-
1
-
-
9
Essence of Number
1
1
1
-
1
2
3
4
5
9
7
8
9

 

 

END OF DAYS

 

-
-
-
-
9
END OF DAYS
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
E
=
5
-
1
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
8
8
-
N
=
5
-
2
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
8
8
-
D
=
4
-
3
1
D
4
4
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
8
-
-
O
=
6
-
4
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
8
-
-
F
=
6
-
5
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
D
=
4
-
6
1
D
4
4
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
8
-
-
A
=
1
-
7
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Y
=
7
-
8
1
Y
25
7
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
8
-
S
=
1
-
9
1
S
19
10
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
39
-
4
9
END OF DAYS
93
48
39
-
2
2
3
8
10
12
7
8
9
-
-
3+9
-
-
-
-
9+3
4+8
3+9
-
-
-
-
-
1+0
1+2
-
-
-
Q
-
12
-
-
9
END OF DAYS
12
12
12
-
2
2
3
8
1
3
7
8
9
-
-
1+2
-
-
-
-
1+2
1+2
1+2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Q
-
3
-
-
9
END OF DAYS
3
3
3
-
2
2
3
8
1
3
7
8
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
9
END OF DAYS
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
=
1
-
7
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
2
3
-
-
-
-
8
9
S
=
1
-
9
1
S
19
10
1
-
1
2
3
-
-
-
-
8
9
D
=
4
-
3
1
D
4
4
4
-
-
2
3
4
-
-
8
8
9
D
=
4
-
6
1
D
4
4
4
-
-
2
3
4
-
-
8
8
9
E
=
5
-
1
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
2
3
-
5
-
8
8
9
N
=
5
-
2
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
2
3
-
5
-
8
8
9
O
=
6
-
4
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
2
3
-
-
6
8
8
9
F
=
6
-
5
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
2
3
-
-
6
-
8
9
Y
=
7
-
8
1
Y
25
7
7
-
-
2
3
-
-
-
7
8
9
-
-
39
-
4
9
END OF DAYS
93
48
39
-
2
2
3
8
10
12
7
8
9
-
-
3+9
-
-
-
-
9+3
4+8
3+9
-
-
-
-
-
1+0
1+2
-
-
-
Q
-
12
-
-
9
END OF DAYS
12
12
12
-
2
2
3
8
1
3
7
8
9
-
-
1+2
-
-
-
-
1+2
1+2
1+2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Q
-
3
-
-
9
END OF DAYS
3
3
3
-
2
2
3
8
1
3
7
8
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
9
END OF DAYS
-
-
-
-
1
4
5
6
7
A
=
1
-
7
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
S
=
1
-
9
1
S
19
10
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
D
=
4
-
3
1
D
4
4
4
-
-
4
-
-
8
D
=
4
-
6
1
D
4
4
4
-
-
4
-
-
8
E
=
5
-
1
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
5
-
8
N
=
5
-
2
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
5
-
8
O
=
6
-
4
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
-
-
6
8
F
=
6
-
5
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
-
6
-
Y
=
7
-
8
1
Y
25
7
7
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
39
-
4
9
END OF DAYS
93
48
39
-
2
8
10
12
7
-
-
3+9
-
-
-
-
9+3
4+8
3+9
-
-
-
1+0
1+2
-
Q
-
12
-
-
9
END OF DAYS
12
12
12
-
2
8
1
3
7
-
-
1+2
-
-
-
-
1+2
1+2
1+2
-
-
-
-
-
-
Q
-
3
-
-
9
END OF DAYS
3
3
3
-
2
8
1
3
7

 

 

End time - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/End_time

End time
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"End times", "Eschaton", and "Last days" For other uses of these terms, see End Times (disambiguation), Endtime (disambiguation), Eschaton (disambiguation), and Last days (disambiguation).

The end time is a future time-period described variously in the eschatologies of several world ...Norse mythology depicts the end of days as Ragnarök, an Old Norse term translatable as "twilight of the gods". It will be heralded by a .... Most fundamentalist Christians anticipate biblical prophecy to be literally fulfilled. They see ... In Judaism, the term "end of days" makes reference to the Messianic Age and includes an in-gathering of the ..... around the second coming of Christ, disclosed by new prophecy or special revelation not described in the Bible.

The end time (also called end times, end of time, end of days, last days, final days, doomsday, or eschaton) is a future time-period described variously in the eschatologies of several world religions (both Abrahamic and non-Abrahamic), which teach that world events will reach a final climax.

The Abrahamic faiths maintain a linear cosmology, with end-time scenarios containing themes of transformation and redemption. In Judaism, the term "end of days" makes reference to the Messianic Age and includes an in-gathering of the exiled Jewish diaspora, the coming of the Messiah, the resurrection of the righteous, and the world to come. Some sects of Christianity depict the end time as a period of tribulation that precedes the second coming of Christ, who will face the Antichrist along with his power structure and usher in the Kingdom of God.

In Islam, the Day of Judgement is preceded by the appearance of the al-Masih al-Dajjal, and followed by the descending of Isa (Jesus). Isa will triumph over the false messiah, or the Antichrist, which will lead to a sequence of events that will end with the sun rising from the west and the beginning of the Qiyamah (Judgment day).

Non-Abrahamic faiths tend to have more cyclical world-views, with end-time eschatologies characterized by decay, redemption, and rebirth. In Hinduism, the end time occurs when Kalki, the final incarnation of Vishnu, descends atop a white horse and brings an end to the current Kali Yuga. In Buddhism, the Buddha predicted that his teachings would be forgotten after 5,000 years, followed by turmoil. A bodhisattva named Maitreya will appear and rediscover the teaching of dharma. The ultimate destruction of the world will then come through seven suns.

Since the development of the concept of deep time in the 18th century and the calculation of the estimated age of the Earth, scientific discourse about end times has centered on the ultimate fate of the universe. Theories have included the Big Rip, Big Crunch, Big Bounce, and Big Freeze (heat death).

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"End times", "Eschaton", and "Last days" redirect here. For other uses of these terms, see End Times (disambiguation), Endtime (disambiguation), Eschaton (disambiguation), and Last days (

Jewish[show]

Taoist[show]

Zoroastrian[show]

Inter-religious[hide]

End times ·
Apocalypticism

2012 phenomenon

Millenarianism ·
Last Judgment

Resurrection of the dead

Gog and Magog ·
Messianic Age

The end time (also called end times, end of time, end of days, last days, final days, doomsday, or eschaton) is a future time-period described variously in the eschatologies of several world religions (both Abrahamic and non-Abrahamic), which teach that world events will reach a final climax.

