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26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
-
-
5
6
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
+
=
43
4+3
=
7
=
7
=
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
-
-
14
15
-
-
-
19
-
-
-
-
24
-
26
+
=
115
1+1+5
=
7
=
7
=
7
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
-
1
2
3
4
-
-
7
8
9
-
2
3
4
5
-
7
-
+
=
83
8+3
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
-
10
11
12
13
-
-
16
17
18
-
20
21
22
23
-
25
-
+
=
236
2+3+6
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
+
=
351
3+5+1
=
9
=
9
=
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
+
=
126
1+2+6
=
9
=
9
=
9
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
1
occurs
x
3
=
3
=
3
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
2
occurs
x
3
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
3
occurs
x
3
=
9
=
9
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
+
=
4
occurs
x
3
=
12
1+2
3
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
+
=
5
occurs
x
3
=
15
1+5
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
+
=
6
occurs
x
3
=
18
1+8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
+
=
7
occurs
x
3
=
21
2+1
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
+
=
8
occurs
x
3
=
24
2+4
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
9
occurs
x
2
=
18
1+8
9
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
45
-
-
26
-
126
-
54
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4+5
-
-
2+6
-
1+2+6
-
5+4
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
9
-
-
8
-
9
-
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
9
-
-
8
-
9
-
9

 

 

THE LIGHT IS RISING NOW RISING IS THE LIGHT

 

 

0
-
Z
=
8
-
4
ZERO
64
28
1
1
-
O
=
6
-
3
ONE
34
16
7
2
-
T
=
2
-
3
TWO
58
13
4
3
-
T
=
2
-
5
THREE
56
29
2
4
-
F
=
6
-
4
FOUR
60
24
6
5
-
F
=
6
-
4
FIVE
42
24
6
6
-
S
=
1
-
3
SIX
52
16
7
7
-
S
=
1
-
5
SEVEN
65
20
2
8
-
E
=
5
-
5
EIGHT
49
31
4
9
-
N
=
5
-
4
NINE
42
24
6
45
-
-
-
42
-
40
Add
522
225
45
4+5
-
-
-
4+2
-
4+0
Reduce
5+2+2
2+2+5
4+5
9
-
-
-
6
-
4
Deduce
9
9
9

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0
-
Z
=
8
-
4
ZERO
64
28
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
O
=
6
-
3
ONE
34
16
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
2
-
T
=
2
-
3
TWO
58
13
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
T
=
2
-
5
THREE
56
29
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
F
=
6
-
4
FOUR
60
24
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
5
-
F
=
6
-
4
FIVE
42
24
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
6
-
S
=
1
-
3
SIX
52
16
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
7
-
S
=
1
-
5
SEVEN
65
20
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
E
=
5
-
5
EIGHT
49
31
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
N
=
5
-
4
NINE
42
24
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
45
-
-
-
42
-
40
Add
522
225
45
-
1
4
3
8
5
18
14
8
9
4+5
-
-
-
4+2
-
4+0
Reduce
5+2+2
2+2+5
4+5
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+8
1+4
-
-
9
-
-
-
6
-
4
Deduce
9
9
9
-
1
4
3
8
5
9
5
8
9

 

 

1
-
O
=
6
-
3
ONE
34
16
7
2
-
T
=
2
-
3
TWO
58
13
4
3
-
T
=
2
-
5
THREE
56
29
2
4
-
F
=
6
-
4
FOUR
60
24
6
5
-
F
=
6
-
4
FIVE
42
24
6
6
-
S
=
1
-
3
SIX
52
16
7
7
-
S
=
1
-
5
SEVEN
65
20
2
8
-
E
=
5
-
5
EIGHT
49
31
4
9
-
N
=
5
-
4
NINE
42
24
6
45
-
-
-
34
-
36
Add
458
197
44
4+5
-
-
-
3+4
-
3+6
Reduce
4+5+8
1+9+7
4+4
9
-
-
-
7
4
9
Deduce
17
17
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Produce
1+7
1+7
-
9
-
-
-
7
-
9
Essence
8
8
8

 

 

