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THE SCULPTURE OF VIBRATIONS 1971

 

 

 

26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
-
-
5
6
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
+
=
43
4+3
=
7
-
7
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
-
-
14
15
-
-
-
19
-
-
-
-
24
-
26
+
=
115
1+1+5
=
7
-
7
-
7
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
-
1
2
3
4
-
-
7
8
9
-
2
3
4
5
-
7
-
+
=
83
8+3
=
11
1+1
2
-
2
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
-
10
11
12
13
-
-
16
17
18
-
20
21
22
23
-
25
-
+
=
236
2+3+6
=
11
1+1
2
-
2
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
+
=
351
3+5+1
=
9
-
9
-
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
+
=
126
1+2+6
=
9
-
9
-
9
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
1
occurs
x
3
=
3
-
3
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
2
occurs
x
3
=
6
-
6
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
3
occurs
x
3
=
9
-
9
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
+
=
4
occurs
x
3
=
12
1+2
3
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
+
=
5
occurs
x
3
=
15
1+5
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
+
=
6
occurs
x
3
=
18
1+8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
+
=
7
occurs
x
3
=
21
2+1
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
+
=
8
occurs
x
3
=
24
2+4
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
9
occurs
x
2
=
18
1+8
9
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
45
-
-
26
-
126
-
54
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4+5
-
-
2+6
-
1+2+6
-
5+4
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
9
-
-
8
-
9
-
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
9
-
-
8
-
9
-
9

 

 

ADVENT 791 ADVENT

 

 

NUMBER

9

The Search for the Sigma Code

Cecil Balmond

Page 45

"From ancient times number nine was seen as a full complement; it was the cup of special promise that brimmed over"


FROM ANCIENT TIMES NINE WAS SEEN AS A FULL COMPLEMENT

IT WAS THE CUP OF SPECIAL PROMISE THAT BRIMMED OVER

 

 

THE NEW ELIZEBETHAN REFERENCE DICTIONARY

Fourth Edition

Editor Peter Finch

incandesce (in kan des) [L. incandescere] (IN- (1), candescere, incept. of candere, to be white)], v.i. To glow with heat. v.t. To cause to glow with heat. incandescence, n incandescent, a Glowing with heat; in-tensely luminous with heat. incandescent lamp: An electric or other lamp in which a filament or mantle is made intensely luminous by heat."

 

 

MUSIC OF THE MIND

Darryl Reanney 1994

Page 140

"So only this 'moment' was right for us, or something like us, to evolve. It takes 104° units of time for the universe to create complex creatures with brains powerful enough to surge through the limitations of matter. As the Jesuit scientist Teilhard de Chardin said:

We already knew that everywhere the active lines of life gtow warm with consciousness towards the summit. But in one well-marked region at the heart of the mammals, where the most powerful brains ever made by nature are to be found, they become red hot, And right in the heart of that glow burns a point of incandescence.

We must not lose sight of that line, crimsoned by the dawn. After thousands of years rising below the horizon, a flame bursts forth at a stricrly localised point.

Thought is born.l27"

"And right in the heart of that glow burns a point of incandescence."

"a point of incandescence"

"incandescence"

"Thought is born"

 

5
LIGHT
56
29
2
4
HEAT
34
16
7
9
LIGHT HEAT
90
45
9
-
-
9+0
4+5
-
9
LIGHT HEAT
9
9
9
-
INCANDESCENCE
-
-
-
-
I
9
9
9
-
NCA
18
9
9
-
ND
18
9
9
-
ESC
27
9
9
-
ENCE
27
18
9
13
INCANDESCENCE
99
54
45
-
Add to Reduce
9+9
5+4
4+5
13
INCANDESCENCE
18
9
9
-
-
1+8
-
-
13
INCANDESCENCE
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
GODS
45
18
9
-
LOVE
54
18
9
-
DIVINE
63
36
9
-
THOUGHT
99
36
9
1
I
9
9
9
2
ME
18
9
9
3
THE
33
15
6
7
RA-IN-BOW
82
37
1
5
LIGHT
56
29
2
15
First Total
171
81
9
-
Add to Reduce
1+7+1
8+1
-
-
Essence of Number
9
9
9
8
GODS LOVE
99
36
9

 

 

-
THE RAINBOW LIGHT
-
-
-
3
THE
33
15
6
7
RAINBOW
82
37
1
5
LIGHT
56
29
2
15
THE RAINBOW LIGHT
171
81
9
1+5
-
1+7+1
8+1
-
6
THE RAINBOW LIGHT
9
9
9

 

THOUGHT DIVINE THOUGHT

 

 

E
=
5
-
6
ENERGY
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
G
7
7
7
-
-
-
-
-
Y
25
7
7
E
=
5
-
6
ENERGY
74
38
38
-
-
-
-
-
-
7+4
3+8
3+8
E
=
5
-
6
ENERGY
11
11
11
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+1
1+1
1+1
E
=
5
-
6
ENERGY
2
2
2

 

 

E
=
5
-
6
ENERGY
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
R
18
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
G+Y
32
14
5
E
=
5
-
6
ENERGY
74
38
38
-
-
-
-
-
-
7+4
3+8
3+8
E
=
5
-
6
ENERGY
11
11
11
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+1
1+1
1+1
E
=
5
-
6
ENERGY
2
2
2

 

 

E
=
5
-
6
ENERGY
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
R+G+Y
50
23
5
E
=
5
-
6
ENERGY
74
38
20
-
-
-
-
-
-
7+4
3+8
2+0
E
=
5
-
6
ENERGY
11
11
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+1
1+1
-
E
=
5
-
6
ENERGY
2
2
2

 

 

11
INCANDESCED
-
-
-
-
I
9
9
9
-
N+C+A
18
9
9
-
N+D
18
9
9
-
E+S+C
27
9
9
-
E+D
9
9
9
11
INCANDESCED
81
45
45
-
-
8+1
4+5
4+5
11
INCANDESCED
9
9
9
1+1
-
-
-
-
2
INCANDESCED
9
9
9

 

THIS IS THE SCENE OF THE SCENE UNSEEN

THE UNSEEN SEEN OF THE SCENE UNSEEN THIS IS THE SCENE

 

 

F
=
6
9
FRATERNAL
95
41
5
G
=
7
9
GREETINGS
104
50
5
C
=
3
8
CHILDREN
73
46
1
O
=
6
2
OF
21
12
3
T
=
2
3
THE
33
15
6
R
=
9
7
RAINBOW
82
37
1
L
=
3
5
LIGHT
56
29
2
-
-
36
43
First Total
464
230
23
-
-
3+6
4+3
Add to Reduce
4+6+4
2+3+0
2+3
Q
-
9
7
Second Total
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+4
-
-
-
-
9
7
Essence of Number
5
5
5