The Abrahamic faiths maintain a linear cosmology, with end-time scenarios containing themes of transformation and redemption. In Judaism, the term "end of days" makes reference to the Messianic Age and includes an in-gathering of the exiled Jewish diaspora, the coming of the Messiah, the resurrection of the righteous, and the world to come. Some sects of Christianity depict the end time as a period of tribulation that precedes the second coming of Christ, who will face the Antichrist along with his power structure and usher in the Kingdom of God.

In Islam, the Day of Judgement is preceded by the appearance of the al-Masih al-Dajjal, and followed by the descending of Isa (Jesus). Isa will triumph over the false messiah, or the Antichrist, which will lead to a sequence of events that will end with the sun rising from the west and the beginning of the Qiyamah (Judgment day).

Non-Abrahamic faiths tend to have more cyclical world-views, with end-time eschatologies characterized by decay, redemption, and rebirth. In Hinduism, the end time occurs when Kalki, the final incarnation of Vishnu, descends atop a white horse and brings an end to the current Kali Yuga. In Buddhism, the Buddha predicted that his teachings would be forgotten after 5,000 years, followed by turmoil. A bodhisattva named Maitreya will appear and rediscover the teaching of dharma. The ultimate destruction of the world will then come through seven suns.

Since the development of the concept of deep time in the 18th century and the calculation of the estimated age of the Earth, scientific discourse about end times has centered on the ultimate fate of the universe. Theories have included the Big Rip, Big Crunch, Big Bounce, and Big Freeze (heat death).

Contents [hide]
1 Cyclic cosmology 1.1 Indian religions 1.1.1 Buddhism 1.1.1.1 Maitreya
1.1.1.2 Sermon of the Seven Suns

1.1.2 Hinduism

1.2 Norse religion

2 Linear cosmology 2.1 Abrahamic religions 2.1.1 Bahá'í Faith
2.1.2 Christianity 2.1.2.1 Catholicism
2.1.2.2 Protestantism 2.1.2.2.1 Preterism
2.1.2.2.2 Dispensationalist prophecies
2.1.2.2.3 Post-tribulation pre-millennialists
2.1.2.2.4 Specific prophetic movements

2.1.2.3 Restorationism (Christian primitivism) 2.1.2.3.1 Jehovah's Witnesses
2.1.2.3.2 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

2.1.3 Islam 2.1.3.1 Sunni
2.1.3.2 Shia
2.1.3.3 Ahmadiyya

2.1.4 Judaism
2.1.5 Rastafari movement

2.2 Zoroastrianism

3 See also
4 Notes
5 References
6 External links

Cyclic cosmology[edit]

Indian religions[edit]

Buddhism[edit]

Main articles: Buddhist eschatology and Maitreya

There are two major points of Buddhist eschatology, the appearance of Maitreya, followed by the Sermon of the Seven Suns.

Maitreya[edit]

Buddha described his teachings disappearing five thousand years from when he preached them, corresponding approximately to the year 2300. At this time, knowledge of dharma will be lost as well. The last of his relics will be gathered in Bodh Gaya and cremated.[citation needed] There will be a new era in which the next Buddha Maitreya will appear, but it will be preceded by the degeneration of human society. This will be a period of greed, lust, poverty, ill will, violence, murder, impiety, physical weakness, sexual depravity and societal collapse, and even the Buddha himself will be forgotten.[1]

This will be followed by the coming of Maitreya when the teachings of dharma are forgotten. Maitreya was the first Bodhisattva around whom a cult developed, in approximately the 3rd century CE.[2]

The earliest mention of Maitreya is in the Cakavatti, or Sihanada Sutta in Digha Nikaya 26 of the Pali Canon. In it, Gautama Buddha predicted that his teachings of dharma would be forgotten after 5,000 years.

“At that period, brethren, there will arise in the world an Exalted One named Maitreya, Fully Awakened, abounding in wisdom and goodness, happy, with knowledge of the worlds, unsurpassed as a guide to mortals willing to be led, a teacher for gods and men, an Exalted One, a Buddha, even as I am now. He, by himself, will thoroughly know and see, as it were face to face, this universe, with Its worlds of the spirits, Its Brahmas and Its Maras, and Its world of recluses and Brahmins, of princes and peoples, even as I now, by myself, thoroughly know and see them”

—?Digha Nikaya, 26

Maitreya Buddha is then foretold to be born in the city of Ketumati in present-day Benares, whose king will be the Cakkavatti Sankha. Sankha will live in the former palace of King Mahapanada, and will become a renunciate who follows Maitreya.[3][4]

In Mahayana Buddhism, Maitreya will attain bodhi in seven days, the minimum period, by virtue of his many lifetimes of preparation. Once Buddha, he will rule over the Ketumati Pure Land, an earthly paradise sometimes associated with the Indian city of Varanasi or Benares in Uttar Pradesh. In Mahayana Buddhism, the Buddha presides over a land of purity. For example, Amitabha presides over Sukhavati, more popularly known as the 'Western Paradise'.[5]

Bodhisattva Maitreya from the 2nd-century Gandharan art period
A notable teaching he will rediscover is that of the ten non-virtuous deeds—killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, divisive speech, abusive speech, idle speech, covetousness, harmful intent and wrong views. These will be replaced by the ten virtuous deeds, which are the abandonment of each of these practices. He is described by Conze in his Buddhist Scriptures:

The Lord replied, 'Maitreya, the best of men, will then leave the Tu?ita heavens, and go for his last rebirth. As soon as he is born he will walk seven steps forward, and where he puts down his feet a jewel or a lotus will spring up. He will raise his eyes to the ten directions, and will speak these words: "This is my last birth. There will be no rebirth after this one. Never will I come back here, but, all pure, I shall win Nirvana."

—?Buddhist Scriptures [6]

He currently resides in Tushita, but will come to Jambudvipa when needed most as successor to the historic Sakyamuni Buddha. Maitreya will achieve complete enlightenment during his lifetime, and following this reawakening, he will bring back the timeless teaching of dharma to this plane and rediscover enlightenment.[7] The Arya Maitreya Mandala, founded by Lama Anagarika Govinda is based on the idea of Maitreya.

Maitreya eschatology forms the central canon of the White Lotus Society, a revolutionary movement during British colonial rule. It later branched into the Chinese underground criminal organization known as the Triad, which exists today as an international underground criminal network.

