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A

MAZE

IN

ZAZAZA ENTER AZAZAZ

AZAZAZAZAZAZAZZAZAZAZAZAZAZA

ZAZAZAZAZAZAZAZAZAAZAZAZAZAZAZAZAZAZ

THE

MAGICALALPHABET

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZZYXWVUTSRQPONMLKJIHGFEDCBA

12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262625242322212019181716151413121110987654321

 

 

WORK DAYS OF GOD

Herbert W Morris D.D.circa 1883

Page 22

"As all the words in the English language are composed out of the twenty-six letters of the alphabet,.."

 

 

LIGHT AND LIFE

Lars Olof Bjorn 1976

Page 197

"By writing the 26 letters of the alphabet in a certain order one may put down almost any message (this book 'is written with the same letters' as the Encyclopaedia Britannica and Winnie the Pooh, only the order of the letters differs). In the same way Nature is able to convey with her language how a cell and a whole organism is to be constructed and how it is to function. Nature has succeeded better than we humans; for the genetic code there is only one universal language which is the same in a man, a bean plant and a bacterium."

"BY WRITING THE 26 LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET IN A CERTAIN ORDER

ONE MAY PUT DOWN ALMOST ANY MESSAGE"

 

 

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
=
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
=
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
1+0
1+1
1+2
1+3
1+4
1+5
1+6
1+7
1+8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
=
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
=
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
I
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
9
1+9
2+0
2+1
2+2
2+3
2+4
2+5
2+6
ME
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
=
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
 =
=
I
ME
I
ME
I
ME
I
ME
I
9
18
9
18
9
18
9
18
9
=
1+8
=
1+8
=
1+8
=
1+8
=
=
9
=
9
=
9
=
9
=
I
ME
I
ME
I
ME
I
ME
1
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
I
ME
I
ME
I
ME
I
ME
1

 

 

"BY WRITING THE 26 LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET IN A CERTAIN ORDER

ONE MAY PUT DOWN ALMOST ANY MESSAGE"

 

 

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1+0
1+1
1+2
1+3
1+4
1+5
1+6
1+7
1+8
1+9
2+0
2+1
2+2
2+3
2+4
2+5
2+6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
 -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

 

 

A

HISTORY OF GOD

Karen Armstrong 1993

The God of the Mystics

Page 250

"Perhaps the most famous of the early Jewish mystical texts is the fifth century Sefer Yezirah (The Book of Creation). There is no attempt to describe the creative process realistically; the account is unashamedly symbolic and shows God creating the world by means of language as though he were writing a book. But language has been entirely transformed and the message of creation is no longer clear. Each letter of the Hebrew alphabet is given a numerical value; by combining the letters with the sacred numbers, rearranging them in endless configurations, the mystic weaned his mind away from the normal connotations of words."

 

THIS IS THE SCENE OF THE SCENE UNSEEN

THE UNSEEN SEEN OF THE SCENE UNSEEN THIS IS THE SCENE

 

 

3
THE
33
15
6
4
MIND
40
22
4
2
OF
21
12
3
9
HUMANKIND
95
41
5
18
First Total
189
90
18
1+8
Add to Reduce
1+8+9
9+0
1+8
9
Second Total
18
9
9
-
Reduce to Deduce
1+8
-
-
9
Essence of Number
9
9
9

 

 

THE

FAR YONDER SCRIBE

AND OFT TIMES SHADOWED SUBSTANCES WATCHED IN FINE AMAZE

THE

ZED ALIZ ZED

IN

SWIFT REPEAT SCATTER STAR DUST AMONGST THE LETTERS OF THEIR PROGRESS

 

 

NUMBER

9

THE SEARCH FOR THE SIGMA CODE

Cecil Balmond 1998

Cycles and Patterns

Page 165

Patterns

"The essence of mathematics is to look for patterns.

Our minds seem to be organised to search for relationships and sequences. We look for hidden orders.

These intuitions seem to be more important than the facts themselves, for there is always the thrill at finding something, a pattern, it is a discovery - what was unknown is now revealed. Imagine looking up at the stars and finding the zodiac!

Searching out patterns is a pure delight.

Suddenly the counters fall into place and a connection is found, not necessarily a geometric one, but a relationship between numbers, pictures of the mind, that were not obvious before. There is that excitement of finding order in something that was otherwise hidden.

And there is the knowledge that a huge unseen world lurks behind the facades we see of the numbers themselves."

 

 

FINGERPRINTS OF THE GODS

A QUEST FOR THE BEGINNING AND THE END

Graham Hancock 1995

Chapter 32

Speaking to the Unborn

Page 285

"It is understandable that a huge range of myths from all over the ancient world should describe geological catastrophes in graphic detail. Mankind survived the horror of the last Ice Age, and the most plausible source for our enduring traditions of flooding and freezing, massive volcanism and devastating earthquakes is in the tumultuous upheavals unleashed during the great meltdown of 15,000 to 8000 BC. The final retreat of the ice sheets, and the consequent 300-400 foot rise in global sea levels, took place only a few thousand years before the beginning of the historical period. It is therefore not surprising that all our early civilizations should have retained vivid memories of the vast cataclysms that had terrified their forefathers.
Much harder to explain is the peculiar but distinctive way the myths of cataclysm seem to bear the intelligent imprint of a guiding hand.l Indeed the degree of convergence between such ancient stories is frequently remarkable enough to raise the suspicion that they must all have been 'written' by the same 'author'.
Could that author have had anything to do with the wondrous deity, or superhuman, spoken of in so many of the myths we have reviewed, who appears immediately after the world has been shattered by a horrifying geological catastrophe and brings comfort and the gifts of civilization to the shocked and demoralized survivors?
White and bearded, Osiris is the Egyptian manifestation of this / Page 286 / universal figure, and it may not be an accident that one of the first acts he is remembered for in myth is the abolition of cannibalism among the primitive inhabitants of the Nile Valley.2 Viracocha, in South America, was said to have begun his civilizing mission immediately after a great flood; Quetzalcoatl, the discoverer of maize, brought the benefits of crops, mathematics, astronomy and a refined culture to Mexico after the Fourth Sun had been overwhelmed by a destroying deluge.
Could these strange myths contain a record of encounters between scattered palaeolithic tribes which survived the last Ice Age and an as yet unidentified high civilization which passed through the same epoch?
And could the myths be attempts to communicate?

A message in the bottle of time"

'Of all the other stupendous inventions,' Galileo once remarked,

what sublimity of mind must have been his who conceived how to communicate his most secret thoughts to any other person, though very distant either in time or place, speaking with those who are in the Indies, speaking to those who are not yet born, nor shall be this thousand or ten thousand years? And with no greater difficulty than the various arrangements of two dozen little signs on paper? Let this be the seal of all the admirable inventions of men.3

If the 'precessional message' identified by scholars like Santillana, von Dechend and Jane Sellers is indeed a deliberate attempt at communication by some lost civilization of antiquity, how come it wasn't just written down and left for us to find? Wouldn't that have been easier than encoding it in myths? Perhaps.
Nevertheless, suppose that whatever the message was written on got destroyed or worn away after many thousands of years? Or suppose that the language in which it was inscribed was later forgotten utterly (like the enigmatic Indus Valley script, which has been studied closely for more than half a century but has so far resisted all attempts at decoding)? It must be obvious that in such circumstances a written / Page 287 / legacy to the future would be of no value at all, because nobody would be able to make sense of it.
What one would look for, therefore, would be a universal language, the kind of language that would be comprehensible to any technologically advanced society in any epoch, even a thousand or ten thousand years into the future. Such languages are few and far between, but mathematics is one of them - and the city of Teotihuacan may be the calling-card of a lost civilization written in the eternal language of mathematics.
Geodetic data, related to the exact positioning of fixed geographical points and to the shape and size of the earth, would also remain valid and recognizable for tens of thousands of years, and might be most conveniently expressed by means of cartography (or in the construction of giant geodetic monuments like the Great Pyramid of Egypt, as we shall see).
Another 'constant' in our solar system is the language of time: the great but regular intervals of time calibrated by the inch-worm creep of precessional motion. Now, or ten thousand years in the future, a message that prints out numbers like 72 or 2160 or 4320 or 25,920 should be instantly intelligible to any civilization that has evolved a modest talent for mathematics and the ability to detect and measure the almost imperceptible reverse wobble that the sun appears to make along the ecliptic against the background of the fixed stars..."

"What one would look for, therefore, would be a universal language, the kind of language that would be comprehensible to any technologically advanced society in any epoch, even a thousand or ten thousand years into the future. Such languages are few and far between, but mathematics is one of them"

"WRITTEN IN THE ETERNAL LANGUAGE OF MATHEMATICS"

 

 

I

THAT

AM ALWAYS AM

 

THE DEATH OF GODS IN ANCIENT EGYPT

Jane B. Sellars 1992

Page 204

"The overwhelming awe that accompanies the realization, of the measurable orderliness of the universe strikes modern man as well. Admiral Weiland E. Byrd, alone In the Antarctic for five months of polar darkness, wrote these phrases of intense feeling:

Here were the imponderable processes and forces of the cosmos, harmonious and soundless. Harmony, that was it! I could feel no doubt of oneness with the universe. The conviction came that the rhythm was too orderly. too harmonious, too perfect to be a product of blind chance - that, therefore there must be purpose in the whole and that man was part of that whole and not an accidental offshoot. It was a feeling that transcended reason; that went to the heart of man's despair and found it groundless. The universe was a cosmos, not a chaos; man was as rightfully a part of that cosmos as were the day and night.10

Returning to the account of the story of Osiris, son of Cronos god of' Measurable Time, Plutarch takes, pains to remind the reader of the original Egyptian year consisting of 360 days.