 

 

 

 

 

3
THE
33
15
6
4
MIND
40
22
4
2
OF
21
12
3
9
HUMANKIND
95
41
5
18
-
189
90
18
1+8
-
1+8+9
9+0
1+8
9
-
18
9
9
-
-
1+8
-
-
9
-
9
9
9

 

 

PEACE BE UNTO YOU BELOVED CHILDREN OF THE RAINBOW LIGHT

 

 

1
I
9
9
9
2
AM
14
5
5
3
THE
33
15
6
8
OPPOSITE
115
43
7
2
OF
21
12
3
3
THE
33
15
6
8
OPPOSITE
115
43
7
1
I
9
9
9
2
AM
14
5
5
3
THE
33
15
6
8
OPPOSITE
115
43
7
2
OF
21
12
3
8
OPPOSITE
115
43
7
2
IS
28
19
1
3
THE
33
15
6
2
AM
14
5
5
1
I
9
9
9
6
ALWAYS
81
18
9
2
AM
14
5
5
64
First Total
793
325
109
6+4
Add to Reduce
7+9+3
3+2+5
1+0+9
10
Second Total
10
10
10
1+0
Reduce to Deduce
1+0
1+0
1+0
1
Essence of Number
1
1
1

 

 

6
BEYOND
65
29
2
3
THE
33
15
6
4
VEIL
48
21
3
7
ANOTHER
81
36
9
4
VEIL
48
21
3
7
ANOTHER
81
36
9
4
VEIL
48
21
3
6
BEYOND
65
29
2
41
First Total
469
208
37
4+1
Add to Reduce
4+6+9
2+0+8
3+7
5
Second Total
19
10
10
-
Add to Reduce
1+9
1+0
1+0
5
Third Total
10
1
1
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+0
-
-
5
Essence of Number
1
1
1

 

 

ADVENT 791 ADVENT

 

 

3

SUN

54
9
9
5

EARTH

52
25
7
4

MOON

57
21
3
12
First Total
163
55
19
1+2
Add to Reduce
1+6+3
5+5
1+9
3
Second Total
10
10
10

-

Reduce to Deduce
1+0

1+0

1+0

3
Final Total
1
1
1

 

 

In it, you will find not "God", but a "demiourgos", that is a "worker" (etymologically, demiourgos means "one who works for the demos, that is for the ... plato-dialogues.org/email

E-mail Archives: Plato and the Existence of God February 8, 1996

 

Date : February 11, 1996, 13:34:52
Subject : Re: Existence of God

To: sophia

"Hi Everyone,

What exactly is Plato's position concerning the existence of God? Also, In which of his works can I find references to God? Is the position of Aristotle somewhat similar in the existence of God? If not, how does he differ? Any help with this would be appreciated.

Dimitri"

"The first problem with your question is that you talk of "God" with a capital G. This doesn't exist in Plato, and, for that matter in ancient greek litterature, because God is not the name of a person but a common noun. Thus Plato speaks of "the gods (hoi theoi), or "the god (ho theos)", in some cases of "god", but then in the same way we would talk of "man", using the word as a generic name. He also speaks of "the divine (to theion)".

Thus, if by "God" you mean the god of christianity, Yawhe, the Holy Trinity and the like, there is none of it in Plato or Aristotle. However, if you are looking for "traces" in Plato and Aristotle of a concept that somehow anticipates this god, or if you want to know what is their stand as regards what we are used to call "religion", this is another matter.

Then you want to know what concept of "god" you are looking for.Is it the concept of a single "god", that is, of a monotheistic religion? Is it the concept of "god the maker of heaven and earth, of all that is seen and unseen"? Is it the concept of the "Logos that was in the beginning, the Logos that was in God, the Logos that was God"? Or is it yet something else?

If you are looking for Plato's "religion", I think you should mostly look at book X of the Laws, and at the Timæus (as a whole, I would add). But this is only part of the answer. I think Plato knew perfectly well that on such matters, it is impossible to give complete answers with human words. Thus, he tried to approach the question from different angles and give partial complementary (and not contradictory) answers, both negative (what gods are not, what we should not believe) and positive (what we may safely believe about gods and the divine, and questions of "origins" and "ends").

In that respect, the answers he gives in the Timæus have to be "qualified" by the purpose of this dialogue: it purports to show man how he should look at the kosmos, that is "theorize" it (from theorein, which means in Greek "contemplate"), to find in it traces of an organizing "intelligence" and use it as a model for our organizing work as builders of lawfull cities as "just" men endowed with logos that is, a divine parcel in our own souls. And you must keep in mind that Plato himself repeats times and again that he does not states definite truths but tells only "likely myths".

In it, you will find not "God", but a "demiourgos", that is a "worker" (etymologically, demiourgos means "one who works for the demos, that is for the people"), which is immortal by nature but works from a model and has to deal with anagkè, necessity. Though he does not seem to be the maker of "place (chôra)" and matter, he is the maker of time, "a moving image of eternity", and of "lower" gods, that are only immortal by his will. These gods represent the immortal living creatures that are needed to have all sorts of creatures in the kosmos. They are the makers of man as the "host" of a divine soul (the logos) handed them by the demiourgos. But you will also read that the kosmos is often refered to as a "god", endowed with a soul.

In the Laws, you will find what Plato deems the needed "religion" to ensure order in the city. Basically, men have to hold three key tenets: that gods exist (that is, that the world is not a purely "material" thing, product of chance or necessity); that they care for the world; and that they cannot be "bought" or corrupted by men's gifts or prayers. But there, he makes clear that he does not pretend to give the last answer on such difficult questions.

In it you will find also the root of Aristotle theory of the unmoved mover. But whereas Plato is well aware of the limits of his own discourse, Aristotle wants to give complete answers and thus takes "litteraly" what was for Plato only an partial insight into possible answers.

And then, there is the question of "forms" and especially of "the good that is beyond being" (Republic, VI). But this would lead us too far away. And the question of how litteraly Plato himself would take his own "myths". Eventually, if you want to know what Plato thinks about "the divine", you may have to read all the dialogues, and see how it fits within his suggested answers to such questions as the purpose of life, the role of reason in man, the relationship of becoming to being, of time to eternity, of visible to intelligible, and so on...