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
O
=
6
-
3
ONE
34
16
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
2
-
T
=
2
-
3
TWO
58
13
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
T
=
2
-
5
THREE
56
29
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
F
=
6
-
4
FOUR
60
24
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
5
-
F
=
6
-
4
FIVE
42
24
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
6
-
S
=
1
-
3
SIX
52
16
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
7
-
S
=
1
-
5
SEVEN
65
20
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
E
=
5
-
5
EIGHT
49
31
4
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
N
=
5
-
4
NINE
42
24
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
45
-
-
-
34
-
36
Add
458
197
44
-
1
4
3
8
5
18
14
8
9
4+5
-
-
-
3+4
-
3+6
Reduce
4+5+8
1+9+7
4+4
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+8
1+4
-
-
9
-
-
-
7
4
9
Deduce
17
17
8
-
1
4
3
8
5
18
14
8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Produce
1+7
1+7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
7
-
9
Essence
8
8
8
-
1
4
3
8
5
9
5
8
9

 

 

0
-
4
ZERO
8
5
9
6
-
=
28
2+8
=
10
1+0
1
1
-
3
ONE
6
5
5
-
-
=
16
1+6
=
7
-
7
2
-
3
TWO
2
5
6
-
-
=
13
1+3
=
4
-
4
3
-
5
THREE
2
8
9
5
5
=
29
2+9
=
11
1+1
2
4
-
4
FOUR
6
6
3
9
-
=
24
2+4
=
6
-
6
5
-
4
FIVE
6
9
4
5
-
=
24
2+4
=
6
-
6
6
-
3
SIX
1
9
6
-
-
=
16
1+6
=
7
-
7
7
-
5
SEVEN
1
5
4
5
5
=
20
2+0
=
2
-
2
8
-
5
EIGHT
5
9
7
8
2
=
31
3+1
=
4
-
4
9
-
4
NINE
5
9
5
5
-
=
24
2+4
=
6
-
6
45
-
40
Add
42
70
58
43
12
-
225
-
-
63
-
45
4+5
-
4+0
-
4+2
7+0
5+8
4+3
1+2
-
2+2+5
-
-
6+3
-
4+5
9
-
4
Reduce
6
7
13
7
3
-
9
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
4
Deduce
6
7
4
7
3
-
9
-
-
9
-
9

 

 

ADVENT 942 ADVENT

 

 

The Uranometria, published in 1603 by the German lawyer Johann Bayer, opened a new age in the history of celestial cartography. ...
www.bo.astro.it/~biblio/atlas/bayer-in.htm - 2k

 

 

Uranometria also introduced the Bayer designations, which are still used today. Related category • ASTRONOMICAL CATALOGS Also on this site: ... www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/U/Uranometria.html - 9

 

 

27 Jan 2009 ... Uranometria is the short title of a star atlas produced by Johann Bayer. It was published in Augsburg, Germany, in 1603 by Christophorus ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranometria

 

Uranometria

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

File:Uranometria orion.jpg

Uranometria's engraving of the constellation Orion, courtesy of the US Naval Observatory Library

Uranometria is the short title of a star atlas produced by Johann Bayer. It was published in Augsburg, Germany, in 1603 by Christophorus Mangus under the full title Uranometria : omnium asterismorum continens schemata, nova methodo delineata, aereis laminis expressa. This translates to "Uranometria, containing charts of all the constellations, drawn by a new method and engraved on copper plates". The word "Uranometria" derives from Urania, Muse of the heavens and "uranos" (oυρανός) the Greek word for sky / heavens. A literal translation of "Uranometria" is "Measuring the Sky" (to be compared with "Geometry"-"Geometria" in Greek, literally translated to "Measuring the Earth").

It was the first atlas to cover the entire celestial sphere.

The pages of Uranometria were originally engraved on copper plates by Alexander Mair (ca 1562-1617). It contained 51 star charts. The first 48 pages represent the 48 Ptolemaic constellations. The 49th page introduces 12 new constellations in the deep southern sky which were unknown to Ptolemy. The final two charts are planispheres labeled "Synopsis coeli superioris borea" and "Synopsis coeli inferioris austrina," or (roughly), "Overview of the northern hemisphere" and "Overview of the southern hemisphere."