Phrases are used that prompt simple mental. calculations and an attention to numbers, for example, the 360-day year is described as being '12 months of 30 days each'. Then we are told that, Osiris leaves on a long journey, during which Seth, his evil brother, plots with 72 companions to slay Osiris: He also secretly obtained the measure of Osiris and made ready a chest in which to entrap him.

The, interesting thing about this part of the-account is that nowhere in the original texts of the Egyptians are we told that Seth, has 72 companions. We have already been encouraged to equate Osiris with the concept of measured time; his father being Cronos. It is also an observable fact that Cronos-Saturn has the longest sidereal period of the known planets at that time, an orbit. of 30 years. Saturn is absent from a specific constellation for that length of time.

A simple mathematical fact has been revealed to any that are even remotely sensitive to numbers: if you multiply 72 by 30, the years of Saturn's absence (and the mention of Osiris's absence prompts one to recall this other), the resulting product is 2,160: the number of years required, for one 30° shift, or a shift: through one complete sign of the zodiac. This number multplied by the /Page205 / 12 signs also gives 25,920. (And Plutarch has reminded us of 12)

If you multiply the unusual number 72 by 360, a number that Plutarch mentions several times, the product will be 25,920, again the number of years symbolizing the ultimate rebirth.

This 'Eternal Return' is the return of, say, Taurus to the position of marking the vernal equinox by 'riding in the solar bark with. Re' after having relinquished this honoured position to Aries, and subsequently to the to other zodiacal constellations.

Such a return after 25,920 years is indeed a revisit to a Golden Age, golden not only because of a remarkable symmetry In the heavens, but golden because it existed before the Egyptians experienced heaven's changeability.

But now to inform the reader of a fact he or she may already know. Hipparaus did: not really have the exact figures: he was a trifle off in his observations and calculations. In his published work, On the Displacement of the Solstitial and Equinoctial Signs, he gave figures of 45" to 46" a year, while the truer precessional lag along the ecliptic is about 50 seconds. The exact measurement for the lag, based on the correct annual lag of 50'274" is 1° in 71.6 years, or 36in 25,776 years, only 144 years less than the figure of 25,920.

With Hipparchus's incorrect figures a 'Great Year' takes from 28,173.9 to 28,800 years, Incorrect by a difference of from 2,397.9 years to 3,024.

Since Nicholas Copernicus (AD 1473-1543) has always been credited with giving the correct numbers (although Arabic astronomer Nasir al-Din Tusi,11 born AD 1201, is known to have fixed the Precession at 50°), we may correctly ask, and with justifiable astonishment 'Just whose information was Plutarch transmitting'

AN IMPORTANT POSTSCRIPT

Of course, using our own notational system, all the important numbers have digits that reduce to that amazing number 9 a number that has always delighted budding mathematician.

Page 206

Somewhere along the way, according to Robert Graves, 9 became the number of lunar wisdom.12

This number is found often in the mythologies of the world. the Viking god Odin hung for nine days and nights on the World Tree in order to acquire the secret of the runes, those magic symbols out of which writing and numbers grew. Only a terrible sacrifice would give away this secret, which conveyed upon its owner power and dominion over all, so Odin hung from his neck those long 9 days and nights over the 'bottomless abyss'. In the tree were 9 worlds, and another god was said to have been born of 9 mothers.

Robert Graves, in his White Goddess, Is intrigued by the seemingly recurring quality of the number 72 in early myth and ritual. Graves tells his reader that 72 is always connected with the number 5, which reflects, among other things, the five Celtic dialects that he was investigating. Of course, 5 x 72= 360, 360 x 72= 25,920. Five is also the number of the planets known to the ancient world, that is, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus Mercury.

Graves suggests a religious mystery bound up with two ancient Celtic 'Tree Alphabets' or cipher alphabets, which as genuine articles of Druidism were orally preserved and transmitted for centuries. He argues convincingly that the ancient poetry of Europe was ultimately based on what its composers believed to be magical principles, the rudiments of which formed a close religious secret for centuries. In time these were-garbled, discredited and forgotten.

Among the many signs of the transmission of special numbers he points out that the aggregate number of letter strokes for the complete 22-letter Ogham alphabet that he is studying is 72 and that this number is the multiple of 9, 'the number of lunar wisdom'. . . . he then mentions something about 'the seventy day season during which Venus moves successively from. maximum eastern elongation 'to inferior conjunction and maximum western elongation'.13

Page 207

"...Feniusa Farsa, Graves equates this hero with Dionysus Farsa has 72 assistants who helped him master the 72 languages created at the confusion of Babel, the tower of which is said to be built of 9 different materials

We are also reminded of the miraculous translation into Greek of the Five Books of Moses that was done by 72 scholars working for 72 days, Although the symbol for the Septuagint is LXX, legend, according to the fictional letter of Aristeas, records 72. The translation was done for Ptolemy Philadelphus (c.250 BC), by Hellenistic Jews, possibly from Alexandra.14

Graves did not know why this number was necessary, but he points out that he understands Frazer's Golden Bough to be a a book hinting that 'the secret involves the truth that the Christian dogma, and rituals, are the refinement of a great body of primitive beliefs, and that the only original element in Christianity- is the personality of Christ.15

Frances A. Yates, historian of Renaissance hermetisma tells, us the cabala had 72 angels through which the sephiroth (the powers of God) are believed to be approached, and further, she supplies the information that although the Cabala supplied a set of 48 conclusions purporting to confirm the Christian religion from the foundation of ancient wisdom, Pico Della Mirandola, a Renaissance magus, introduced instead 72, which were his 'own opinion' of the correct number. Yates writes, 'It is no accident there are seventy-two of Pico's Cabalist conclusions, for the conclusion shows that he knew something of the mystery of the Name of God with seventy-two letters.'16

In Hamlet's Mill de Santillarta adds the facts that 432,000 is the number of syllables in the Rig-Veda, which when multiplied by the soss (60) gives 25,920" (The reader is forgiven for a bit of laughter at this point)

Thee Bible has not escaped his pursuit. A prominent Assyriologist of the last century insisted that the total of the years recounted
mounted in Genesis for the lifetimes of patriarchs from the Flood also contained the needed secret numbers. (He showed that in the 1,656.years recounted in the Bible there are 86,400 7 day weeks, and dividing this number yields / Page 208 / 43,200.) In Indian yogic schools it is held that all living beings exhale and inhale 21,600 times a day, .multiply this by 2 and again we have.the necessary 432 digits.

Joseph Campbell discerns the secret in the date set for the coming of Patrick to Ireland. Myth-gives this date-as.- the interest-
ing number of AD.432.18

Whatever one may think-of some of these number coincidences, it becomes. difficult to escape the suspicion that many signs (number and otherwise) -indicate that early man observed the results.. of the movement of Precession . and that the-.transmission of this information was .considered of prime importance.

'With the awareness of the phenomenon, observers would certainly have tried for its measure, and such an endeavour would
have constituted the construction-of a 'Unified Field Theory' for nothing .less than Creation itself. Once determined, it would have been information worthy of secrecy and worthy of the passing on to future adepts.

But one last word about mankind's romance with number coincidences.The antagonist in John Updike's novel, Roger's Version, is a computer hacker, who, convinced.,that scientific evidence of God's existence is accumulating, endeavours to prove it by feeding -all the available scientific information. into a comuter. In his search for God 'breaking, through', he has become fascinated by certain numbers that have continually been cropping up. He explains them excitedly as 'the terms of Creation':

"...after a while I noticed that all over the sheet there seemed to hit these twenty-fours Jumping out at me. Two four; two,four.Planck time, for instance, divided by the radiation constant yields a figure near eight times ten again to the negative twenty-fourth, and the permittivity of free space, or electric constant, into the Bohr radiusekla almost exactly six times ten to the negative twenty-fourth. On positive side, the electromagnetic line-structure constant times Hubble radius - that is, the size of the universe as we now perceive it gives us something quite close to ten to the twenty-fourth, and the strong-force constant times the charge on the proton produces two point four times ten to the negative eighteenth, for another I began to circle twenty-four wherever it appeared on the Printout here' - he held it up. his piece of striped and striped wallpaper, decorated / Page 209 / with a number of scarlet circles - 'you can see it's more than random.'19
This inhabitant of the twentieth century is convinced that the striking occurrences of 2 and 4 reveal the sacred numbers by which God is speaking to us.

So much for any scorn directed to ancient man's fascination with number coincidences. That fascination is alive and well, Just a bit more incomprehensible"

 

 

All about the planets in our Solar System. The nine planets that orbit the sun are (in order from the sun): Mercury,Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, ... www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/planets

Our solar system consists of the sun, eight planets, moons, dwarf planets, an asteroid belt, comets, meteors, and others. The sun is the center of our solar system; the planets, their moons, the asteroids, comets, and other rocks and gas all orbit the sun.

The nine planets that orbit the sun are (in order from the sun): Mercury,Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto (a dwarf planet). A belt of asteroids (minor planets made of rock and metal) lies between Mars and Jupiter. These objects all orbit the sun in roughly circular orbits that lie in the same plane, the ecliptic (Pluto is an exception; it has an elliptical orbit tilted over 17° from the ecliptic).