Another problem with your question has to do with the term "existence", which would require that we investigate the concept of "being" in Plato and Aristotle. The key to this problem, for Plato, lies in the Sophist: "being" is the least meaningfull predicate of all. To say that something "is", is to say nothing at all until you say "how" it exist, that is, to what other forms it "participates", and for what purpose it "is", that is, what its "good" is. As soon as you say "god", it "is"; that is, there is at least something in your mind that "is" in a certain way. But then , does it relates to some other "being" outside your mind, that is the question. Thus, the problem is not "existence" but "relations" (kind of an anticipation of some of Augustines' theories on the Trinity)."

 

 

LIFE IS GOD IS LIFE

LIFE IS QUALITIVELY THE SAME CREATIVE INTELLIGENCE IN EACH EVOCATION REGARDLESS OF FORM

ALL IS ONE UNIVERSAL CREATOR MIND ALL AND EVERYTHING

ONE UNIVERSAL PATTERN OF LIFE

 

 

PLATO - NUMBERS ARE THE HIGHEST DEGREE OF KNOWLEDGE

IT IS KNOWLEDGE ITSELF

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
P
=
7
1
7
PLATO
64
19
1
-
1
-
-
-
5
-
7
-
9
-
-
7
-
-
64
19
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
N
=
5
2
7
NUMBERS
92
29
2
-
-
2
-
-
5
-
7
-
9
A
=
1
3
3
ARE
24
15
6
-
-
-
-
-
5
6
7
-
9
T
=
2
4
3
THE
33
15
6
-
-
-
-
-
5
6
7
-
9
H
=
8
5
7
HIGHEST
76
40
4
-
-
-
-
4
5
-
7
-
9
D
=
4
6
6
DEGREE
44
35
8
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
7
8
9
O
=
6
7
2
OF
21
12
3
-
-
-
3
-
5
-
7
-
9
K
=
2
8
9
KNOWLEDGE
96
42
6
-
-
-
-
-
5
6
7
-
9
-
-
28
-
-
386
188
35
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
35
-
42
Add to Reduce
450
207
36
-
1
2
3
8
5
18
7
8
9
-
-
3+5
-
4+2
Reduce to Deduce
4+5+0
2+0+7
3+6
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+8
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
6
Essence of Number
9
9
9
-
1
2
3
8
5
9
7
8
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
P
=
7
1
7
PLATO
64
19
1
-
1
-
-
-
5
-
7
-
9
N
=
5
2
7
NUMBERS
92
29
2
-
-
2
-
-
5
-
7
-
9
A
=
1
3
3
ARE
24
15
6
-
-
-
-
-
5
6
7
-
9
T
=
2
4
3
THE
33
15
6
-
-
-
-
-
5
6
7
-
9
H
=
8
5
7
HIGHEST
76
40
4
-
-
-
-
4
5
-
7
-
9
D
=
4
6
6
DEGREE
44
35
8
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
7
8
9
O
=
6
7
2
OF
21
12
3
-
-
-
3
-
5
-
7
-
9
K
=
2
8
9
KNOWLEDGE
96
42
6
-
-
-
-
-
5
6
7
-
9
-
-
35
-
42
Add to Reduce
450
207
36
-
1
2
3
8
5
18
7
8
9
-
-
3+5
-
4+2
Reduce to Deduce
4+5+0
2+0+7
3+6
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+8
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
6
Essence of Number
9
9
9
-
1
2
3
8
5
9
7
8
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
P
=
7
1
7
PLATO
64
19
1
-
1
-
-
-
5
-
7
-
9
N
=
5
2
7
NUMBERS
92
29
2
-
-
2
-
-
5
-
7
-
9
O
=
6
7
2
OF
21
12
3
-
-
-
3
-
5
-
7
-
9
H
=
8
5
7
HIGHEST
76
40
4
-
-
-
-
4
5
-
7
-
9
A
=
1
3
3
ARE
24
15
6
-
-
-
-
-
5
6
7
-
9
T
=
2
4
3
THE
33
15
6
-
-
-
-
-
5
6
7
-
9
K
=
2
8
9
KNOWLEDGE
96
42
6
-
-
-
-
-
5
6
7
-
9
D
=
4
6
6
DEGREE
44
35
8
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
7
8
9
-
-
35
-
42
Add to Reduce
450
207
36
-
1
2
3
8
5
18
7
8
9
-
-
3+5
-
4+2
Reduce to Deduce
4+5+0
2+0+7
3+6
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+8
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
6
Essence of Number
9
9
9
-
1
2
3
8
5
9
7
8
9

 

RE 95 RE

REARRANGED NUMERICALLY REARRANGED

RE 95 RE

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
I
=
9
-
2
IT
29
11
2
-
-
2
3
4
5
-
7
-
9
I
=
9
-
2
IS
28
10
1
-
1
-
3
4
5
-
7
-
9
K
=
2
-
9
KNOWLEDGE
96
42
6
-
-
-
3
4
5
6
7
-
9
I
=
9
-
6
ITSELF
71
26
8
-
-
-
3
4
5
-
7
8
9
-
-
29
-
19
Add to Reduce
224
98
17
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
2+9
-
1+9
Reduce to Deduce
2+2+4
9+8
1+7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
11
-
10
Essence of Number
8
17
8
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
1+1
-
1+0
Reduce to Deduce
-
1+7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
1
Essence of Number
8
8
8
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

 