Each plate includes a grid for accurately determining the position of each star to fractions of a degree. The positions used by Bayer to create the Uranometria were taken from the expanded 1,005 star catalog of Tycho Brahe. Brahe's expanded list had circulated in manuscript since 1598 and was available in graphic form on the celestial globes of Petrus Plancius, Hondius, and Willem Blaeu. It was first published in tabular form in Johannes Kepler's Tabulae Rudolphinae of 1627.

The use of Brahe's catalog allowed for considerably better accuracy than Ptolemy's somewhat limited star listing. The stars listed in Uranometria total over 1,200, indicating that Brahe's catalog was not the only source of information used. Bayer took the southern star positions and constellation names for the 49th plate from the catalog of Dutch navigator Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser, who corrected the older observations of Amerigo Vespucci and Andrea Corsali, as well as the report of Pedro de Medina. Uranometria contains many more stars than did any previous star atlas, though the exact number is disputed as not all stars on the charts are labeled.

Each of the constellations' stars are overlayed on an engraved image of the subject of the constellation. For reasons unknown, many of the human constellations are engraved as figures seen from behind whereas they had traditionally been rendered as facing the Earth. This oddity led to some confusion in the literal meanings of certain star names (e.g. the origins of several named stars refer specifically to "right shoulder" and the like, which would be incorrect given Uranometria's illustrations).

Uranometria introduced the Bayer star designations, which are still used today. It also introduced several of the modern constellations.

[edit] The title page engraving

The title page, courtesy of the US Naval Observatory Library

The engraved title page of Uranometria features an architectural motif with the full title in the center. On pedastals to either side stand figures of Ptolemy and Hercules. Inscriptions in the pedestals read, "Atlanti uetustiss astronom magistro" ("Atlas the earliest teacher of astronomy") and "Herculi uetustiss astronom discipulo" ("Hercules the earliest student of astronomy"). Across the top of the title page are engraved several additional figures. In the upper left is Apollo. Top center is Eternity with a crown of stars and two lions on leashes. Upper right is Diana with a cape of stars. Beneath the title banner is a figure of Capricorn and beneath that a view of Augsburg.

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_atlas

Star cartography
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Star atlas)
Jump to: navigation, search

"Uranography" redirects here. For other uses, see Uranography (disambiguation).

 

Title page of the Coelum Stellatum Christianum by Julius Schiller.

Star cartography[citation needed], celestial cartography,[1] or uranography[2][3] is the fringe of astronomy and branch of cartography concerned with mapping stars, galaxies, and other celestial bodies. Measuring the position and light of charted objects requires a variety of instruments and techniques that have developed from angle measurements with quadrants and the unaided eye, through sextants combined with lenses for light magnification, up to current methods which include computer automated space telescopes. Uranographers have historically produced planetary position tables, star tables and star maps for use by both amateur and professional astronomers. More recently computerized star maps have been compiled, and automated positioning of telescopes is accomplished using databases of stars and other astronomical objects.

Contents[hide]

[edit] Etymology

The word "uranography" derived from the Greek ουρανογραφια (Koine Greek ουρανος [IPA: uːra'nos], "sky, heaven" + γραφειν [IPA: gra'pʰiːn] "to write") through the Latin uranographia. In renaissance times, uranographia was used of the title of celestial atlases.[4][5][6] During 19th century, uranography was meaning of the description of the heavens. Elijah H. Burritt renamed it as the geography of the heavens.[7] German in Uranographie, French in uranographie, Italian in uranografia.

[edit] Astrometry

 

Main article: Astrometry
This section requires expansion.

[edit] Star catalogues
This section requires expansion.
Image:Hyg-aqr.png Image:Aqr-kstars.png
Aquarius according to
Hyginus
Aquarius according to
Johann Bayer's Uranometria
based on the Rudolphine Tables
Aquarius according to
KStars

A determining fact source for drawing star charts are naturally star tables. This is apparent when comparing the imaginative "star maps" of Poeticon Astronomicon – illustrations beside a narrative text from the antiquity – to the star maps of Johann Bayer based on precise star position measurements from the Rudolphine Tables by Tycho Brahe.