 

 

IN SEARCH OF EXTRA TERRESTRIALS

Unsolved UFO sightings... strange secrets of the moon... new evidence that alien astronauts are exploring the earth

Alan Landsburg 1976

Page 79

" The words of J. B. S. Haldane came back to haunt me. He once wrote, "Now my suspicion is that the universe is not only queerer than we suppose, but queerer than we can suppose. I suspect that there are more things in heaven and earth than are dreamed of in any philosophy. That is the reason why I have no philosophy myself, and must be my excuse for dreaming."

 

 

8
QUO VADIS
108
36
9
6
VOX POP
108
36
9
11
SORROW
108
36
9
8
INSTINCT
108
36
9
11
DESCENDANTS
108
36
9
8
STARTING
108
36
9
9
CONSISTED
108
36
9
9
NARRATIVE
108
36
9
9
SEQUENCES
108
36
9
9
COMPLETES
108
36
9
9
AMBIGUOUS
108
36
9
7
JOURNEY
108
36
9

 

 

 

 

-
-
-
-
THE MAGICAL ALPHABET
-
-
-
T
=
2
3
THE
33
15
6
M
=
4
7
MAGICAL
46
28
1
A
=
1
8
ALPHABET
65
29
2
-
-
7
18
THE MAGICAL ALPHABET
144
72
9
-
-
-
1+8
-
1+4+4
7+2
-
-
-
7
9
THE MAGICAL ALPHABET
9
9
9

 

 

-
18
T
H
E
-
M
A
G
I
C
A
L
-
A
L
P
H
A
B
E
T
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
+
=
25
2+5
=
7
=
7
=
7
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
+
=
25
2+5
=
7
=
7
=
7
-
18
T
H
E
-
M
A
G
I
C
A
L
-
A
L
P
H
A
B
E
T
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
5
-
4
1
7
-
3
1
3
-
1
3
7
-
1
2
5
2
+
=
47
4+7
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
-
-
20
-
5
-
13
1
7
-
3
1
12
-
1
12
16
-
1
2
5
20
+
=
119
1+1+9
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
-
18
T
H
E
-
M
A
G
I
C
A
L
-
A
L
P
H
A
B
E
T
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
-
-
20
8
5
-
13
1
7
9
3
1
12
-
1
12
16
8
1
2
5
20
+
=
144
1+4+4
=
9
=
9
=
9
-
-
2
8
5
-
4
1
7
9
3
1
3
-
1
3
7
8
1
2
5
2
+
=
72
7+2
=
9
=
9
=
9
-
18
T
H
E
-
M
A
G
I
C
A
L
-
A
L
P
H
A
B
E
T
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
occurs
x
4
=
4
=
4
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
2
occurs
x
3
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
3
-
3
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
occurs
x
3
=
9
=
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
occurs
x
1
=
4
=
4
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
5
occurs
x
2
=
10
1+0
1
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
SIX
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
occurs
x
2
=
14
1+4
5
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
occurs
x
2
=
16
1+6
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
occurs
x
1
=
9
=
9
6
18
T
H
E
-
M
A
G
I
C
A
L
-
A
L
P
H
A
B
E
T
-
-
39
-
-
18
-
72
-
45
-
1+8
-
-
-
-
--
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
3+9
-
-
1+8
-
7+2
-
4+5
6
9
T
H
E
-
M
A
G
I
C
A
L
-
A
L
P
H
A
B
E
T
-
-
12
-
-
9
-
9
-
9
-
-
2
8
5
-
4
1
7
9
3
1
3
-
1
3
7
8
1
2
5
2
-
-
1+2
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
6
9
T
H
E
-
M
A
G
I
C
A
L
-
A
L
P
H
A
B
E
T
-
-
3
-
-
9
-
9
-
9

 

 

18
T
H
E
-
M
A
G
I
C
A
L
-
A
L
P
H
A
B
E
T
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
+
=
25
2+5
=
7
=
7
=
7
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
+
=
25
2+5
=
7
=
7
=
7
18
T
H
E
-
M
A
G
I
C
A
L
-
A
L
P
H
A
B
E
T
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
5
-
4
1
7
-
3
1
3
-
1
3
7
-
1
2
5
2
+
=
47
4+7
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
-
20
-
5
-
13
1
7
-
3
1
12
-
1
12
16
-
1
2
5
20
+
=
119
1+1+9
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
18
T
H
E
-
M
A
G
I
C
A
L
-
A
L
P
H
A
B
E
T
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
-
20
8
5
-
13
1
7
9
3
1
12
-
1
12
16
8
1
2
5
20
+
=
144
1+4+4
=
9
=
9
=
9
-
2
8
5
-
4
1
7
9
3
1
3
-
1
3
7
8
1
2
5
2
+
=
72
7+2
=
9
=
9
=
9
18
T
H
E
-
M
A
G
I
C
A
L
-
A
L
P
H
A
B
E
T
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
occurs
x
4
=
4
=
4
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
2
occurs
x
3
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
3
-
3
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
occurs
x
3
=
9
=
9
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
occurs
x
1
=
4
=
4
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
5
occurs
x
2
=
10
1+0
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
occurs
x
2
=
14
1+4
5
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
occurs
x
2
=
16
1+6
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
occurs
x
1
=
9
=
9
18
T
H
E
-
M
A
G
I
C
A
L
-
A
L
P
H
A
B
E
T
-
-
39
-
-
18
-
72
-
45
1+8
-
-
-
-
--
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
3+9
-
-
1+8
-
7+2
-
4+5
9
T
H
E
-
M
A
G
I
C
A
L
-
A
L
P
H
A
B
E
T
-
-
12
-
-
9
-
9
-
9
-
2
8
5
-
4
1
7
9
3
1
3
-
1
3
7
8
1
2
5
2
-
-
1+2
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
9
T
H
E
-
M
A
G
I
C
A
L
-
A
L
P
H
A
B
E
T
-
-
3
-
-
9
-
9
-
9

 

 

18
T
H
E
M
A
G
I
C
A
L
A
L
P
H
A
B
E
T
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
+
=
25
2+5
=
7
=
7
=
7
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
+
=
25
2+5
=
7
=
7
=
7
18
T
H
E
M
A
G
I
C
A
L
A
L
P
H
A
B
E
T
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
5
4
1
7
-
3
1
3
1
3
7
-
1
2
5
2
+
=
47
4+7
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
-
20
-
5
13
1
7
-
3
1
12
1
12
16
-
1
2
5
20
+
=
119
1+1+9
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
18
T
H
E
M
A
G
I
C
A
L
A
L
P
H
A
B
E
T
-
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
-
20
8
5
13
1
7
9
3
1
12
1
12
16
8
1
2
5
20
+
=
144
1+4+4
=
9
=
9
=
9
-
2
8
5
4
1
7
9
3
1
3
1
3
7
8
1
2
5
2
+
=
72
7+2
=
9
=
9
=
9
18
T
H
E
M
A
G
I
C
A
L
A
L
P
H
A
B
E
T
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
occurs
x
4
=
4
=
4
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
2
occurs
x
3
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
-
--
-
-
-
3
-
3
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
occurs
x
3
=
9
=
9
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
occurs
x
1
=
4
=
4
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
5
occurs
x
2
=
10
1+0
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
occurs
x
2
=
14
1+4
5
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
occurs
x
2
=
16
1+6
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
occurs
x
1
=
9
=
9
18
T
H
E
M
A
G
I
C
A
L
A
L
P
H
A
B
E
T
-
-
39
-
-
18
-
72
-
45
1+8
-
-
-
--
1
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
3+9
-
-
1+8
-
7+2
-
4+5
9
T
H
E
M
A
G
I
C
A
L
A
L
P
H
A
B
E
T
-
-
12
-
-
9
-
9
-
9
-
2
8
5
4
1
7
9
3
1
3
1
3
7
8
1
2
5
2
-
-
1+2
-
-
--
-
-
-
-
9
T
H
E
M
A
G
I
C
A
L
A
L
P
H
A
B
E
T
-
-
3
-
-
9
-
9
-
9

 

 

26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
-
-
5
6
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
6
-
8
+
=
43
4+3
=
7
=
7
=
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
9
-
-
-
-
14
15
-
-
-
19
-
-
-
-
24
-
26
+
=
115
1+1+5
=
7
=
7
=
7
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
-
1
2
3
4
-
-
7
8
9
-
2
3
4
5
-
7
-
+
=
83
8+3
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-
-
10
11
12
13
-
-
16
17
18
-
20
21
22
23
-
25
-
+
=
236
2+3+6
=
11
1+1
2
=
2
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
+
=
351
3+5+1
=
9
=
9
=
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
+
=
126
1+2+6
=
9
=
9
=
9
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
1
occurs
x
3
=
3
=
3
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
2
occurs
x
3
=
6
=
6
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
3
occurs
x
3
=
9
=
9
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
+
=
4
occurs
x
3
=
12
1+2
3
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
+
=
5
occurs
x
3
=
15
1+5
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
+
=
6
occurs
x
3
=
18
1+8
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
+
=
7
occurs
x
3
=
21
2+1
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
+
=
8
occurs
x
3
=
24
2+4
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
=
9
occurs
x
2
=
18
1+8
9
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
45
-
-
26
-
126
-
54
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4+5
-
-
2+6
-
1+2+6
-
5+4
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
9
-
-
8
-
9
-
9
-
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
26
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
-
-
9
-
-
8
-
9
-
9