IT IS KNOWLEDGE ITSELF

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
I
=
9
-
2
IT
29
11
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I
=
9
-
2
IS
28
19
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
K
=
2
-
9
KNOWLEDGE
96
42
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I
=
9
-
6
ITSELF
71
26
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
29
-
19
Add to Reduce
224
98
17
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
I
=
9
1
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
T
=
2
2
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
11
-
-
29
11
11
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I
=
9
3
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
S
=
1
4
1
S
19
10
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
10
-
-
28
19
10
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
K
=
2
5
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
N
=
5
6
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
8
-
O
=
6
7
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
-
W
=
5
8
1
W
23
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
8
-
L
=
3
9
1
L
12
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
8
-
E
=
5
10
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
8
-
D
=
4
11
1
D
4
4
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
8
-
G
=
7
12
1
G
7
7
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
8
-
E
=
5
13
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
8
-
42
-
-
96
42
42
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I
=
9
14
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
T
=
2
15
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
S
=
1
16
1
S
19
10
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
E
=
5
17
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
8
-
L
=
3
18
1
L
12
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
8
-
F
=
6
19
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
-
27
-
-
71
35
26
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I
=
9
-
2
IT
29
11
2
-
2
6
6
4
25
12
7
8
27
I
=
9
-
2
IS
28
10
1
-
-
-
-
-
2+5
1+2
-
-
2+7
K
=
2
-
9
KNOWLEDGE
96
42
6
-
2
6
6
4
7
3
7
8
9
I
=
9
-
6
ITSELF
71
26
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
29
-
19
First Total
224
98
17
-
2
6
6
4
7
3
7
8
9
-
-
2+9
-
1+9
Add to Reduce
2+2+4
9+8
1+7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
11
-
10
Second Total
8
17
8
-
2
6
6
4
7
3
7
8
9
-
-
1+1
-
1+0
Reduce to Deduce
-
1+7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
1
Essence of Number
8
8
8
-
2
6
6
4
7
3
7
8
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
I
=
9
-
2
IT
29
11
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I
=
9
-
2
IS
28
19
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
K
=
2
-
9
KNOWLEDGE
96
42
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I
=
9
-
6
ITSELF
71
26
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
29
-
19
Add to Reduce
224
98
17
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
I
=
9
1
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
T
=
2
2
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
I
=
9
3
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
S
=
1
4
1
S
19
10
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
K
=
2
5
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
N
=
5
6
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
8
-
O
=
6
7
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
-
W
=
5
8
1
W
23
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
8
-
L
=
3
9
1
L
12
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
8
-
E
=
5
10
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
8
-
D
=
4
11
1
D
4
4
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
8
-
G
=
7
12
1
G
7
7
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
8
-
E
=
5
13
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
8
-
I
=
9
14
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
T
=
2
15
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
S
=
1
16
1
S
19
10
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
E
=
5
17
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
8
-
L
=
3
18
1
L
12
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
8
-
F
=
6
19
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I
=
9
-
2
IT
29
11
2
-
2
6
6
4
25
12
7
8
27
I
=
9
-
2
IS
28
10
1
-
-
-
-
-
2+5
1+2
-
-
2+7
K
=
2
-
9
KNOWLEDGE
96
42
6
-
2
6
6
4
7
3
7
8
9
I
=
9
-
6
ITSELF
71
26
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
29
-
19
First Total
224
98
17
-
2
6
6
4
7
3
7
8
9
-
-
2+9
-
1+9
Add to Reduce
2+2+4
9+8
1+7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
11
-
10
Second Total
8
17
8
-
2
6
6
4
7
3
7
8
9
-
-
1+1
-
1+0
Reduce to Deduce
-
1+7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
1
Essence of Number
8
8
8
-
2
6
6
4
7
3
7
8
9

 

RE 95 RE

REARRANGED NUMERICALLY REARRANGED

RE 95 RE

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
I
=
9
-
2
IT
29
11
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I
=
9
-
2
IS
28
19
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
K
=
2
-
9
KNOWLEDGE
96
42
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I
=
9
-
6
ITSELF
71
26
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
29
-
19
Add to Reduce
224
98
17
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
S
=
1
4
1
S
19
10
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
S
=
1
16
1
S
19
10
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
T
=
2
2
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
K
=
2
5
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
T
=
2
15
1
T
20
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
L
=
3
9
1
L
12
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
8
-
L
=
3
18
1
L
12
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
8
-
D
=
4
11
1
D
4
4
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
8
-
N
=
5
6
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
8
-
W
=
5
8
1
W
23
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
8
-
E
=
5
10
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
8
-
E
=
5
13
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
8
-
E
=
5
17
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
8
-
O
=
6
7
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
-
F
=
6
19
1
F
6
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
-
G
=
7
12
1
G
7
7
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
8
-
I
=
9
1
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
I
=
9
14
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
I
=
9
3
1
I
9
9
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
I
=
9
-
2
IT
29
11
2
-
2
6
6
4
25
12
7
8
27
I
=
9
-
2
IS
28
10
1
-
-
-
-
-
2+5
1+2
-
-
2+7
K
=
2
-
9
KNOWLEDGE
96
42
6
-
2
6
6
4
7
3
7
8
9
I
=
9
-
6
ITSELF
71
26
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
29
-
19
First Total
224
98
17
-
2
6
6
4
7
3
7
8
9
-
-
2+9
-
1+9
Add to Reduce
2+2+4
9+8
1+7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
11
-
10
Second Total
8
17
8
-
2
6
6
4
7
3
7
8
9
-
-
1+1
-
1+0
Reduce to Deduce
-
1+7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
1
Essence of Number
8
8
8
-
2
6
6
4
7
3
7
8
9

 

RE 95 RE

REARRANGED NUMERICALLY REARRANGED

RE 95 RE

 

KNOWLEDGE 96 KNOWLEDGE

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
IT
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
IS
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
K
=
2
-
9
KNOWLEDGE
96
42
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
ITSELF
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
K
=
2
1
1
K
11
2
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
L
=
3
5
1
L
12
3
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
8
9
D
=
4
7
1
D
4
4
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
8
9
N
=
5
2
1
N
14
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
8
9
W
=
5
4
1
W
23
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
8
9
E
=
5
6
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
8
9
E
=
5
9
1
E
5
5
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
8
9
O
=
6
3
1
O
15
6
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
9
G
=
7
8
1
G
7
7
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
8
9
-
-
42
-
9
KNOWLEDGE
96
42
42
-
1
2
3
4
20
6
7
8
9
-
-
4+2
-
-
-
9+6
4+2
4+2
-
-
-
-
-
2+0
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
9
KNOWLEDGE
15
6
6
-
1
2
3
4
2
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
9
KNOWLEDGE
5
6
8
-
1
2
3
4
2
6
7
8
9

 

 

RE 95 RE

REARRANGED NUMERICALLY REARRANGED

RE 95 RE

 

 