[edit] Important historical star tables

[edit] Star atlases

[edit] Naked eye atlases

A Chinese star map with cylindrical projection similar to Mercator projection, from Su Song's book Xin Yi Xiang Fa Yao published in 1092.

[edit] Telescopic atlases

[edit] Photographic atlases
  • 1914 Franklin-Adams Charts, by John Franklin-Adams a very early photographic atlas,
  • The Falkau Atlas (Hans Vehrenberg). Stars to magnitude 13.
  • Atlas Stellarum (Hans Vehrenberg). Stars to magnitude 14.
  • True Visual Magnitude Photographic Star Atlas (Christos Papadopoulos). Stars to magnitude 13.5

[edit] Modern star atlases
  • Bright Star Atlas - Wil Tirion (stars to magnitude 6.5)
  • Cambridge Star Atlas - Wil Tirion (Stars to magnitude 6.5)
  • Stars & Planets Guide - Ian Ridpath and Wil Tirion (stars to magnitude 6.0)
  • Pocket Sky Atlas - Roger Sinnott (stars to magnitude 7.5)
  • Deep Sky Reiseatlas - Michael Feiler, Philip Noack (Telrad Finder Charts - stars to magnitude 7.5)
  • Atlas Coeli Skalnate Pleso (Atlas of the Heavens) 1950.0 - Antonin Becvar (stars to magnitude 7.75) Out of print.
  • SkyAtlas 2000.0, second edition - Wil Tirion & Roger Sinnott (stars to magnitude 8.5)
  • 1987, Uranometria 2000.0 Deep Sky Atlas - Wil Tirion, Barry Rappaport, Will Remaklus (stars to magnitude 9.7; 11.5 in selected close-ups)
  • Herald-Bobroff AstroAtlas - David Herald & Peter Bobroff (stars to magnitude 9 in main charts, 14 in selected sections)
  • Millennium Star Atlas - Roger Sinnott, Michael Perryman (stars to magnitude 11)
  • Wielki Atlas Nieba (Great Sky Atlas) - Piotr Brych (stars to magnitude 11)
  • Field Guide to the Stars and Planets - Jay M. Pasachoff, Wil Tirion charts (stars to magnitude 7.5)
  • SkyGX (still in preparation) - Christopher Watson (stars to magnitude 12)

[edit] Computerized star atlases

[edit] In fiction

 

The term Stellar cartography was used in Star Trek: The Next Generation as the name of a department aboard the Starship Enterprise-D. It was also used in Star Trek: Voyager as the name of the department aboard the Starship Voyager. In both cases, the department was a subsection of the ship's science department, and, as the name would suggest, its responsibilities include charting previously-uncharted regions of space as the ship passes through them, as well as operating the ship's astrometrics lab(s); in practice, at least on Voyager, this meant that Stellar Cartography was responsible for all sensor data collection and analysis other than for ship operations (navigation, cursory ship/planet scans, transporter operation, etc.) or combat.

[edit] Notes
  1. ^ Warner, D. J., The Sky Explored: Celestial Cartography 1500-1800, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Ltd., Amsterdam / Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York, 1979.
  2. ^ Lovi, G., "Uranography Yesterday and Today," Tirion, W., Rappaport, B., Lovi, G, Uranometria 2000.0, vol.1 - The Northern Hemisphere to - 6 degree, Willmann-Bell, Richmond, 1987.
  3. ^ Lovi, G., Tirion, W., Men, Monsters and the Modern Universe, Willmann-Bell, Richmond, 1989.
  4. ^ 1690: Hevelius J., Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia.
  5. ^ c. 1750: Bevis J., Uranographia Britannica.
  6. ^ 1801: Bode. J. E., Uranographia sive Astrorum Descriptio.
  7. ^ Burritt, E. H., The Geography of the Heavens, 1833.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links