 

 

THE LIGHT IS RISING NOW RISING IS THE LIGHT

 

 

6
AMENTA
-
-
-
-
A
1
1
1
-
M+E
18
9
9
-
N+T+A
35
8
8
6
AMENTA
54
18
18
-
-
5+4
1+8
1+8
6
AMENTA
9
9
9

 

 

2
AN
15
6
6
1
I
9
9
9
3
FOR
39
21
3
2
AN
15
6
6
1
I
9
9
9
1
A
1
1
1
5
TRUTH
87
24
6
3
FOR
39
21
3
1
A
1
1
1
5
TRUTH
87
24
6
24
Add to Reduce
302
122
50
2+4
Reduce to Deduce
3+0+2
1+2+2
5+0
6
Essence of Number
5
5
5

 

 

I

MEAN

AMEN THE NAME THE NAME AMEN

 

The prototypes of hell and purgatory and the earthly paradise are all to be found in the Egyptian Amenta. There is, says the Christian rhymer, Dr. Watts ... www.theosophical.ca/Book4AncientEgypt.htm

 

36) makes an allusion to “the wilderness of the land of Egypt,” which points to the lower Egypt of the mythos in Amenta. Egypt itself, as the land of the ... www.theosophical.ca/Book10AncientEgypt.

 

 

ANCIENT EGYPT

THE LIGHT OF THE WORLD

Gerald Massey

BOOK 4 EGYPTIAN BOOK OF THE DEAD AND THE MYSTERIES OF AMENTA

Page 186

The Egyptian Book of the Dead contains the oldest known religious writings in the world. As it comes to us it is mainly Osirian, but the Osirian group of gods was the latest of all the divine dynasties, although these, as shown at Abydos (by Prof. Flinders Petrie), will account for some ten thousand years of time in Egypt. The antiquity of the collection is not to be judged by the age of the coffins in which the papyrus rolls were found. Amongst other criteria of length in time the absence of Amen, Maut, and Khunsu supplies a gauge. The presence and importance of Tum affords another, whilst the persistence of Apt and her son Sebek-Horus tells a tale of times incalculably remote.

As a key to the mysteries and the method of the book it must be understood at starting that the eschatology or doctrine of Last Things was founded in the mould of the mythology, and that the one can only be unravelled by means of the other. Moreover, there is plenty of evidence to prove that the Ritual was based on the mythology, and not the mythology upon the Ritual. The serpent, of darkness, was the evil reptile in mythology. In theology it becomes the deluder of mankind. Here the beginning was with darkness itself, which was the deceiver from the first. The serpent, being a figure of darkness, was continued by theology as the official adversary of souls in the eschatological domain. The eschatology of the Ritual, then, can only be comprehended by means of the mythology. And it is the mythos out of view that has made the Ritual so profoundly difficult to understand. Reading it may be compared with a dance seen by a deaf man who does not hear the music to which the motion is timed, and who has no clue to the characters being performed in the dumb drama. You cannot understand what they are doing and saying as names in another world without knowing what was thought and said by human beings in this concerning that representation of the nature powers, the gods and goddesses, which constitutes mythology.

Amenta is a huge fossil formation crowded with the dead forms of a past life in which the horny conspectuities of learned ignorance will only see dead shells for a modern museum. As a rule, Egypt is always treated differently from the rest of the world. No Egyptologist has ever dreamed that the Ritual still exists under thedisguise of both the gnostic and canonical gospels, or that it was the fountain-head and source of all the books of wisdom claimed to be divine. In the mythology - that is, in the primitive mode of rendering the phenomena of external nature - Osiris as light-giver in the moon was tom in fourteen pieces during the latter half of the lunation by the evil Sut, the opposing power of darkness. He was put together again and reconstituted by his son, beloved Horus, the young solar god. This representation could not have been made until it was known that the lunar light was replenished monthly from the solar source. Then Horus as the sun god and the vanquisher of Sut, the power of darkness, could be called the reconstituter of Osiris in the moon. In that way a foundation was laid in natural fact according to the science of mythology, and a mystery bequeathed to the eschatology which is doctrinal. For as it had been with the dismembered, mutilated god in the mythos, so it is with the Osiris deceased, who has to be reconstructed for a future life and put together bit by bit as a spiritual body in one of the great mysteries of Amenta. In the mythos Har-Makhu was the solar god of both horizons, or the double equinox, who represented the sun of today that rose up from the nether world as conqueror of darkness to join the west and east together on the Mount of Glory, as the connecting link of continuity in time betwixt yesterday and tomorrow. The type was continued in the eschatology, when Har-Makhu became the Horus of the greater mysteries, Horus of the religious legend who suffered, died, and was buried in Amenta, and who rose again from ,the dead like the winter sun, as Horus in spirit, lifting aloft the insignia of his sovereignty. This was he who made the pathway, not merely betwixt the two horizons, but to eternal life, as son of Ra, the holy spirit in the eschatology. The intermediate link in the mythos, which “connects the solar orb with yesterday”, is now the intermediary betwixt the two worlds and two lives in time and eternity. This is he who exclaims, “I am the link! I am the everlasting one! I am Horus who steppeth onwards through eternity.”(Rit., ch. 42.) This was he who, in the words of the gnostic Paul, “broke down the wall of partition” and “made both one”, “that he might create in himself one new manand reconcile them both in one body”, even as the double Horus, Har-Sam-Taui, was made one when blended and established as one person in another mystery of Amenta (Rit., ch. 42). The mythology repeated in the Ritual is mainly solar and Osirian, but with glimpses of the lunar and the stellar mythos from the beginning. For example, Apt the ancient genetrix, as goddess of the Great Bear constellation, and leader of the heavenly host, was the kindler of the starry sparks by night in the mythology. In the eschatology she is continued as the mistress of divine protections for the soul, and she who had been the kindler of the lights in the darkness of night was now propitiated as rekindler of life from the spark in the dark of death (Rit., ch. 137B). Ra in the mythos is the solar god represented by the sun in heaven, and in the eschatology he became the god in spirit who is called the holy spirit and first person in the trinity which consisted of Atum the father god, Horus the son, and Ra the holy spirit; the three that were also one in the Osirian cult, first as three forms of the solar god and next as three forms of the god in spirit. It is thus we are enabled to trace the formation of the Egyptian eschatology in the mould of the mythology. There is no death in the Osirian religion, only decay and change, and periodic renewal; only evolution and transformation in the domain of matter and the transubstantiation into spirit. In the so-called death of Osiris it is rebirth, not death, exactly the same as in the changes of external nature. At the close of day the solar orb went down and left the sun god staring blankly in the dark of death. Taht the moon god met him in Amenta with the eye of Horus as the light that was to illuminate the darkness of the subterranean world. In the annual rendering on the third day light was generated by renewal in the moon. Thus Osiris rose again, and a doctrine of the resurrection on the third day was bequeathed to the eschatology. The sun in sinking was buried as a body (or mummy) in the nether world of Amenta. When rising again at dawn it was transformed into a soul, a supreme elemental soul, that preceded the god in spirit. This was in the mythology. In the eschatology the same types were reapplied to the human soul, which was imaged in the flesh as the inarticulate, blind, and impubescent Horus, who died bodily but was preserved in mummy form to make his transformation into the luminous Sahu, when he rose again in glory as Horus the divine adult. “I am the resurrection and the life” is the perfect interpretation of an Egyptian picture that was copied by Denon at Philæ. (Egypt, vol. ii., pl.40, No.8, p. 54-) (Lundy, fig. 183.) Divine Horus is portrayed in the act of raising the deceased Osiris from the bier by presenting to him the Ankh sign of life. He was the life in person who performed the resurrection, and therefore is “the resurrection and the life”. As such he simply stands for a soul considered to be the divine offspring of god the father, not for any historical character that makes preposterous pretensions to possess miraculous power. Previously he had been the resurrection and the life as solar vivifier in the physical domain, or otherwise stated in the mythology. It was this difference betwixt the mythology and eschatology that constituted the lesser and the greater mysteries. The lesser in their origin were partly sociological. They were the customs and the ceremonial rites of totemism. The greater mysteries are eschatological and religious. For instance, the transformation of the youth into the adult or the girl into a woman in the totemic mysteries was applied doctrinally to the transformation of the soul in the mysteries of Amenta. With the more primitive races, such as the Arunta of Australia, the mysteries remain chiefly totemic and sociological, though interfused with the religious sentiment. The greater mysteries were perfected in the Egyptian religion, to be read of in the Ritual as the mysteries of Amenta.