THE ATLANTIS SECRET

A COMPLETE DECODING OF PLATOS LOST CONTINENT

Alan F Alford 2001

SOCRATES AND PLATO

Page 49

On Cosmogony

"According to Plato, everything in the Universe had to have sprung from some initial principle, which must, by definition, have been something capable of springing into motion by itself.' This principle, he said, had been an aethereal fifth element called 'soul' (psyche), which could be defined as 'motion capable of moving itself' ." It had been 'born long before all physical things' and was therefore 'the first cause to which everything owes its birth'.18 Accordingly, soul-substance was the original cause of all movement in the Universe, and had stirred into motion everything in the heavens and all life on Earth, including mankind.19
This, in itself, was not a new theory, for similar schemes had been proposed earlier by the Orphics and by the Milesian philosophers Thales, Anaximander and Anaximenes (see chapter three). But more to the point, Plato's theory was rooted in the mystical beliefs of the Pythagoreans.
In Timaeus, Plato had Timaeus (a Pythagorean character) elaborate on the theory of the soul-substance and build a whole cosmogony around it. The Universe, said Timaeus, had been designed in the form of a sphere by a unique God whom he called the Demiourgos (literally 'the divine craftsman').2° God had then filled this sphere with soul, which he created in the centre and settled outwards in seven layers.21 At the same time, God had used earth, air, fire and water to create the celestial gods within the sphere of the Universe.22 The Earth was the eldest of these physical gods by virtue of its position at the centre of the Universe (note here the Greek concept of the geocentric Universe).2' Around it, God had created the Sun, the Moon and the five other planets (i.e. those known to the Greeks), which he had set orbiting within the sphere of the Universe, one in each of the seven layers, to act as instruments of time.24 At the same moment, God had created the stars, mostly out of fire, and had fixed them on the outermost surface of the universal sphere 'to be a true adornment for it' .25
Finally, God had completed his creation of the living Universe by joining souls to bodies and setting the whole thing in motion:
"The soul was woven together with the body, from the centre on out in every direction to the outermost limit of the Universe, and covered it all around on the outside. And, revolving within itself, it initiated a divine beginning of unceasing, intelligent life for all time."26
It should be noted that, under this scheme, the Sun, the Moon and the / Page 50 / planets were not just 'earth and stones', as certain sceptics maintained (based on the theory of Anaxagoras), but were driven by souls, which were either contained inside the celestial bodies or attached to them invisibly." All of the celestial bodies were thus living beings, all of them contained in a Universe which was itself defined as the Living Thing'." This Universe was filled and surrounded by the soul-substance.
Intriguingly, Plato had Timaeus declare that God (Demiourgos) had fashioned this Universe, and everything in it, in accordance with a preexistent model which he called 'the real Living Thing'." The visible Universe might seem to be an eternal living thing, but it had in fact been created in the image of the pre-existent model — the one and only truly eternal and changeless 'real Living Thing', which he also called 'That which is' .3°
As for God (Demiourgos), whilst his name meant literally the divine craftsman', this did not necessarily mean that God had taken physical form in order to create the Universe. Rather, according to Timaeus, God had been the first principle and had thus been motion capable of moving itself . God was thus Soul with a capital `S', in its purest and most original sense; but he was also Intelligence, in its original and most pure sense, for it was evident to the Pythagoreans that the Universe had been devised by an intelligent mind.31
Let us recall, at this juncture, the first principle of all Socratic and Platonic philosophy, that man's true self was an immortal soul, trapped inside a mortal body. How did this come to be? Where did man's soul come from? In Timaeus, Plato had the Pythagorean character Timaeus provide the answer:

The spirit raises us up away from the Earth and toward what is akin to us in Heaven, as though we are plants grown not from the Earth but from Heaven. In saying this we speak absolutely correctly. For Heaven is the place from which our souls were originally born..."32

Man's soul had thus had a heavenly origin (in line with the cosmogony cited above), whereas his body had been born from the Earth.
A similar theory had been advocated by Socrates in Phaedrus (a book attributed to Plato but originating in all likelihood from earlier Socratic writers). In the beginning, said Socrates, all human souls had been circulating in the company of the heavenly gods. But then had come the moment of the fall from Heaven to Earth. Just before that moment, the souls had been shown a 'spectacular vision' and had been able to gaze for a moment at 'sacred revealed objects that were perfect, and simple, and unshakeable and blissful' .33 But this heavenly glory had been lost. / Page 51 / Upon their fall from Heaven, the souls had become imprisoned inside Earth-born bodies and many, in time remaining only dimly aware of the perfect objects which they had once glimpsed there.34
Once again, it should be stressed that this theory of man's soul was nothing new, and nor was it exclusive to Scrates and Plato. Empedocles, for example, had already put forward a very similar scheme imagined his soul to have been cast down from the heavenly region of light into 'the roofed-in cave', v wanderer on the Earth. 'From what a height of bliss have I fallen', he wrote, mortals' .
In fact, Empedocles, like Socrates and Plato were drawing upon a theory of the soul that had long be the Pythagoreans. And these brotherhoods, in turn, had almost certainly acquired the idea from the Egyptians25"

The Theory of Forms

We turn now to the Theory of Forms — an off-putting appellation if ever there was one — which is, without a doubt, the most difficult concept to face the reader of Plato. Not only is it poorly understood by the modern experts, but also it is awkwardly devoid of any explanation in layman' s terms. The casual reader of Plato may, at a first pass, wonder what on earth Socrates and Plato were talking about.

In fact, the Theory of Forms (also known as the Theory of Ideas) is perfectly straightforward. It is essentially the belief that everything on Earth is an inferior copy of an original, supreme and heavenly master- copy. In effect, it amounts to a philosophical counterpart of the popular religious concept of the fallen paradise.

The classic example of this is the concept of justice. On Earth, there is no single definition of justice, but rather a proliferation of systems which reflect differing human conceptions of what justice should be. Thus the typical Western idea of justice might differ considerably from that of the the Muslims. What then is 'Justice' with a capital T ? Did it even exist? According to Socrates and Plato, Justice did exist, but not among the manifold copies of justice which had been invented by races of men here on Earth. Instead, true Justice was to be found in Heaven. It was literally an arche-type — a first type or original form. Hence the name given to this kind of Socratic and Platonic thinking — the Theory of Forms.