It is of note that description of Maitreya occurs in no other sutta in the canon, casting doubt as to authenticity of the scripture. In addition, sermons of the Buddha normally are in response to a question, or in a specific context, but this sutta has a beginning and an ending, and its content is quite different from the others. This has led some to conclude that the whole sutta is apocryphal, or tampered with.[7]

Sermon of the Seven Suns[edit]

In his "Sermon of the Seven Suns" in the Pali Canon, the Buddha describes the ultimate fate of the world in an apocalypse that will be characterized by the consequent appearance of seven suns in the sky, each causing progressive ruin till the Earth is destroyed:

All things are impermanent, all aspects of existence are unstable and non-eternal. Beings will become so weary and disgusted with the constituent things that they will seek emancipation from them more quickly. There will come a season, O monks when, after hundreds of thousands of years, rains will cease. All seedlings, all vegetation, all plants, grasses and trees will dry up and cease to be...There comes another season after a great lapse of time when a second sun will appear. Now all brooks and ponds will dry up, vanish, cease to be.

—?Anguttara-Nikaya, VII, 6.2 Pali Canon[1]

The canon goes on to describe the progressive destruction of each sun. A third sun will dry the mighty Ganges and other great rivers. A fourth will cause the great lakes to evaporate, and a fifth will dry the oceans. Finally:

Again after a vast period of time a sixth sun will appear, and it will bake the Earth even as a pot is baked by a potter. All the mountains will reek and send up clouds of smoke. After another great interval a seventh sun will appear and the Earth will blaze with fire until it becomes one mass of flame. The mountains will be consumed, a spark will be carried on the wind and go to the worlds of God....Thus, monks, all things will burn, perish and exist no more except those who have seen the path.

—?Anguttara-Nikaya, VII, 6.2 Pali Canon[1]

The sermon completes with the planet engulfed by a vast inferno. The Pali Canon does not indicate when this will happen relative to Maitreya.[1]

Hinduism[edit]

Main articles: Hindu eschatology and Kalki

Further information: Hindu units of time

In Hindu eschatology, time is cyclic and consists of kalpas. Each lasts 4.1 – 8.2 billion years, which is a period of one full day and night for Brahma, who will be alive for 311 trillion, 40 billion years. Within a kalpa there are periods of creation, preservation and decline. After this larger cycle, all of creation will contract to a singularity and then again will expand from that single point, as the ages continue in a religious fractal pattern.[1]

Within the current kalpa, there are four epochs that encompass the cycle. They progress from a beginning of complete purity to a descent into total corruption. The last of the four ages is Kali Yuga, our current time, during which will be characterized by impiety, violence and decay. The four pillars of dharma will be reduced to one, with truth being all that remains.[8] As written in the Gita:

Yada yada hi dharmasya glanirbhavati Bharata
Abhyutthanam adharmasya tadatmanam s?jamyaham

Whenever there is decay of righteousness O! Bharata
And a rise of unrighteousness then I manifest Myself![9]

At this time of chaos, the final avatar, Kalki, endowed with eight superhuman faculties will appear on a white horse. Kalki will amass an army to "establish righteousness upon the earth" and leave "the minds of the people as pure as crystal."

At the completion of Kali Yuga, the next cycle will begin with a new Satya Yuga, in which all will once again be righteous with the reestablishment of dharma. This, in turn, will be followed by epochs of Treta Yuga, Dwapara Yuga and again another Kali Yuga. This cycle will then repeat till the larger cycle of existence under Brahma returns to the singularity, and a new universe is born.[10]

Norse religion[edit]

Main article: Ragnarök

Odin fighting his old nemesis Fenrir

Ragnarök after Surtr has engulfed the world with fire
Norse mythology depicts the end of days as Ragnarök, an Old Norse term translatable as "twilight of the gods". It will be heralded by a devastation known as Fimbulvetr which will seize Midgard in cold and darkness. The sun and moon will disappear from the sky, and poison will fill the air. Dead will rise from the ground and there will be widespread despair.

There follows a battle between – on the one hand – the Gods with the Æsir, Vanir[citation needed] and Einherjar, led by Odin, and – on the other hand – forces of Chaos, including the fire giants and jötunn, led by Loki. In the fighting Odin will be swallowed whole by his old nemesis Fenrir.[11] The god Freyr fights Surtr but loses. Víðarr, son of Odin, will then avenge his father by ripping Fenrir's jaws apart and stabbing the wolf in the heart with his spear. The serpent Jörmungandr will open its gaping maw and be met in combat by Thor. Thor, also a son of Odin, will defeat the serpent, only to take nine steps afterwards before collapsing to his own death.[12]

After this people will flee their homes as the sun blackens and the earth sinks into the sea. The stars will vanish, steam will rise, and flames will touch the heavens. This conflict will result in the deaths of most of the major Gods and forces of Chaos. Finally, Surtr will fling fire across the nine worlds. The ocean will then completely submerge Midgard.[13]

After the cataclysm the world will resurface new and fertile, and the surviving Gods will meet. Baldr, also a son of Odin will be reborn in the new world, according to Völuspá. The two human survivors, Líf and Lífþrasir, will then repopulate this new earth.[14]

Linear cosmology[edit]

Abrahamic religions[edit]

Bahá'í Faith[edit]

The founder of the Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'u'lláh claimed that he was the return of Christ as well as prophetic expectations of other religions.[15] The inception of the Bahá'í Faith coincides with Millerite prophesy, pointing to the year 1844. They also believe the Battle of Armageddon has passed and that the mass martyrdom anticipated during the End Times had already passed within the historical context of the Bahá'í Faith.[16][17] Bahá'ís expect their faith to be eventually embraced by the masses of the world, ushering in a golden age.

Main articles: Second Coming, Christian eschatology, and Last Judgment
Date
Some first-century Christians believed Jesus would return during their lifetime. When the converts of Paul in Thessalonica were persecuted by the Roman Empire, they believed the end of days to be imminent.[18]

While some who believe in the literal interpretation of the Bible insist that the prediction of dates or times is futile, others believe Jesus foretold signs of the end of days. The precise time, however, will come like a "thief in the night" (1 Thess. 5:2). They may also refer to Matthew 24:36 in which Jesus is quoted as saying:

But concerning that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father only.
Great Tribulation
Main articles: Abomination of desolation and Great Tribulation

In the New Testament, Jesus refers to this period preceding the end times as the "Great Tribulation" (Matthew 24:21), "Affliction"(Mark 13:19), and "days of vengeance"(Luke 21:22).

The Book of Matthew describes the devastation:

When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand). Then let them which be in Judaea flee into the mountains. Let him which is on the housetop not come down...Neither let him which is in the field return back to take his clothes, and woe unto them that are with child...For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be. And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect's sake those days shall be shortened.

—?Matthew 24:15–22

The resulting chaos will affect pregnancies, newborns, and a scourge will spread throughout the flesh, save for the elect. The vivid imagery of this section is repeated closely in Mark 13:14–20.