From the beginning to the end of the written Ritual we shall find it is based upon the mythical representation which was primary.The mythical representation was first applied to the phenomena of external nature, and this mode of representation was continued and re-applied to the human soul in the eschatology. Egyptian myths, then, are not inventions made to explain the Ritual. Totemic representation was earlier. This mode was continued in the mythology. Ritual arose from the rendering becoming religious in the phase of eschatology, and did not originate as an explanation of mythology and totemism. But not until the different phases are discriminated can the Ritual be read, that which has been founded on it under-stood, or the mental status of the thinkers ascertained. In the mythology the solar god, who in his primary form was Ptah (Khepr), is the maker of a complete circle for the sun as founder and opener of the nether earth, this solar pathway being a figure of for ever, a type of the eternal working in time. In the eschatology the god in spirit who is Ra the holy spirit is “the god who has created (or opened out) eternity” (Rit., ch. 15). The one is on the physical basis, the other on the spiritual plane. In the mythology the seven primordial powers that pass through various phases, elemental, stellar , or lunar, always in a group of seven, finally become the seven souls of Ra, who attained supremacy as the sun god in mythology and also as the holy spirit. Thence came the doctrine of the seven souls in man, as seven gifts of the holy spirit in the eschatology. In the mythical representation Sothis on New Year's Day was the bringer forth of the child that was mothered by Hathor or Isis. The type is employed in the eschatology of the Ritual when the Manes in Amenta prays for rebirth as a pure spirit and says, “May I live ( or rise up and go forth) from between the closed knees of Sothis”. The rebirth of the child in Sothis was the renewal of the year, Sothis being represented in the feminine character by Hathor as the bringer forth from betwixt her knees or, as elsewhere rendered, her kheptu, i.e., her thighs. So the Manes are reborn from between the thighs of Nut in the mysteries of Amenta, and here the visible birthplace of spirits perfected is localized in Sothis, the opener of the year and bringer of the babe to birth upon the horizon or the mount of glory. In this way the skies of night were made luminous with starry lore that was mythical in the astronomy and the words of a divine wisdom in the later eschatology when the mysteries were represented in Amenta. Instead of flashlights showing pictures on the housetops of a city after dark, the stars were used by the Egyptians to illustrate the mysteries that were out of sight. The triumph of Horus over Sut or over the Apap dragon of drought and darkness was illustrated in the stellar mythos when in the annual round Orion rose and the Scorpion constellation set upon the opposite horizon. The Egyptian nearing death could lie and look upon a future figured in the starry heavens.As it was with Osiris or Horus so would it be with him. The way had been mapped out, the guiding stars were visible. His bier or coffin of new birth could be seen in the mesken of the mother. He rose again in spirit as the babe of Sothis. “He joined the company of the holy Sahus” in Orion with the pilot Horus at the look-out of the bark. He saw the golden isles in a heaven of perpetual peace to which the pole was the eternal mooring post. Whilst he was passing from this life the bark of Ra was making ready for his soul to go on board.

The foundation of Amenta itself has yet to be delineated. It is a tangible threshold to the other world, the secret but solid earth of eternity which was opened up by Ptah when he and his seven Khnemmu erected the Tat pillar that was founded in the winter solstice as the figure of a stability that was to be eternal. In the mythos the Tat is a type of the sun in the winter solstice that has the power of returning from the lowest depth and thus completing the eternal road. In the eschatology it is the god in person as Ptah-Sekeri or Osiris, the backbone and support of the universe. Horus erecting the Tat in Sekhem was raising Osiris from the sepulchre, the father re-erected as the son in the typical resurrection and continuity of the human spirit in the after life. The figure of Amsu-Horus rising in the resurrection or “coming forth”, with member erect, has two characters, one in the mythology, one in the eschatology. In the mythology he images the phallus of the sun and the generative force that fecundates the Mother-earth. In the eschatology the image of erection is repeated as a symbol of resurrection, and in this phase the supposed phallic god, the figure of regenerative force, is typical of the resurrection or re-erection of the mortal in spirit. Horus the child with finger to mouth is portrayed in the sign of the Scales at the autumn equinox, the point at which the sun begins to lessen and become impotent. This the Egyptians termed the “little sun”, which when personified was infant Horus, who sank down into Hades as the suffering sun to die in the winter solstice and be transformed to rise again and return in all his glory and power in the equinox at Easter. This was matter of the solar mythos, also of life in vegetation and in the water of the inundation. In the eschatology Horus the child is typical of the human soul which was incarnated in the blood of Isis, the immaculate virgin, to be made flesh and to be born in mortal guise on earth as the son of Seb, and to suffer all the afflictions of mortality. He descended to Amenta as the soul sinking in the dark of death, and as the soul he was transfigured, changed, and glorified, to rise again and become immortal as a spirit perfected according to the teachings in the eschatology. A brief list will show how certain zootypes that were founded in the mythological representation were continued in the eschatology:

 

Type of power       Mythical     Eschatological
The beetle = The sun as transformer = The god as self-evolver
The serpent = Renewal = Eternal life
The ibis = Messenger = Word or logos
The jackal = Seer in the dark = Guide in death
The heifer =The moon =Virgin mother
The hawk = Soul of the sun = Ra the divine spirit
Fish,calf,or lamb = Youthful solar god re-born =The messiah


In the mythology the Apap reptile lies in the Lake of Darkness, where the sun goes down, as the eternal adversary of the light with which it is at war all night and all the winter through. He seeks to bar the way of the sun in the nether world. In the eschatology it is the human soul instead of the sun that has to struggle with the opposing monster in making the passage of Amenta. The same scenery served, as already shown, to illustrate the mystery in a religious and spiritual phase.

Chapter 64 of the Ritual is known to have been extant in the time of King Septi, of the first dynasty, the Usaiphais of Manetho. That was over 6,000 years ago. It is a chapter from the Book of Life “to be recited on coming forth to day, that one may not be kept back on the path of the Tuat, whether on entering or in coming forth; for taking all the forms which one desireth, and that the person may not die a second time”. If this chapter be known, the person is made triumphant on earth (as in the nether world), and he performeth all things which are done by the living. The chapter was then so ancient that it had been lost sight of, and was discovered “on a plinth of the god of the Hennu (or Sekru) bark, by a master builder in the time of King Septi the Victorious”. When this chapter was composed the primary nature powers had been unified in the one god, who was represented as the lord of two faces, who “seeth by his own light”, the “Lord of Resurrections, who commeth forth from the dusk, and whose birth is from the House of Death”. That is, as the solar god who was Atum on one horizon and Horus on the other; hence the lord of two faces. The supreme god thus described is the father in one character, the son in the other. The Manes speaking in the character of the son says of the father, “He is I, and I am he”. At that time the earth had been tunnelled by Ptah and his pigmy workers, and a spirit world created on the new terra firma in the earth of eternity, over which the solar god effused his radiance nightly when he lighted up the Tuat with his indescribable glories (ch. 15). The “Lord of Resurrections” as a solar god had then become the lord of resurrections as the generator of ever-Iiving souls. Egyptian theology, then, was based upon the mythology which preceded it and supplied the mould. So is it with the Hebrew and Christian theology. But here is the difference betwixt them. The mythology remained extant in Egypt, so that the beginnings of the theology could be known and tested, and were known to the mystery teachers, and the origins referred to for the purpose of verification. The commentary which has been partially incorporated with the text of chapter 17 survives to show the development of the theology from mythology and the need of explanations for the Ritual to be understood; and it was these necessary explanations which constituted the gnosis or wisdom of the “ mystery teachers of the secret word”, whereas the Hebrew and Christian theologies have been accepted minus the necessary knowledge of the origins, the means of applying the comparative method and checking false assumptions. In Christianity the mysteries have been manufactured out of mist, and it has been taken for granted that the mist was impenetrable and never to be seen through, whereas the mysteries of the Ritual can be followed in the two phases of mythology and eschatology. The main difference betwixt the mythos and the eschatology is that the one is represented in the earth of time, the other in the earth of eternity. And if we take the doctrine of a resurrection from the dead, the soul that rose again at first, in mythology, was a soul of the returning light, a soul of life in vegetation, or other of the [Page 192] elemental powers; a soul in external nature. For instance, a soul of life, as source of drink, was apprehended in the element of water, seen also in the plant and figured in the fish. The superhuman type was divinized in Horus.A soul of life, as source of breath, was apprehended in the breeze, and imaged as the panting of a lion. The superhuman type was divinized in Shu. A soul of food was apprehended in the earth, and represented by the goose that laid the egg. The superhuman type was divinized in Seb.

In the Masonic and all other known mysteries, ancient or modern, the initiate has his eyes bandaged so that he may enter the reception room blindfold. This figure, in the Egyptian mysteries, is Horus in the dark, sometimes called the blind Horus, An-ar-ef. In the mythos Horus is the sun in the darkness of Amenta and the depths of the winter solstice. He is the prototype of “blind Orion hungering for the morn”, and of Samson “eyeless in Gaza”. The character was founded in the mythical representation of natural phenomena, and was afterwards continued in the eschatology. The same type serves in the two categories of phenomena which are here distinguished as the mythical and the eschatological. In the latter the sightless Horus images the human soul in the darkness of death, where it is blind from lack of outer vision. This duality may serve to explain the two-fold rendering of the eyes. According to the hieroglyphic imagery, Horus is without eyes or sightless in one character. He is also portrayed in another as the prince of sight, or of double sight. This, according to the mythos, is a figure of the risen sun and of dawn upon the coffin-lid of Osiris in Amenta. In the eschatology it is Horus, lord of the two eyes, or double vision-that is, of second sight-the seer in spirit with the beatific vision which was attained by him in death. The change from one character to the other is represented in the mysteries by the unbandaging of the initiate's eyes, which are intentionally dazzled by the glory of the lights.The Egyptian Book of the Dead is the one sole record of this two-fold basis of the mysteries.