The Theory of Forms concept finds its best illustration in Socrates' / Page 52 / story of the Upper Earth which is told in one of Plato's works, Phaedo.
The setting is Socrates' final hours in an Athenian jail cell, where he
entertains a group of visitors which includes two prominent members of the Pythagorean community. As he faces death by drinking hemlock, Socrates shares his vision of what happens to man upon death. The soul,
he says, is evidently immortal and experiences a variety of fates on the
other side. Whilst the majority of souls go to dwell in the Underworld (either for a while or permanently), a privileged few are allowed to ascend to an upper realm which is called 'the true Heaven, the true Light and the true Earth' .36 This Upper Earth, says Socrates, stands in stark contrast to the familiar Earth down here. Everything in it is brighter and purer. The trees are greener, the plants are more beautiful, and the stones and minerals are absolutely perfect. In contrast, the Earth down here is a spoiled and corroded world of ugliness and disease, where even our most precious stones are but crude fragments of the heavenly originals.37
In this myth, the Upper Earth (Heaven) symbolises what Platonic scholars like to call 'the world of Forms'. It literally is a world, albeit a perfect one — the prototype of the world that we know. Hence the idea that it was 'the true Earth' which contained the archetypes (the Forms) for everything that existed down here on our own imperfect Earth. And hence the idea that the Upper Earth had the shape of 'a spherical ball', in accordance with the Pythagorean belief that Earth, Heaven, planets and stars were spherical bodies.38
Socrates envisaged the 'world of Forms' as the sole unchanging thing in an ever-changing Universe. In a nutshell, it was the realm of what is' and that which is'.39 But intriguingly, Socrates declared that "that which is is invisible."" Thus the 'world of Forms' signified an invisible Heaven raised above a visible Earth.
Yet more intriguingly, Plato had his Pythagorean character Timaeus elevate the status of the 'world of Forms' from a living prototype planet to a living prototype Universe. Hence, in Timaeus, it was suggested that God (Demiourgos) had fashioned the visible Universe, and everything in it, in the image of a pre-existent model which was the one and only truly eternal and changeless living thing, 'the real Living Thing', and That which is' (see earlier).
All of this tied in with Plato's theory of the body and the soul, and the destiny of the soul in the afterlife. The body, said Plato, 'participated' in the ideal of its heavenly Form, but its share of the ideal fell short of the original, as did the share of all material things on Earth. The body was thus prone to corruption, decay and death. The soul, however, consisting of an aethereal substance, had received a full share of the heavenly / Page 53 / Forms, and was thus pure and immortal the soul had originated in Heaven, it belonged in Heaven.
Plato's philosophy was not philosoph a much higher kind of art, which he ca] philosophy'.4' The life of a man on E because the Earth was an inferior, ever `world of Forms' ; it was a snare for mai said Plato, existed only in Heaven. Tiny not to gain knowledge of changeable th knowledge of 'That which always exi philosopher had to recognise that the wl riddle, where everything visible was a c( which was invisible.
In line with Pythagorean thinking, Plato suggested that man should seek knowledge of 'That which is' by studying wherever it occurred (or nearly occurrel geometry, solids, astronomy and harmonic motions .43 But to see the truth beyond the cosmic allegory, one had to not with the eye, and this required remembrance of the fact that ones true self was the soul.
In Republic, Socrates suggested that ti obtain knowledge of 'That which is' during his life time by means of an arduous series of initiations in Pythagore ideal state, Socrates proposed that true p qualification for rulership. The aspirant initiated in his fiftieth year, and would 1 city in accordance with the perfect heap Forms':

"Then, at the age of fifty, those who have survived the tests...must be led to the goal and compelled to lift up to what itself provides Light for everything the Good itself, they must each in turn themselves in order, using it [the Good] as their model."44

True philosophers were thus regarded as who would deliver an ideal era of peace the time preparing their own personal souls for elevation to Heaven.45
Such, then, is the Theory of Forms which is generally regarded as Plato's big idea. And yet it must be stressed that in most respects, it was hardly an original concept. In fact, a similar theory had been taught a / Page 54 / Page 52 / story of the Upper Earth which is told in one of Plato's works, Phaedo. The setting is Socrates' final hours in an Athenian jail cell, where he entertains a group of visitors which includes two prominent members of the Pythagorean community As he faces death by drinking hemlock, Socrates shares his vision of what happens to man upon death. The soul, he says, is evidently immortal and experiences a variety of fates on the other side. Whilst the majority of souls go to dwell in the Underworld (either for a while or permanently), a privileged few are allowed to ascend to an upper realm which is called 'the true Heaven, the true Light and the true Earth'." This Upper Earth, says Socrates, stands in stark contrast to the familiar Earth down here. Everything in it is brighter and purer. The trees are greener, the plants are more beautiful, and the stones and minerals are absolutely perfect. In contrast, the Earth down here is a spoiled and corroded world of ugliness and disease, where even our most precious stones are but crude fragments of the heavenly originals."
In this myth, the Upper Earth (Heaven) symbolises what Platonic scholars like to call 'the world of Forms'. It literally is a world, albeit a perfect one — the prototype of the world that we know. Hence the idea that it was 'the true Earth' which contained the archetypes (the Forms) for everything that existed down here on our own imperfect Earth. And hence the idea that the Upper Earth had the shape of 'a spherical ball', in accordance with the Pythagorean belief that Earth, Heaven, planets and stars were spherical bodies."
Socrates envisaged the 'world of Forms' as the sole unchanging thing in an ever-changing Universe. In a nutshell, it was 'the realm of what is' and 'that which is'.39 But intriguingly, Socrates declared that "that which is is invisible."40 Thus the 'world of Forms' signified an invisible Heaven raised above a visible Earth.
Yet more intriguingly, Plato had his Pythagorean character Timaeus elevate the status of the 'world of Forms' from a living prototype planet to a living prototype Universe. Hence, in Timaeus, it was suggested that God (Demiourgos) had fashioned the visible Universe, and everything in it, in the image of a pre-existent model which was the one and only truly eternal and changeless living thing, 'the real Living Thing', and 'That which is' (see earlier).
All of this tied in with Plato's theory of the body and the soul, and the destiny of the soul in the afterlife. The body, said Plato, 'participated' in the ideal of its heavenly Form, but its share of the ideal fell short of the original, as did the share of all material things on Earth. The body was thus prone to corruption, decay and death. The soul, however, consisting of an (ethereal substance, had received a full share of the heavenly
Forms, and was thus pure and immorta the soul had originated in Heaven, it bele
Plato's philosophy was not philosoph: a much higher kind of art, which he cal philosophy' .41 The life of a man on because the Earth was an inferior, ever `world of Forms'; it was a snare for mar said Plato, existed only in Heaven. Thin not to gain knowledge of changeable th knowledge of 'That which always exi philosopher had to recognise that the wt riddle, where everything visible was a c( which was invisible.
In line with Pythagorean thinking, P seek knowledge of 'That which is' by sti wherever it occurred (or nearly occurre, geometry, solids, astronomy and harmor beyond the cosmic allegory, one had to not with the eye, and this required rem true self was the soul.
In Republic, Socrates suggested that tl obtain knowledge of 'That which is' du arduous series of initiations in Pythagort ideal state, Socrates proposed that true r qualification for rulership. The aspirant initiated in his fiftieth year, and would city in accordance with the perfect heal Forms':
"Then, at the age of fifty, those who 1 led to the goal and compelled to lift t to what itself provides Light for ever the Good itself, they must each in tin themselves in order, using it [the Go
True philosophers were thus regarded who would deliver an ideal era of pea the time preparing their own personal Heaven.'
Such, then, is the Theory of Forms as Plato's big idea. And yet it must t was hardly an original concept. In fact a similar theory had been taught a / Page 54 / century earlier by Pythagoras (580-500 Bc) and elements of it had been expounded quite recently by Parmenides of Elea, who is today regarded as one of the founding fathers of metaphysics. Parmenides, for his part, had dismissed the world of senses in favour of a primary metaphysical `world of Truth' which could not be perceived by the eyes but by reason alone.46 In a famous poem, he described how his soul had been taken into the Underworld where 'the Goddess' had revealed to him the true nature of reality. The world of the senses, he was told, was an illusion. The real world — or world of truth — was a metaphysical Sphere, which was single, stationary and unchanging. This heavenly world was 'the Thing which is' , and it was apparent to reason alone.47 All of this terminology should sound strikingly familiar, for it constitutes one of the central planks of Plato's Theory of Forms.
Interestingly, Parmenides described the 'world of Truth' as a Sphere, just as Socrates described his 'world of Forms' as a 'true Earth' which had the shape of 'a spherical ball'. In both cases, the philosophers were drawing on older ideas, notably Pythagorean cosmology in which the Earth and the Universe were conceived to be spheres.
As for the idea that archetypal Forms had been copied from Heaven to Earth, this, too, was not original to Socrates or Plato. Empedocles, for example (born just a few decades before Socrates), described how the four elements of earth, air, fire and water had been born on Earth as the result of a crisis in Heaven, when the Sphere of God had been torn apart by the forces of Strife (see chapter three). Once again, the Sphere makes an appearance, but this time not as an invisible world. Rather, it seems to have signified a physical object which was blown apart by a cataclysm. The scenario finds an echo in the Orphic myth in which Orpheus sings of a time when earth, sky and sea had been joined together in one mass, but had then been separated 'as the result of deadly disruption'. One is reminded, too, of Anaxagoras' cosmogony in which all things had been together until the Universe (by definition a sphere) had tilted towards the south (downwards) 'in order that some parts might become uninhabitable and others habitable' (see chapter three). Did this myth signify a physical cataclysm and a transmission of the elements from Heaven to Earth? If so, Anaxagoras' cosmogony would bear a striking similarity to Plato's Theory of Forms, in which Heaven had provided the archetypes for all life on Earth.
On which mote, we turn to the subject of cataclysms per se. To what extent did Socrates and Plato recognise the importance of cataclysms in the Greek myths?"