The Gospel of Luke describes a complete unraveling of the social fabric, with widespread calamity and war:

Then he said to them, “Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be great earthquakes, and in various places famines and pestilences. And there will be terrors and great signs from heaven. But before all this they will lay their hands on you and persecute you, delivering you up to the synagogues and prisons, and you will be brought before kings and governors for my name's sake. This will be your opportunity to bear witness. Settle it therefore in your minds not to meditate beforehand how to answer, for I will give you a mouth and wisdom, which none of your adversaries will be able to withstand or contradict. You will be delivered up even by parents and brothers and relatives and friends, and some of you they will put to death. You will be hated by all for my name's sake. But not a hair of your head will perish. By your endurance you will gain your lives.

“But when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, then know that its desolation has come near. Then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains, and let those who are inside the city depart, and let not those who are out in the country enter it, for these are days of vengeance, to fulfill all that is written. Alas for women who are pregnant and for those who are nursing infants in those days! For there will be great distress upon the earth and wrath against this people. They will fall by the edge of the sword and be led captive among all nations, and Jerusalem will be trampled underfoot by the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled.

“And there will be signs in sun and moon and stars, and on the earth distress of nations in perplexity because of the roaring of the sea and the waves, people fainting with fear and with foreboding of what is coming on the world. For the powers of the heavens will be shaken. And then they will see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. Now when these things begin to take place, straighten up and raise your heads, because your redemption is drawing near.”

And he told them a parable: “Look at the fig tree, and all the trees. As soon as they come out in leaf, you see for yourselves and know that the summer is already near. So also, when you see these things taking place, you know that the kingdom of God is near. Truly, I say to you, this generation will not pass away until all has taken place. Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away.

—?Luke 21:10–33

Catholicism[edit]

The Profession of Faith addresses Catholic beliefs concerning the Last Days.[19] Catholicism adheres to the amillennial school of thought, promoted by Augustine of Hippo in his work The City of God.

Protestantism[edit]

The Antichrist, by Lucas Cranach the Elder (1521) Here the Antichrist is shown wearing the triple crown of the Roman papacy.
Protestants are divided between Millennialists and Amillennialists. Millennialists concentrate on the issue of whether the true believers will see the tribulation or be removed from it by what is referred to as a Pre-Tribulation Rapture. Amillennialists believe that the end times encompass the time from Christ's ascension to the Last day, and maintain that the mention of the "thousand years" in the Book of Revelation is meant to be taken metaphorically (i.e., not literally, or 'spiritually'), a view which continues to cause divisions within evangelical Christianity.

There is a range of eschatological belief in Protestant Christianity. Christian premillennialists who believe that the End Times are occurring now, are usually specific about timelines that climax in the end of the world. For some, Israel, the European Union, or the United Nations are seen as major players whose roles were foretold in scripture. Within dispensational premillennialist writing, there is the belief that Christians will be summoned to Heaven by Christ at the Rapture, occurring before a "Great Tribulation" prophesied in Matthew 24–25; Mark 13 and Luke 21. The Tribulation is described in the book of Revelation.

"End times" may also refer to the passing of an age or long period in the relationship between man and God.[20] Adherents to this view cite the Second Epistle to Timothy and draw analogies to the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.

Post-Exilic Hebrew books of prophecy such as Daniel and Ezekiel are given new interpretations in this tradition, while in apocalyptic forecasts appear in the Judeo-Christian Sibylline Oracles which include the Book of Revelation ascribed to John, the apocryphal Apocalypse of Peter, and the Second Book Of Esdras.

Most fundamentalist Christians anticipate biblical prophecy to be literally fulfilled. They see current wars, natural disaster and famine as the birth pangs which Jesus described in Matthew 24:7–8 and Mark 13:8. They believe that mankind began in the garden of Eden, and point to the Valley of Megiddo as the place where the current world system will terminate, after which the Messiah will rule for 1,000 years.

Contemporary use of the term End Times has evolved from literal belief in Christian millennialism. In this tradition, Biblical apocalypse is believed to be imminent, with various current events as omens of impending Armageddon. These beliefs have been put forward by the Adventist movement (Millerites), Jehovah's Witnesses, and dispensational premillennialists. In 1918 a group of eight well known preachers produced the London Manifesto, warning of an imminent second coming of Christ shortly after the 1917 liberation of Jerusalem by the British.

Icon of the Second Coming. Greek, ca. 1700 A.D.
Religious movements which expect that the second coming of Christ as a cataclysmic event are generally called adventism. These have arisen throughout the Christian era, but were particularly common after the Protestant Reformation. Emanuel Swedenborg considered the second coming to be symbolic, and to have occurred in 1757. Along with others, he developed a religious system around the second coming of Christ, disclosed by new prophecy or special revelation not described in the Bible. The Millerites are diverse religious groups which similarly rely upon a special gift of interpretation for predicting the second coming.

The difference between the 19th-century Millerite and Adventist movements and contemporary prophecy is that William Miller and his followers, based on Biblical interpretation, predicted the time of the Second Coming to have occurred in 1844. Contemporary writing of end time has suggested that the timetable will be triggered by future wars and moral catastrophe, and that this time of tribulation is close at hand.

Seventh-day Adventists believe Biblical prophecy to foretell an end time scenario in which the United States works in conjunction with the Catholic Church to mandate worship on a day other than the true Sabbath, Saturday, as prescribed in the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:8–11). This will bring about a situation where one must choose for or against the Bible as the will of God.[21]

Preterism[edit]

Main article: Preterism

Another view of the end times is preterism. It distinguishes the time of the end from the end of time. Preterists believe the term Last Days (or Time of the End) refers to, neither the last days of the Earth, nor the last days of humankind, but the end of the Old Covenant between God and Israel; which, according to preterism, took place when the Temple in Jerusalem which was destroyed in 70 CE.

Preterists believe that prophecies—such as the Second Coming, the desecration of the Jewish Temple, the destruction of Jerusalem, the rise of the Antichrist, the Great Tribulation, the advent of The Day of the Lord, and a Final Judgment—had been fulfilled when the Romans sacked Jerusalem and completely destroyed its Temple.

Proponents of full preterism do not believe in a coming resurrection of the dead. They place this event (as well as the Second Coming) in the year 70. Advocates of partial preterism do believe in a coming resurrection. Full preterists contend that partial preterists are merely futurists, since they believe the Second Coming, the Resurrection, the Rapture, and the Judgment are yet to come.

Many preterists believe that first-century Christians experienced the Rapture to rejoin the Christ.