Enough has now been cited to show the method of the Ritual and the mode in which the eschatology of the Egyptian religion was founded in the mould of the pre-extant mythology. The Book of the Dead is the Egyptian book of life. It is the pre-Christian word of God. This we learn from the account which it gives of itself. It is attributed to Ra as the inspiring holy spirit. Ra was the father in heaven, who has the title of Huhi, the eternal, from which we derive the Hebrew name of Ihuh. The word was given by God the father to the ever-coming son as manifestor for the father. This was Horus, who as the coming son is lu-sa or lu-su, and, as the prince of peace, lu-em-hetep. Horus the son is the Word in person. Hence the speaker in the character of Horus says, “I utter his words - the words of Ra - to the men of the present generation, and I repeat his words to him who is deprived of breath” (ch. 38). That is, as Horus, the sayer or logos, who utters the words of Ra the father in heaven to the living on earth, and to the breathless Manes in Amenta when he descends into Hades or the later hell to preach to the spirits in prison. The word or the sayings thus originated with Ra the father in heaven. They were uttered by Horus the son, [Page 193] and when written down in hieroglyphics by the fingers of Taht-Aan for human guidance they supplied a basis for the Book of the Dead. It had been ordained by Ra that his words, such as those that bring about “ the resurrection and the glory” (Rit., ch. I ), should be written down by the divine scribe Taht-Aan, to make the word truth, and to effect the triumph of Osiris against his adversaries; and it is proclaimed in the opening chapter that this mandate has been obeyed by Taht. The Ritual purports to contain the gnosis of salvation from the second death, together with the ways and means of attaining eternal life, as these were acted in the drama of the Osirian mysteries. Hence the Osiris says that freedom from perdition can be assured by means of this book, in which he trusts and by which he steadfastly abides. The object of the words of power, the magical invocations, the funeral ceremonies, the purgatorial trials, is the resurrection of the mortal to the life which is everlasting. The opening chapter is described as the “ words” which bring about the resurrection on the Mount of Glory, and the closing chapters show the deceased upon the summit of attainment. He has joined the lords of eternity in “the circle of Osiris”, and in the likeness of his own human self, the very “figure which he had on earth”, but changed and glorified (ch. 178). Therefore the most exact and comprehensive title for the Book of the Dead now put together in 186 chapters would be “The Ritual of the Resurrection”, The book of the divine words written down by Taht are in the keeping of Horus the son, who is addressed as “ him who sees the father”. The Manes comes to him with his copy of the writings, by means of which he prevails on his journey through Amenta, like Pilgrim with his roll. He exclaims: “O thou great seer who beholdest his father! O keeper of the books of Taht! Here am I glorified and filled with soul and power, and provided with the writings of Taht”, the secrets of which are divine for lightening the darkness of the nether earth (Rit: ch. 94). With these the Manes is accoutred and equipped. The Word of god personified in Horus preceded the written word of god and when the words of power were written down by Taht the scribe of truth, they were assigned to Horus as the logia of the Lord, and preserved as the precious records of him who was the word in person; first the word of power as the founder, then the word in truth or made truth, as the fulfiller. The divine words when written constituted the scriptures, earliest of which are those ascribed to Hermes or Taht, the reputed author of all the sacred writings. And now we find that both the word in person and the written word, together with the doctrine of the word according to the ancient wisdom, are more or less extant and living still in the Egyptian Book of the Dead. The magical words of power when written down by Taht became the nucleus of the Ritual, which is late in comparison with the astronomical mythology and other forms of Sign-language, and belongs mainly to the Osirian religion.

The mystical word of power from the first was female. Apt at Ombos was worshipped as the “the Living Word”. The supreme type of this power borne upon the head of Shu is the hinder part of a lioness, her sign of sexual potency. The thigh or khepsh of Apt is also the typical Ur-heka, and it is a symbol of the great magical [Page 194] power. The Ur-heka or magical sign preceded words, and words preceded the writings. Great magical words of power are ascribed to Isis, whose word of power in the human sphere was personified in Horus the child, her word that issued out of silence. This is the word that wvas made flesh in a mortal likeness, the soul derived from blood. Child-Horus, however, manifests in divers phenomena as the Word-of-Power emaned by Isis, in the water, in vegetation, in food, and lastly in the virgin mother's blood. The first Horus was the Word-of-Power, the second is the Word-made-Truth in Horus, Mat, t-Kheru, by doing it. Horus the Word-of-Power was the founder, who was followed by Horus the Fulfiller.This title does not merely mean the Word of Truth, the True Logos (Celsus), or the True Voice (Plutarch), but denotes the Word-made-Truth or Law by Horus the Victorious, the father's own anointed son, who fulfilled the Word of Power. It is Horus the Word-of-Power personalized as a little child who survives as the miraculous worker two or three years old in the apocryphal gospels. He is credited with doing these infantine marvels as the Word-of-Power in person. He also utters the word of power in performing his amazing miracles.

The magical words were orally communicated in the mysteries from mouth to ear, not written to be read. They were to be gotten by heart. In the Book of the Dead memory is restored to the deceased through the words of power that were stored up in life to be remembered in death. The speaker in chapter 90 says: “O thou who restorest memory in the mouth of the dead through the words of power which they possess, let my mouth be opened through the words of power which I possess”. That is, by virtue of the gnosis, memory was restored by the deceased remembering the divine words. Now, Plato taught that a knowledge of past lives in a human pre-existence was restored to persons in this life by means of memory. The origin of the doctrine is undoubtedly Egyptian, but it was made out by a perversion of the original teaching. This restoration of or through memory occurs to the Manes in Amenta after death, and the things remembered appertain to the past life on earth. Plato has misapplied it to the past lives and pre-existence of human beings dwelling on the earth. The words of power were not only spoken. They were likewise represented in the equipment of the mummy, sometimes called its ornaments, such as the word of salvation by the blood of Isis with the red Tet-buckle, the word of durability by the white stone, the word of resurrection by the scarabaeus, the word of eternal life by the cross, called the ankh. These were forms of the magical words expressed in fetish figures.

The Manes in Amenta begins his course where he left off on earth when his mouth was closed in death; it is opened once more for him by Ptah and Tum, and Taht supplies him with the great magical words of power that open every gate. These were written on the roll of papyrus that is carried in his hand by the pilgrim who makes his progress through the nether regions in the subterranean pathway of the sun. The so-called Book of the Dead, then, here quoted as the Ritual for the sake of brevity, is the Egyptian book of life: life now, life hereafter, everlasting life. It was indeed the book of life and salvation, because it contained the things to be done in the life here [Page 195]. and hereafter to ensure eternal continuity (Rit., ch. 15, hymn 3). The departing soul when passing away in death, or, as the truer phrase is, when setting into the land of life, clasps and clings to his roll for very life. As the book of life, or word of salvation, it was buried in the coffin with the dead when done with on earth. It showed the way to heaven objectively as well as subjectively, as heaven was mapped out in the astral mythos. The Manes enters Amenta with a papyrus roll in his hand corresponding to the one that was buried in his coffin. This contains the written word of truth, the word of magical power, the word of life. The great question now for him is how far he has made the word of god (Osiris) truth and established it against the powers of evil in his lifetime on the earth. The word that he carries with him was written by Taht-Aan, the scribe of truth. Another word has been written in his lifetime by himself, and the record will meet him in the Hall of Justice on the day of weighing words, when Taht will read the record of the life to see how far it tallies with the written word and how far he has fulfilled the word in truth to earn eternal life. The sense of sin and abhorrence of injustice must have been peculiarly keen when it was taught that every word as well as deed was weighed in the balance of truth on the day of reckoning, called the Judgment Day. The questions confronting the Manes on entering Amenta are whether he has laid sufficient hold of life to live again in death ? Has he acquired consistency and strength or truth of character enough to persist in some other more permanent form of personality ? Has he sufficient force to incorporate his soul anew and germinate and grow and burst the mummy bandages in the glorified body of the Sahu ? Is he a true mummy ? Is the backbone sound ? Is his heart in the right place ? Has he planted for eternity in the seed-field of time ? Has he made the word of Osiris, the word that was written in the papyrus roll, truth against his enemies ?