 

 

-
DEMIOURGOS
-
-
-
2
D+E
9
9
9
1
M
13
4
4
1
I
9
9
9
2
OU
36
9
9
1
R
18
9
9
3
G+O+S
41
14
5
10
DEMIOURGOS
126
54
36
1+0
-
1+2+6
5+4
3+7
1
DEMIOURGOS
9
9
9

 

 

-
10
D
E
M
I
O
U
R
G
O
S
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
=
-
-
-
-
-
9
6
-
-
-
6
1
+
=
22
2+2
=
4
=
4
=
4
-
-
-
-
-
9
15
-
-
-
15
19
+
=
49
4+9
=
13
1+3
4
=
4
-
10
D
E
M
I
O
U
R
G
O
S
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
=
-
-
4
5
4
-
-
3
9
7
-
-
+
=
32
3+2
=
5
=
5
=
5
-
-
4
5
13
-
-
21
18
7
-
-
+
=
68
6+8
=
14
1+4
5
=
5
-
10
D
E
M
I
O
U
R
G
O
S
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
=
-
-
4
5
13
9
15
21
18
7
15
19
+
=
126
1+2+6
=
9
-
9
=
9
-
-
4
5
4
9
6
3
9
7
6
1
+
=
54
5+4
=
9
-
9
=
9
-
10
D
E
M
I
O
U
R
G
O
S
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
occurs
x
1
=
1
=
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
TWO
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
occurs
x
1
=
3
=
3
-
-
4
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
occurs
x
2
=
8
=
8
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
occurs
x
1
=
5
=
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
6
occurs
x
2
=
12
1+2
3
-
--
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
7
occurs
x
1
=
7
=
7
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
EIGHT
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
9
occurs
x
2
=
18
1+8
9
10
10
D
E
M
I
O
U
R
G
O
S
-
-
35
-
-
10
-
54
-
36
1+0
1+0
-
-
-
9
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
3+5
-
-
1+0
-
5+4
-
3+6
1
1
D
E
M
I
O
U
R
G
O
S
-
-
8
-
-
1
-
9
-
9
-
-
4
5
4
9
6
3
9
7
6
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
D
E
M
I
O
U
R
G
O
S
-
-
8
-
-
1
-
9
-
9

 

 

10
D
E
M
I
O
U
R
G
O
S
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
=
-
-
-
-
9
6
-
-
-
6
1
+
=
22
2+2
=
4
=
4
=
4
-
-
-
-
9
15
-
-
-
15
19
+
=
49
4+9
=
13
1+3
4
=
4
10
D
E
M
I
O
U
R
G
O
S
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
=
-
4
5
4
-
-
3
9
7
-
-
+
=
32
3+2
=
5
=
5
=
5
-
4
5
13
-
-
21
18
7
-
-
+
=
68
6+8
=
14
1+4
5
=
5
10
D
E
M
I
O
U
R
G
O
S
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
=
`-
4
5
13
9
15
21
18
7
15
19
+
=
126
1+2+6
=
9
-
9
=
9
-
4
5
4
9
6
3
9
7
6
1
+
=
54
5+4
=
9
-
9
=
9
10
D
E
M
I
O
U
R
G
O
S
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
occurs
x
1
=
1
=
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
occurs
x
1
=
3
=
3
-
4
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
occurs
x
2
=
8
=
8
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
occurs
x
1
=
5
=
5
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
6
occurs
x
2
=
12
1+2
3
--
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
7
occurs
x
1
=
7
=
7
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
9
occurs
x
2
=
18
1+8
9
10
D
E
M
I
O
U
R
G
O
S
-
-
35
-
-
10
-
54
-
36
1+0
-
-
-
9
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
3+5
-
-
1+0
-
5+4
-
3+6
1
D
E
M
I
O
U
R
G
O
S
-
-
8
-
-
1
-
9
-
9
-
4
5
4
9
6
3
9
7
6
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
D
E
M
I
O
U
R
G
O
S
-
-
8
-
-
1
-
9
-
9