According with Preterism's interpretation of end times, many "time passages" in the New Testament foretell a Second Coming of Christ, with Last Days to take place within the lifetimes of his disciples: Matt. 10:23, Matt. 16:28, Matt. 24:34, Matt. 26:64, Rom. 13:11–12, 1 Cor. 7:29–31, 1 Cor. 10:11, Phil. 4:5, James 5:8–9, 1 Pet. 4:7, 1 Jn. 2:18.

Dispensationalist prophecies[edit]

Main articles: Dispensationalism and Christian Zionism

Dispensationalism is an evangelical futurist Biblical interpretation that foresees a series of dispensations, or periods, in which God relates to human beings under different Biblical covenants. The belief system is primarily rooted in the writings of John Nelson Darby and is premillennial in content. The reestablishment of Israel in 1948 provided a major impetus to the dispensationalist belief system. The wars of Israel after 1948 with its Arab neighbors provided further support, according to John F. Walvoord.[22] After the Six-Day War in 1967, and the Yom Kippur War in 1973, it seemed plausible to many Fundamentalist Christians in the 1970s that Middle East turmoil may well be leading up to the fulfillment of various Bible prophecies and to the Battle of Armageddon.

Members of the dispensationalist movement such as Hal Lindsey, J. Dwight Pentecost, John Walvoord, all of whom have Dallas Theological Seminary backgrounds, and some other writers, claimed further that the European Economic Community, which preceded the European Union, would become a United States of Europe, which would in turn become a Revived Roman Empire ruled by the Antichrist. The Revived Roman Empire also figured into the New Testament writers' vision of the future. The fact that in the early 1970s, there were (erroneously thought to be) seven nations in the European Economic Community was held to be significant; this aligned the Community with a seven-headed beast mentioned in Revelation. This specific prophecy has required revision, but the idea of a Revived Roman Empire remains.

The separate destinies of the Church and Israel, a belief which is inherent in dispensationalism, is a particular concern to some Jews and evangelical Christians. Evangelicals who reject dispensationalism, such as those who hold to a Post Tribulation Rapture, (or more accurately a Post Tribulation Resurrection-Rapture), see both the Church and Israel entering the crucible of the End Time together.[23]

Dispensationalism, in contrast to the Millerite Adventist movement, had its beginning in the 19th century, when John Nelson Darby, founder of the Plymouth Brethren religious denomination, incorporated into his system of Biblical interpretation a system of organizing Biblical time into a number of discrete dispensations, each of which marks a separate covenant with God. Darby's beliefs were widely publicized in Cyrus I. Scofield's Scofield Reference Bible, an annotated Bible that became popular in the United States of America.

Since the majority of the Biblical prophets were writing at a time when the Temple in Jerusalem was still functioning, they wrote as if it would still be standing during the prophesied events. According to preterism, this was a fulfillment of the prophecies. However, according to Futurists, their destruction in AD 70 put the prophetic timetable on hold. Many such believers therefore anticipated the return of Jews to Israel and the reconstruction of the Temple before the Second Coming could occur.[24][25]

Post-tribulation pre-millennialists[edit]

A view of the Second Coming of Christ as held by post-tribulational pre-millennialists holds that the Church of Christ will have to undergo great persecution by being present during the great tribulation.

Specific prophetic movements[edit]

Main article: Great Disappointment

William Miller predicted the end of the world in 1843, known as the Great Disappointment
In 1843, William Miller made the first of several predictions that the world would end in only a few months. As his predictions did not come true (referred to as the Great Disappointment), followers of Miller went on to found separate groups, the most successful of which is the Seventh-day Adventist Church.

Members of the Bahá'í Faith believe that Miller's interpretation of signs and dates of the coming of Jesus were, for the most part, correct.[26] They believe that the fulfillment of biblical prophecies of the coming of Christ came through a forerunner of their own religion, the Báb. According to the Báb's words, 4 April 1844 was "the first day that the Spirit descended" into his heart.[27] His subsequent declaration to Mullá Husayn-i Bushru'i that he was the "Promised One"—an event now commemorated by Bahá'ís as a major holy day—took place on 23 May 1844. It was in October of that year that the Báb embarked on a pilgrimage to Mecca, where he openly declared his claims to the Sharif of Mecca.[28][29] The first news coverage of these events in the West was in 1845 by The Times,[30] followed by others in 1850 in the United States.[31] The first Bahá'í to come to America was in 1892.[28] Several Bahá'í books and pamphlets make mention of the Millerites, the prophecies used by Miller and the Great Disappointment, most notably William Sears's Thief in the Night.[32][33][34]

Restorationism (Christian primitivism)[edit]

End times theology is also significant to restorationist Christian religions, which consider themselves distinct from both Catholicism and Protestantism.

Jehovah's Witnesses[edit]

Main article: Eschatology of Jehovah's Witnesses

Former Watch Tower headquarters in Brooklyn. The society made a number of emphatic claims of impending last days and ensuing chaos between 1879–1924.
The eschatology of Jehovah's Witnesses is central to their religious beliefs. They believe that Jesus Christ has been ruling in heaven as king since 1914 (a date they believe was prophesied in Scripture), and that after that time a period of cleansing occurred, resulting in God's selection of the Bible Students associated with Charles Taze Russell to be his people in 1919. They also believe the destruction of those who reject their message[35] and thus willfully refuse to obey God[36][37] will shortly take place at Armageddon, ensuring that the beginning of the new earthly society will be composed of willing subjects of that kingdom.

The religion's doctrines surrounding 1914 are the legacy of a series of emphatic claims regarding the years 1799,[38] 1874,[38] 1878,[39] 1914,[40] 1918[41] and 1925[42] made in the Watch Tower Society's publications between 1879 and 1924. Claims about the significance of those years, including the presence of Jesus Christ, the beginning of the "last days", the destruction of worldly governments and the earthly resurrection of Jewish patriarchs, were successively abandoned.[43] In 1922 the society's principal journal, The Watchtower, described its chronology as "no stronger than its weakest link", but also claimed the chronological relationships to be "of divine origin and divinely corroborated...in a class by itself, absolutely and unqualifiedly correct"[44] and "indisputable facts",[38] while repudiation of Russell's teachings was described as "equivalent to a repudiation of the Lord".[45]

The Watch Tower Society has admitted its early leaders promoted "incomplete, even inaccurate concepts".[46] The Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses says that, unlike Old Testament prophets, its interpretations of the Bible are not inspired or infallible.[47][48][49] Witness publications say that Bible prophecies can be fully understood only after their fulfillment, citing examples of biblical figures who did not understand the meaning of prophecies they received. Watch Tower publications often cite Proverbs 4:18, "The path of the righteous ones is like the bright light that is getting lighter and lighter until the day is firmly established" (NWT) to support their view that there would be an increase in knowledge during "the time of the end", as mentioned in Daniel 12:4. Jehovah's Witnesses state that this increase in knowledge needs adjustments. Watch Tower publications also say that unfulfilled expectations are partly due to eagerness for God's Kingdom and that they do not call their core beliefs into question.[50][51][52]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints[edit]

Main article: Second Coming (LDS Church)

Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints believe that there will be a Second Coming of Jesus to the earth sometime in the future. The LDS Church and its leaders do not make any predictions of the actual date of the Second Coming.