The chapters for opening the Tuat, for dealing with the adversary in the nether world, for issuing forth victoriously and thus winning the crown of triumph, for removing displeasure from the heart of the judge, tend to show the ways of attaining the life everlasting by acquiring possession of an eternal soul. The Manes is said to be made safe for the place of rebirth in Annu by means of the books of Taht's divine words, which contain the gnosis or knowledge of the things to be done on earth and in Amenta. The truth is made known by the words of Horus which were written down by Taht in the Ritual, but the fulfilment depends on the Manes making the word truth by doing it. That is the only way of salvation or of safety for the soul, the only mode of becoming a true being who would endure as pure spirit forever. The Egyptians had no vicarious atonement, no imputed righteousness, no second-hand salvation. No initiate in the Osirian mysteries could possibly have rested his hope of reaching heaven on the Galilean line to glory. His was the more crucial way of Amenta, which the Manes had to tread with the guidance of the word, that step by step and act by act he must himself make true. It is said in the rubrical directions of chapter 72 that the Manes who knew it on earth and had it written on his coffin will be able to go in and out by day under any form he chooses in which he can penetrate his dwelling-place and also make his way to the Aarru fields of peace and plenty, where he will be flourishing for ever even as he was on earth (Rit., 72, 9, II). I f chapter 91 is known, the Manes takes the form of a fully-equipped spirit (a Khu) in the nether world, and is not imprisoned at any door in Amenta either going in or coming out. (Chapter 92) is the one that opens the tomb to the soul and to the shade of a person, that he may come forth to day and have the mastery over his feet. The book of giving sustenance to the spirit of the deceased in the under-world delivers the person from all evil things (Rit., 148). There was another book wherewith the spirits acquired strength by knowing the names of the gods of the southern sky and of the northern sky (chs. 141-3). The Ritual was pre-eminently a book of knowledge or of wisdom, because it contained the gnosis of the mysteries. Knowledge was all-important. The Manes make their passage through Amenta by means of what they know. Deceased in one of his supplications says: “O thou ship of the garden Aarru, let me be conveyed to that bread of thy canal, as my father the great one who advanceth in the divine ship, because I know thee” (ch. 106, Renouf). He knew because, as we see by (ch. 99,) he had learned the names of every part of the bark in which the spirits sailed. Knowledge was power, knowledge was the gnosis, and the gnosis was the science of the mystery teachers and the masters of Sign-language. Ignorance was most dire and deadly. How could one travel in the next world any more than in this without knowing the way ? The way in Amenta was indicated topographically very much in keeping with the ways in Egypt, chief of which was the water-way of the great river. Directions, names, and passwords were furnished in writing, to be placed with the mummy of the deceased. Better still, if these instructions and divine teachings were learned by heart, had been enacted and the word made truth in the life, then the Book of the Dead if life became the book of life in death. The word was given that it might be made truth by doing it as the means of learning the way by knowing the word. The way of life in three worlds, those of earth, Amenta, and heaven, was by knowing the word of god and making it true in defiance of all the powers of evil. According to this earlier Bible, death came into the world by ignorance, not by knowledge, as in the Christian travesty of the Egyptian teaching. As Hermes says: “The wickedness of a soul is ignorance. The virtue of a soul is knowledge” (Divine Pymander, B. iv., 27, 28).There was no life for the soul except in knowing, and no salvation but in doing. the truth. The human soul of Neferuben in the picture is the wise or instructed soul, one of the Khu-Akaru : he is a master of the gnosis, a knower or knowing soul, and therefore not to be caught like an ignorant fish in the net. Knowledge is of the first importance. In all his journeyings and difficulties it is necessary for the deceased to know. It is by knowledge that he is lighted to find his way in the dark. Knowledge is his lamp of light and his compass; to possess knowledge is to be master of divine powers and magical words. Ignorance would leave him a prey to all sorts of liers in wait and cunning enemies. He triumphs continually through his knowledge of the way, like a traveller with his chart and previous acquaintanceship with the local language; hence the need of the gnosis and of initiation in the mysteries. Those who knew the real name of the god were in possession of the word [Page 197] that represented power over the divinity, therefore the word of power that would be efficacious if employed. Instead of calling on the name of god in prayer, they made use of the name as the word of god. And as these words and mysteries of magic were contained in the writings, it was necessary to know the writings in which the gnosis was religiously preserved to be in possession of the words of power. Hence the phrases of great magical efficacy in the Ritual are called “the words that compel”. They compel the favourable action of the super-human power to which appeal is made. To make magic was to act the appeal in a language of signs which, like the words, were also intended to compel, and to act thus magically was a mode of compelling, forcing, and binding the superhuman powers. Magic was also a mode of covenanting with the power apprehended in the elements.The quid pro quo being blood, this was a most primitive form of blood-covenant. Giving blood for food was giving life for the means of living.

 

 

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The Ritual opens with a resurrection, but this is the resurrection in the earth of Amenta, not in the heaven of eternity. It is the resurrection of a body-soul emerging in the similitude of the moon-god from the dark of death. The first words of the Ritual are, “O Bull of Amenta [Osiris ], it is Taht, the everlasting king, who is here!”. He has come as one of the powers that fight to secure the triumph of Osiris over all his adversaries. After the life on earth there was a resurrection in Amenta, the earth of eternity, for the human soul evolved on earth. I t was there that the claim to the resurrection in spirit and to life eternal in heaven had to be made good and established by long and painful experiences and many kinds of purgatorial purification, by which the soul was perfected eventually as an ever-Iiving spirit. The word of promise had to be performed and made truth indeed, for the Ma-Kheru of immortality to be earned and endless continuity of life assured. Everyone who died was in possession of a body-soul that passed into Amenta to become an Osiris or an image of the god in matter, although it was not every one who was reborn or regenerated in the likeness of Ra, to attain the Horushood, which was portrayed as the hood of the divine hawk .Emergence in Amenta was the coming forth of the human soul from the coffin and from the gloom of the grave in some form of personality such as is depicted in the Shade, or the Ba, a bird of soul with the human head, which shows that a human soul is signified. Osiris the god of Amenta in a mummy form is thus addressed by the Osiris N. or Manes: “O breathless one, let me live and be saved after death” (ch. 41). This is addressed to Osiris who lives eternally. Though lying as a mummy in Amenta, breathless and without motion, he will be self-resuscitated to rise again. Salvation is renewal for another life; to be saved is not to suffer the second death, not to die a second time. According to Egyptian thought, the saved are the living and the twice dead are the damned. Life after death is salvation of the soul, and those not saved are those who die the second death - a fate that could not be escaped by any false belief in the merits of Horus or the efficacy of the atoning blood. There was no heaven to be secured for them by proxy.

The Ritual is not a book of beautiful sentiments, like the poetic literature of later times. It is a record of the things done by the [Page 198] dramatis personae in the Kamite mysteries. But now and again the beauty of feeling breaks out ineffably upon the face of it, as in the chapter by which the deceased prevails over his adversaries, the powers of darkness, and comes forth to the day, saying, “O thou who shinest forth from the moon, thou that givest light from the moon, let me come forth at large amid thy train, and be revealed as one of those in glory. Let the Tuat be opened for me. Here am I”. The speaker is in Amenta as a mummy soul appealing to the father of lights and lord of spirits that he may come forth in the character of Horus divinized to delight the soul of his poor mother. He wishes to capitalize the desires of those who “make salutations” to the gods on his behalf. These in modern parlance would be the prayers of the priests and congregation ( ch. 3) for his welfare and safety in the future life, otherwise for his salvation. In the chapter by which one cometh forth to day he pleads: “Let me have possession of all things soever which were offered ritualistically for me in the nether world. Let me have possession .of the table of offerings which was heapt for me on earth - the solicitations which were uttered for me, that he may feed upon the bread of Seb,' or the food of earth. Let me have possession of my funeral meals”, the meals offered on earth for the dead in the funerary chamber (ch.68).
The chief object of the deceased on entering Amenta is the mode and means of getting out again as soon as possible upon the other side. His one all-absorbing interest is the resurrection to eternal life. He says, “Let me reach the land of ages, let me gain the land of eternity, for thou, my Lord, hast destined them for me” (ch. 13).Osiris or the Osiris passed into Amenta as the lord of transformations. Various changes of shape were necessitated by the various modes of progression. As a beetle or a serpent he passed through solid earth, as a crocodile through the water, as a hawk through the air. As a jackal or a cat he saw in the dark; as an ibis he was the knowing one, or “he of the nose”. Thus he was the master of transformations, the magician of the later folk-tales, who could change his shape at will. Taht is termed the great magician as the lord of transformations in the moon. Thus the deceased in assuming the type of Taht becomes a master of transformation or the magician whose transformations had also been made on earth by the transformers in trance who pointed the way to transformation in death. When Teta comes to consciousness on rising again in Amenta he is said to have broken his sleep for ever which was in the dwelling of Seb - that is, on the earth. He has now received his Sahu or investiture of the glorious body.

Before the mortal Manes could attain the ultimate state of spirit in the image of Horus the immortal, he must be put together part by part as was Osiris, the dismembered god.He is divinized in the likeness of various divinities, all of whom had been included as powers in the person of the one true god, Neb-er-ter, the lord entire. Every member and part of the Manes in Amenta has to be fashioned afresh in a new creation. The new heart is said to be shaped by certain gods in the nether world, according to the deeds done in the body whilst the person was living on the earth. He assumes the [Page 199] glorified body that is formed feature by feature and limb after limb in the likeness of the gods until there is no part of the Manes that remains undivinized. He is given the hair of Nu, or heaven, the eyes of Hathor, ears of Apuat, nose of Khenti-Kâs, lips of Anup, teeth of Serk, neck of Isis, hands of the mighty lord of Tat tu, shoulders of Neith, back of Sut, phallus of Osiris, legs and thighs of Nut, feet of Ptah, with nails and bones of the living Uraei, until there is not a limb of him that is without a god. There is no possibility of coming back to earth for a new body or for a re-entry into the old mummy. As the Manes says, his “soul is not bound to his old body at the gates of Amenta” ( ch. 26, 6). Chapter 89 is designated the chapter by which the soul is united to the body. This, however, does not mean the dead body on earth, but the format or bodily type of the mummy in Amenta. “Here I come”, says the speaker, that “I may overthrow mine adversaries upon the earth, though my dead body be buried” (ch. 86, Renouf). “Let me come forth to day, and walk upon my own legs. Let me have the feet of the glorified” ( ch. 86). At this stage he exclaims, “I am a soul, and my soul is divine. It is the eternal force”. In chapters 21 and 22 the Manes asks for his mouth, that he may speak with it. Having his mouth restored, he asks that it may be opened by Ptah, and that Taht may loosen the fetters or muzzles of Sut, the power of darkness (ch. 23). In short,' that he may recover the faculty of speech. In the process of transforming and being renewed as the new man, the second Atum, he says, “I am Khepera, the self-produced upon his mother's thigh”. Khepera is the beetle-type of the sun that is portrayed in pictures of the goddess Nut proceeding from the mother's khepsh. The name of the beetle signifies becoming and evolving, hence it is a type of the becomer in making his transformation. The mouth being given, words of power are brought to him, he also gathers them from every quarter. Then he remembers his name. Next the new heart is given to him. His jaws are parted, his eyes are opened. Power is given to his arms and vigour to his legs. He is in possession of his heart, his mouth, his eyes, his limbs, and his speech. He is now a new man reincorporated in the body of a Sahu, with a soul that is no longer bound to the Khat or dead mummy at the gates of Amenta ( ch. 26). He looks forward to being fed upon the food of Osiris in Aarru, on the eastern side of the mead of amaranthine flowers.