 

 

-
DEMIURGE
-
-
-
-
D+E
9
9
9
-
M
13
4
4
-
I
9
9
9
-
U
21
3
3
-
R
18
9
9
-
G+E
12
3
3
8
DEMIURGE
82
37
37
-
-
8+2
3+7
3+7
8
DEMIURGE
10
10
10
-
-
1+0
1+0
1+0
8
DEMIURGE
1
1
1

 

 

-
8
D
E
M
I
U
R
G
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
=
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
+
=
9
-
=
9
=
9
=
9
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
+
=
9
-
=
9
=
9
=
9
-
8
D
E
M
I
U
R
G
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
=
-
-
4
5
4
-
3
9
7
5
+
=
37
3+7
=
10
1+0
1
=
1
-
-
4
5
13
-
21
18
7
5
+
=
73
7+3
=
10
1+0
1
=
1
-
8
D
E
M
I
U
R
G
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
=
-
-
4
5
13
9
21
18
7
5
+
=
82
8+2
=
10
1+0
1
=
1
-
-
4
5
4
9
3
9
7
5
+
=
46
4+6
=
10
1+0
1
=
1
-
8
D
E
M
I
U
R
G
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
ONE
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
TWO
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
3
occurs
x
1
=
3
=
3
-
-
4
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
occurs
x
2
=
8
=
8
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
5
occurs
x
2
=
10
1+0
1
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
SIX
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
7
occurs
x
1
=
7
=
7
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
EIGHT
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
9
-
-
-
-
9
occurs
x
2
=
18
1+8
9
17
8
D
E
M
I
U
R
G
E
-
-
28
-
-
8
-
46
-
28
1+7
-
-
-
-
9
-
9
-
-
-
-
2+8
-
-
-
-
4+6
-
2+8
8
8
D
E
M
I
U
R
G
E
-
-
10
-
-
8
-
10
-
10
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
9
-
-
-
-
1+0
-
-
-
-
1+0
-
1+0
8
8
D
E
M
I
U
R
G
E
-
-
1
-
-
8
-
1
-
1

 

 

-
8
D
E
M
I
U
R
G
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
=
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
+
=
9
-
=
9
=
9
=
9
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
+
=
9
-
=
9
=
9
=
9
-
8
D
E
M
I
U
R
G
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
=
-
-
4
5
4
-
3
9
7
5
+
=
37
3+7
=
10
1+0
1
=
1
-
-
4
5
13
-
21
18
7
5
+
=
73
7+3
=
10
1+0
1
=
1
-
8
D
E
M
I
U
R
G
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
=
-
-
4
5
13
9
21
18
7
5
+
=
82
8+2
=
10
1+0
1
=
1
-
-
4
5
4
9
3
9
7
5
+
=
46
4+6
=
10
1+0
1
=
1
-
8
D
E
M
I
U
R
G
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
3
occurs
x
1
=
3
=
3
-
-
4
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
occurs
x
2
=
8
=
8
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
5
occurs
x
2
=
10
1+0
1
-
--
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
7
occurs
x
1
=
7
=
7
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
9
-
-
-
-
9
occurs
x
2
=
18
1+8
9
17
8
D
E
M
I
U
R
G
E
-
-
28
-
-
8
-
46
-
28
1+7
-
-
-
-
9
-
9
-
-
-
-
2+8
-
-
-
-
4+6
-
2+8
8
8
D
E
M
I
U
R
G
E
-
-
10
-
-
8
-
10
-
10
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
9
-
-
-
-
1+0
-
-
-
-
1+0
-
1+0
8
8
D
E
M
I
U
R
G
E
-
-
1
-
-
8
-
1
-
1

 

 

PLATO A PLOT A PLOT A PLATO

 

 

-
PLATO
-
-
-
2
PL
28
10
1
3
A+T+O
36
9
9
5
PLATO
64
37
10
-
-
6+4
3+7
1+0
5
PLATO
10
10
1
-
-
1+0
1+0
-
5
PLATO
1
1
1

 

 

-
5
P
L
A
T
O
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
+
=
6
-
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
15
+
=
15
1+5
=
6
=
6
-
5
P
L
A
T
O
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
3
1
2
-
+
=
13
1+3
=
4
=
4
-
-
16
12
1
20
-
+
=
49
4+9
=
13
1+3
4
-
5
P
L
A
T
O
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
16
12
1
20
15
+
=
64
6+4
=
10
1+0
1
-
-
7
3
1
2
6
+
=
19
1+9
=
10
1+0
1
-
5
P
L
A
T
O
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
occurs
x
1
=
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
2
occurs
x
1
=
2
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
3
occurs
x
1
=
3
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
FOUR
4
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
FIVE
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
6
occurs
x
1
=
6
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
occurs
x
1
=
7
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
EIGHT
8
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
NINE
9
-
-
-
26
5
P
L
A
T
O
-
-
19
-
-
5
-
19
2+6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+9
-
-
-
-
1+9
8
5
P
L
A
T
O
-
-
10
-
-
5
-
10
-
-
7
3
1
2
6
-
-
1+0
-
-
-
-
1+0
8
5
P
L
A
T
O
-
-
1
-
-
5
-
1

 

 

5
P
L
A
T
O
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
+
=
6
-
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
-
-
15
+
=
15
1+5
=
6
=
6
5
P
L
A
T
O
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
3
1
2
-
+
=
13
1+3
=
4
=
4
-
16
12
1
20
-
+
=
49
4+9
=
13
1+3
4
5
P
L
A
T
O
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
16
12
1
20
15
+
=
64
6+4
=
10
1+0
1
-
7
3
1
2
6
+
=
19
1+9
=
10
1+0
1
5
P
L
A
T
O
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
occurs
x
1
=
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
2
occurs
x
1
=
2
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
3
occurs
x
1
=
3
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
6
occurs
x
1
=
6
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
occurs
x
1
=
7
5
P
L
A
T
O
-
-
19
-
-
5
-
19
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+9
-
-
-
-
1+9
5
P
L
A
T
O
-
-
10
-
-
5
-
10
-
7
3
1
2
6
-
-
1+0
-
-
-
-
1+0
5
P
L
A
T
O
-
-
1
-
-
5
-
1

 

 

CHESS 54 CHESS

 

-
-
-
-
-
CHESS
-
-
-
C
=
3
-
1
C
3
3
3
H
=
8
-
1
H
8
8
8
E
=
5
-
1
E
5
5
5
S
=
1
-
1