According to church doctrine, the true gospel will be taught in all parts of the world prior to the Second Coming.[53] They also believe that there will be increasing war, earthquakes, hurricanes, and man-made disasters prior to the Second Coming.[54] Disasters of all kind will happen before Christ comes.[55] Upon the return of Jesus Christ, all people will be resurrected, the righteous in a first resurrection and the unrighteous in a second, later resurrection. Christ shall reign for a period of 1000 years, after which the Final Judgement will occur.

Islam[edit]

Main article: Islamic eschatology

Muslims believe that there are three periods before the Day of Judgment, also known as ashratu's-sa'ah or alamatu qiyami's-sa'ah, with some debate as to whether the periods could overlap.[56][57][1]

According to Harun Yahya, the first period is said to have begun with the death of Muhammad. The second began with the passing of all his Companions, and ended a thousand years later. Another event of the second period was the Tartar invasion, occurring 650 years after Muhammad. The Mongols, led by Hulagu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, attacked Baghdad in 1258 AD and brought the Abbasid caliphate to an end. They massacred millions of Muslims, and the water of the river Tigris turned red with blood. A traditional narration also predicted a fire at Madinah in the Hijaz near Busra in Syria, which Islamic scholars believe occurred in 654 AH. Following the second, the third and final period will be heralded by the appearance of the Mahdi.[56]

Sunni[edit]

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Sunnis believe that the dead will then stand in a grand assembly, awaiting a scroll detailing their righteous deeds, sinful acts and ultimate judgment.[58][59] Muhammad will be the first to be resurrected.[60] Punishments will include adhab, or severe pain and embarrassment, and khizy or shame.[61] There will also be a punishment of the grave between death and the resurrection.[62]

The signs of the coming end time are divided into major and minor signs:

Following the second period, the third is said to be marked by the ten major signs known as alamatu's-sa'ah al- kubra (The major signs of the end).[note 1] They are as follows:
1.The false messiah (anti-Christ), Masih ad-Dajjal, shall appear with huge powers as a one eyed man with the right eye blind and deformed like a grape. He will claim to be God and to hold keys to heaven and hell and lead many astray, although believers will not be deceived.[63] In reality, his heaven is the hell, and his hell is the heaven. The Dajjal would be followed by seventy thousand Jews of Isfahan wearing Persian shawls.[note 2]
2.The return of Isa (Jesus), from the fourth sky to kill Dajjal.[64]
3.Ya'jooj and Ma'jooj (Gog and Magog), Japhetic tribe of vicious beings which had been imprisoned by Dhul-Qarnayn will break out. They will ravage the earth, drink all the water of Lake Tiberias, and kill all believers in their way (or see). Isa, Imam Al-Mahdi, and the believers with them will go to the top of a mountain and pray for the destruction of Gog and Magog. God will eventually send disease and worms to wipe them out.[note 3][65]
4.A huge black smoke cloud will cover the earth.[66]
5.Dabbat al-ard, or the Beast that will come out of the ground to talk to people.[note 4]
6.The sun will rise from the west.[67][68]
7.Three sinking of the earth, one in the east,[66]
8.One in the west,[66]
9.And one in Arabia.[66]
10.The second trumpet blow will be sounded, the dead will return to life and a fire will start come out of Yemen that shall gather all to Mahshar Al Qiy'amah (The Gathering for Judgment).[56]

Shia[edit]

Concepts and terminology in Shia eschatology includes Mi'ad, The Occultation and Al-Yamani, Sufyani In Twelver Shia narrations about the last days, the literature largely revolves around Muhammad al-Mahdi, a messianic figure considered to be the twelfth appointed successor to Muhammad. Mahdi will help mankind against the deception by a man called Dajjal who will try to get people in to a new world religion which is called "the great deception".[69]

Ahmadiyya[edit]

Ahmadiyya is considered distinct from mainstream Islam. In its writing, the present age has been witness to the evil of man and wrath of God, with war and natural disaster.[70] Ghulam Ahmad is seen as the promised Messiah and the Mahdi, fulfilling Islamic and Biblical prophecies, as well as scriptures of other religions such as Hinduism. His teaching will establish spiritual reform and establish an age of peace. This will continue for a thousand years, and will unify mankind under one faith.[71]

Ahmadis believe that despite harsh and strong opposition and discrimination they will eventually be triumphant and their message vindicated both by Muslims and non-Muslims alike. Ahmadis also incorporate the eschatological views from other religions into their doctrine and believe that Mirza Ghulam Ahmed falls into this sequence.[72]

Judaism[edit]

Scroll of Book of Isaiah
Main article: Jewish eschatology

In rabbinic literature, rabbis elaborated and explained the prophecies that were found in the Hebrew Bible, along with oral law and rabbinic traditions about its significance. The main tenets of Jewish eschatology, in no particular order, include:[73]
God will redeem Israel from the captivity that began during the Babylonian Exile in a new Exodus.
God will return the Jewish people to the Land of Israel.
God will restore the House of David and the Temple in Jerusalem.
God will raise up a regent from the House of David, the Jewish Messiah, to lead the Jewish people and the world and to usher in an age of justice and peace.
Nations will recognize that the God of Israel is the only true god.
God will resurrect the dead.
God will create a new heaven and earth.

The idea of a messianic age, an era of global peace and knowledge of the Creator, has a prominent place in Jewish thought, and is incorporated as part of the end of days. A well-known passage from the Book of Isaiah describes this future condition of the world: "They shall beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks; nation will not lift sword against nation and they will no longer study warfare" (2:4)[73] Maimonides (1135–1204) further describes the Messianic Era in the Mishneh Torah: "And at that time there will be no hunger or war, no jealousy or rivalry. For the good will be plentiful, and all delicacies available as dust. The entire occupation of the world will be only to know God... the people Israel will be of great wisdom; they will perceive the esoteric truths and comprehend their Creator's wisdom as is the capacity of man. As it is written (Isaiah 11:9): 'For the earth shall be filled with the knowledge of God, as the waters cover the sea.'"[74]

The Zohar[75] maintains that the seven days of the week, based on the seven days of creation, correspond to the seven millennia of creation. The seventh day of the week, the Shabbat day of rest, corresponds to the seventh millennium, the age of universal rest, or the Messianic Era. The seventh millennium begins with the year 6000 AM, and is the latest time the Messiah can come. A number of early and late Jewish scholars have written in support of this, including the Ramban,[76] Isaac Abrabanel,[77] Abraham Ibn Ezra,[78] Rabbeinu Bachya,[79] the Vilna Gaon,[80] the Lubavitcher Rebbe,[81] the Ramchal,[82] Aryeh Kaplan[83] and Rebbetzin Esther Jungreis.[84]

Rastafari movement[edit]

Main article: Rastafari movement

Haile Selassie I is viewed as god incarnate in Rastafarianism
Rastafarians have a unique interpretation of end times, based on the Old Testament and the Book of Revelation. They believe Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie I to be God incarnate, the King of kings and Lord of lords mentioned in Revelation 5:5. They saw the crowning of Selassie as the second coming, and the Second Italo-Ethiopian War as fulfillment of Revelation. There is also the expectation that Selassie will return for a day of judgment and bring home the lost children of Israel, which in Rastafarianism refer to those taken from Africa through the slave trade. There will then be an era of peace and harmony at Mount Zion in Africa.[10]

Zoroastrianism[edit]

Main article: Frashokereti

Zoroastrian eschatology is considered one of the oldest in recorded history. The birth of its founder, Zoroaster, is unknown, with scholarly dates ranging from 6th century BCE to 5,500 years earlier. Pliny the Elder even suggests there were two Zoroasters.[85] However, with beliefs paralleling and possibly predating the framework of the major Abrahamic faiths, a fully developed concept of the end of the world was not established in Zoroastrianism until 500 BCE. The Bahman Yasht describes:

At the end of thy tenth hundredth winter, the sun is more unseen and more spotted; the year, month, and day are shorter; and the earth is more barren; and the crop will not yield the seed. And men become more deceitful and more given to vile practices. They will have no gratitude. Honorable wealth will proceed to those of perverted faith. And a dark cloud makes the whole sky night, and it will rain more noxious creatures than water.

A Manichaean battle between the righteous and wicked will be followed by the Frashokereti. On earth, the Saoshyant will arrive as the final savior of mankind, and bring about the resurrection of the dead. The yazatas Airyaman and Atar will melt the metal in the hills and mountains, which will flow as lava across the earth and all mankind, both the living and resurrected, will be required to wade through it. Ashavan will pass through the molten river as if it were warm milk, but the sinful will burn. It will then flow down to hell, where it will annihilate Angra Mainyu and the last vestiges of wickedness.

The righteous will partake of the parahaoma, which will confer immortality upon them. Humanity will become like the Amesha Spentas, living without food, hunger, thirst, weapons or injury. Bodies will become so light as to cast no shadow. All humanity will speak a single language, and belong to a single nation with no borders. All will share a single purpose and goal, joining with Ahura Mazda for a perpetual and divine exaltation.[86][87]

 

THE END OF DAYS

 

-
-
-
-
12
THE END OF DAYS
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
9
T
=
2
-
1
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
3
-
-
-
-
-
9
H
=
8
-
2
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
8
9
E
=
5
-
3
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
3
-
5
-
8
8
9
-
-
15
-
-
-
-
33
15
15
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
9
E
=
5
-
4
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
3
-
5
-
8
8
9
N
=
5
-
5
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
3
-
5
-
8
8
9
D
=
4
-
6
1
D
4
4
4
-
-
-
3
4
-
-
8
-
9
-
-
14
-
-
-
-
23
14
14
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
9
O
=
6
-
7
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
-
3
-
-
6
8
-
9
F
=
6
-
8
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
3
-
-
6
-
-
9
-
-
12
-
-
-
-
21
12
12
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
9
D
=
4
-
9
1
D
4
4
4
-
-
-
3
4
-
-
8
-
9
A
=
1
-
10
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
9
Y
=
7
-
11
1
Y
25
7
7
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
7
8
9
S
=
1
-
12
1
S
19
10
1
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
13
-
-
-
-
49
22
13
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
54
-
4
9
THE END OF DAYS
126
63
54
-
2
2
3
8
15
12
7
8
9
-
-
5+4
-
-
-
-
1+2+6
6+3
5+4
-
-
-
-
-
1+5
1+2
-
-
-
Q
-
9
-
-
9
THE END OF DAYS
9
9
9
-
2
2
3
8
6
3
7
8
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
12
THE END OF DAYS
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
9
T
=
2
-
1
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
3
-
-
-
-
-
9
H
=
8
-
2
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
8
9
E
=
5
-
3
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
3
-
5
-
8
8
9
E
=
5
-
4
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
3
-
5
-
8
8
9
N
=
5
-
5
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
3
-
5
-
8
8
9
D
=
4
-
6
1
D
4
4
4
-
-
-
3
4
-
-
8
-
9
O
=
6
-
7
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
-
3
-
-
6
8
-
9
F
=
6
-
8
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
3
-
-
6
-
-
9
D
=
4
-
9
1
D
4
4
4
-
-
-
3
4
-
-
8
-
9
A
=
1
-
10
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
9
Y
=
7
-
11
1
Y
25
7
7
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
7
8
9
S
=
1
-
12
1
S
19
10
1
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
54
-
4
9
THE END OF DAYS
126
63
54
-
2
2
3
8
15
12
7
8
9
-
-
5+4
-
-
-
-
1+2+6
6+3
5+4
-
-
-
-
-
1+5
1+2
-
-
-
Q
-
9
-
-
9
THE END OF DAYS
9
9
9
-
2
2
3
8
6
3
7
8
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
12
THE END OF DAYS
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
9
A
=
1
-
10
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
9
S
=
1
-
12
1
S
19
10
1
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
9
T
=
2
-
1
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
3
-
-
-
-
-
9
D
=
4
-
6
1
D
4
4
4
-
-
-
3
4
-
-
8
-
9
D
=
4
-
9
1
D
4
4
4
-
-
-
3
4
-
-
8
-
9
E
=
5
-
3
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
3
-
5
-
8
8
9
E
=
5
-
4
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
3
-
5
-
8
8
9
N
=
5
-
5
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
3
-
5
-
8
8
9
O
=
6
-
7
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
-
3
-
-
6
8
-
9
F
=
6
-
8
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
3
-
-
6
-
-
9
Y
=
7
-
11
1
Y
25
7
7
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
7
8
9
H
=
8
-
2
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
54
-
4
9
THE END OF DAYS
126
63
54
-
2
2
3
8
15
12
7
8
9
-
-
5+4
-
-
-
-
1+2+6
6+3
5+4
-
-
-
-
-
1+5
1+2
-
-
-
Q
-
9
-
-
9
THE END OF DAYS
9
9
9
-
2
2
3
8
6
3
7
8
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
C
=
3
-
4
CALL
28
10
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
U
=
3
-
4
UNTO
70
16
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
M
=
4
-
2
ME
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
A
=
1
-
3
AND
19
10
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I
=
9
-
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
W
=
5
-
4
WILL
56
20
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
S
=
1
-
4
SHOW
65
20
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
T
=
2
-
4
THEE
38
20
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
G
=
7
-
5
GREAT
51
24
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
3
AND
19
10
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
M
=
4
-
6
MIGHTY
82
37
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
T
=
2
-
6
THINGS
77
32
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
T
=
2
-
4
THAT
49
13
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
`--
-
-
-`
T
=
2
-
4
THOU
64
19
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-``
K
=
2
-
7
KNOWEST
107
26
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
N
=
5
-
3
NOT
49
13
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
53
-
51
First Total
810
288
45
-
5
6
3
8
5
6
7
8
18
-
-
5+3
-
5+1
Add to Reduce
8+1+0
2+8+8
4+5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+8
-
-
8
-
6
Second Total
9
18
9
-
5
6
3
8
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
-
1+8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
6
Essence of Number
9
9
9
-
5
6
3
8
5
6
7
8
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
I
=
9
-
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
W
=
5
-
4
WILL
56
20
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
S
=
1
-
4
SHOW
65
20
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
T
=
2
-
4
THEE
38
20
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
G
=
7
-
5
GREAT
51
24
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
3
AND
19
10
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
M
=
4
-
6
MIGHTY
82
37
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
T
=
2
-
6
THINGS
77
32
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
T
=
2
-
4
THAT
49
13
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
`--
-
-
-`
T
=
2
-
4
THOU
64
19
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-``
K
=
2
-
7
KNOWEST
107
26
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
N
=
5
-
3
NOT
49
13
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
53
-
42
First Total
666
243
45
-
3
6
3
8
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
5+3
-
4+2
Add to Reduce
6+6+6
2+4+3
4+5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
6
Second Total
18
9
9
-
3
6
3
8
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
6
Essence of Number
9
9
9
-
3
6
3
8
5
6
7
8
9

 

THOU ART BEING WEIGHED IN THE BALANCES WILT THOU BE FOUND WANTING

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
9
COMPUTERS
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
C
=
3
-
1
1
C
3
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
8
-
O
=
6
-
2
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
-
M
=
4
-
3
1
M
13
4
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
8
-
P
=
7
-
4
1
P
16
7
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
8
-
U
=
3
-
5
1
U
21
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
8
-
T
=
2
-
6
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
E
=
5
-
7
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
8
-
R
=
9
-
8
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
S
=
1
-
9
1
S
19
10
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
40
-
4
9
COMPUTERS
130
49
40
-
1
2
6
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
4+0
-
-
-
-
1+3+0
4+9
4+0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Q
-
4
-
-
9
COMPUTERS
4
13
9
-
1
2
6
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Q
-
4
-
-
9
COMPUTERS
4
4
9
-
1
8
6
4
5
6
7
8
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
9
COMPUTERS
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
S
=
1
-
9
1
S
19
10
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
T
=
2
-
6
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
C
=
3
-
1
1
C
3
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
8
-
U
=
3
-
5
1
U
21
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
8
-
M
=
4
-
3
1
M
13
4
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
8
-
E
=
5
-
7
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
8
-
O
=
6
-
2
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
-
P
=
7
-
4
1
P
16
7
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
8
-
R
=
9
-
8
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
40
-
4
9
COMPUTERS
130
49
40
-
1
2
6
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
4+0
-
-
-
-
1+3+0
4+9
4+0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Q
-
4
-
-
9
COMPUTERS
4
13
9
-
1
2
6
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Q
-
4
-
-
9
COMPUTERS
4
4
9
-
1
8
6
4
5
6
7
8
9

 

 

A
=
1
-
10
ALGORITHMS
122
59
5
A
=
1
-
9
ALGORITHM
103
49
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
ALGORITHM
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
L
=
3
-
1
L
12
3
3
G
=
7
-
1
G
7
7
7
O
=
6
-
1
O
15
6
6
R
=
9
-
1
R
18
9
9
I
=
9
-
1
I
9
9
9
T
=
2
-
1
T
20
2
2
H
=
8
-
1
H
8
8
8
M
=
4
-
1
M
13
4
4
-
-
49
-
9
ALGORITHM
103
49
49
-
-
4+9
-
-
-
1+0+3
4+9
4+9
-
-
13
-
9
ALGORITHM
103
13
13
-
-
1+3
-
-
-
-
1+3
1+3
-
-
4
-
9
ALGORITHM
103
4
4

 

 

A
=
1
-
10
ALGORITHMS
122
59
5
A
=
1
-
9
ALGORITHM
103
49
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
ALGORITHM
-
-
-
A
=
1
-
1
A
1
1
1
T
=
2
-
1
T
20
2
2
L
=
3
-
1
L
12
3
3
M
=
4
-
1
M
13
4
4
5
-
5
-
-
5
-
-
5
O
=
6
-
1
O
15
6
6
G
=
7
-
1
G
7
7
7
H
=
8
-
1
H
8
8
8
R
=
9
-
1
R
18
9
9
I
=
9
-
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
49
-
9
ALGORITHM
103
49
49
-
-
4+9
-
-
-
1+0+3
4+9
4+9
-
-
13
-
9
ALGORITHM
103
13
13
-
-
1+3
-
-
-
-
1+3
1+3
-
-
4
-
9
ALGORITHM
103
4
4

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
ALGORITHMS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
A
=
1
1
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
L
=
3
2
1
L
12
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
G
=
7
3
1
G
7
7
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
O
=
6
4
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
R
=
9
5
1
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
I
=
9
6
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
T
=
2
7
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
H
=
8
8
1
H
8
8
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
M
=
4
9
1
M
13
4
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
S
=
1
10
1
S
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
50
-
10
ALGORITHMS
122
50
50
-
2
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
18
-
-
5+0
-
1+0
-
1+2+2
5+5
5+0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+8
-
-
5
-
1
ALGORITHMS
5
5
5
-
2
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
ALGORITHMS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
A
=
1
1
1
A
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
L
=
3
2
1
L
12
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
G
=
7
3
1
G
7
7
7
-
-
-
-
-
-