In one phase of the drama the deceased is put together bone by bone in correspondence to the backbone of Osiris. The backbone was an emblem of sustaining power, and this reconstruction of deceased is in the likeness of the mutilated god. The speaker at this point says, “The four fastenings of the hinder part of my head are made firm”. He does not fall at the block. There are of course seven cervical vertebrae in the backbone altogether, but three of these are peculiar, “ the atlas which supports the head, the axis upon which the head turns, and the vertebrae prominens, with its long spiral process” ( ch. 30, Renouf).No doubt the Osiris was rebuilt upon this model, and the four joints were fundamental, they constituted a four-fold foundation. In another passage the Osiris is apparently perfected “upon the square”, as in the Masonic mysteries. It is the [Page 200] chapter by which one assumes the form of Ptah, the great architect of the universe. The speaker says, “He is four times the arm's length of Ra, four times the width of the world” ( Rit., ch. 82, Renouf), which is a mode of describing the four quarters or four sides of the earth, as represented by the Egyptians. There were seven primary powers in the mythical and astronomical phases, six of whom are represented by zootypes, and the seventh is imaged in the likeness of a man. This is repeated in the eschatology, where the highest soul of seven is the Ka-eidolon with a human face and figure as the final type of spirit which was human on the earth and is to be eternal in the heavens. The Manes who is being reconstituted says, “The [seven] Uraeus divinities are my body. ...My image is eternal” (ch. 85), as it would be when the seven souls were amalgamated into one that was imaged by the divine Ka. The seven Uraeus divinities represented the seven souls of life that were anterior to the one enduring soul. In the chapter of propitiating one's own Ka the Manes says, “Hail to thee, my Ka! May I come to thee and be glorified and made manifest and ensouled ?” ( ch. I03)-that is, in attaining the highest of the souls, the unifying one. These souls may be conceived as seven ascending types of personality. The first is figured as the shade, the dark soul or shade of the Inoits, the Greenlanders, and other aboriginal races, which is portrayed personally in the Ritual lying darkly on the ground. The shade was primary, because of its being, as it were, a shadow of the old body projected on the ground in the new life. It is portrayed as a black figure stretched out in Amenta. In this way the earth shadow of the body in life served as the type of a soul that passed out of the body in death. This may explain the intimate relationship of the shade to the physical mummy, which it is sometimes said to cling to and remain with in the tomb, and to draw sustenance from the corpse so long as it exists. Thus the shade that draws life from the dead body becomes the mythical prototype of the vampire and the legendary ghoul. It may be difficult to determine exactly what the Egyptians understood by the khabit or shade in its genesis as a soul, but the Inoit or Aleutians describe it as “a vapour emanating from the blood” and here is wisdom for those who comprehend it. The earliest human soul, derived from the mother when the blood was looked upon as the life, was a soul of blood, and the Inoit description answers perfectly to the shade in the Egyptian Amenta. Amongst the most primitive races the typical basis of a future personality is the shade. The Aleutians say the soul at its departure divides into the shade and the spirit. The first dwells in the tomb, the other ascends to the firmament. These, wherever met with, are equivalent to the twin-souls of Sut the dark one, and Horus the soul of light. For we reckon the Egyptian seven to be earliest and old enough to account for and explain the rest which are to be found dispersed about the world. The soul as shade or shadow is known to the Macusi Indians as the “man in the eyes” who “does not die”. This is another form of the shadow that was not cast upon the ground. Dr. Birch drew attention to the fact that whilst the deceased has but one Ba, one Sahu, and one Ka, he has two shades, his Khabti being in the plural (Trans. Society of Bib. Arch., volume viii., page 391). These two correspond to the dark and light shades [Page 201] of the aborigines. They also conform to the two souls of darkness and light that were imaged by the black vulture and the golden hawk of Sut and Horus, the first two of the total septenary of powers or souls. The shade, however, is but one-seventh of the series. The other self when perfected consists of seven amalgamated souls. Some of the Manes in Amenta do not get beyond the state of the shade or Khabit; they are arrested in this condition of mummied immobility. They do not acquire the new heart or soul of breath; they remain in the egg unhatched, and do not become the Ba-soul or the glorified Khu. These are the souls that are said to be eaten by certain of the gods or infernal powers. “Eater of the shades” is the title of the fourth of the forty-two executioners (ch. 125). The tenth of the mystical abodes in Amenta is the place of the monstrous arms that capture and carry away the Manes who have not attained a condition beyond that of the shade or empty shell. The “shells” of the theosophists may be met with in the Ritual. The Manes who is fortified with his divine soul can pass this place in safety. He says, “Let no one take possession of my shade [ let no one take possession of my shell or envelope ]. I am the divine hawk”. He has issued from the shell of the egg and been established beyond the status of the shade as a Ba-soul. With this may be compared the superstition that in eating eggs one should always break up the empty shell, lest it should be made evil use of by the witches. There are wretched shades condemned to immobility in the fifth of the mystical abodes. They suffer their final arrest in that place and position, and are then devoured by the giants who live as eaters of the shades. These monsters are described as having thigh-bones seven cubits long (ch. 149,18,19). No mere shade has power enough to pass by these personifications of devouring might; they are the ogres of legendary lore. who may be found at home with the ghoul and the vampire in the dark caverns of the Egyptian under world. These were the dead whose development in spirit world was arrested at the status of the shade, and who were supposed to seek the life they lacked by haunting and preying upon human souls, particularly on the soul of blood. In its next stage the soul is called a Ba, and is represented as a hawk with a human head, to show that the nature of the soul is human still. This is more than a soul of shade, but it was not imagined nor believed that the human soul as such inhabited the body of a bird. In one of the hells the shades are seen burning, but these were able to resist the fire, and it is consequently said, “The shades live; they have raised their powers”.They are raised in status by assimilating higher powers.

Following his taking possession of the soul of shade and the soul of light the Osiris is given a new heart, his whole or two-fold heart. With some of the primitive folk, as with the Basutos, it is the heart that goes out in death as the soul that never dies. Bobadilla a learned from the Indians of Nicaragua that there are two different hearts; that one of these went away with the deceased in death, and that it was the heart that went away which “made them live” hereafter. This other breathing heart, the basis of the future being, is one with the Egyptian heart by which the reconstituted person lives again. The heart that was weighed in the Hall of Judgment could not have been [Page 202] the organ of life on earth. This was a second heart, the heart of another life. The Manes makes appeal for this heart not to bear evidence against him in presence of the god who is at the balance (chs. 30A and 30B). The second is the heart that was fashioned anew according to the life lived in the body. It is said to be the heart of the great god Tehuti, who personated intelligence. Therefore it would seem to typify the soul of intelligence. Hence it is said to be young and keen of insight among the gods, or among the seven souls. The physical representation comes first, but it is said in the text of Panchemisis, “The conscience or heart (Ab) of a man is his own god” or divine judge. The new heart represents rebirth, and is therefore called the mother (ch. 30A); and when the deceased recovers the basis of future being in his whole heart he says, although he is buried in the deep, deep grave, and bowed down to the region of annihilation, he is glorified (even) there (ch. 30A, Renouf).

Now if we take the shade to image a soul of blood, the Ba-hawk to image a soul of light, and the hati-heart to represent a soul of breath, we can perceive a raison d’ être for the offering of blood, of lights, and of incense as sacrifices to the Manes in three different phases or states. Blood was generally offered to the shades, as we see in survival among the Greeks and Romans. The shade was in the first stage of the past existence, and most needing in Amenta the blood which was the life on earth and held to be of first necessity for the revivifying of the dead as Manes or shades. The Sekhem was one of the souls or powers. It is difficult to identify this with a type and place in the seven. Pro tem we call it fourth of the series. It is more important to know what force it represents. The name is derived from the word khem, for potency. Khem in physics signifies erectile power. The man of thirty years as typical adult is khemt. Sekhem denotes having the power or potency of the erectile force. In the eschatological phase it is the reproducing, formative power of Khem, or Amsu, to re-erect, the power of erection being applied to the spirit in fashioning and vitalizing the new and glorious body for the future resurrection from Amenta. The Khu is a soul in which the person has attained the status of the pure in spirit called the glorified, represented in the likeness of a beautiful white bird; the Ka is a type of eternal duration in which the seven-fold personality is unified at last for permanent or everlasting life.

It is the Khu that is thus addressed in the tomb as the glorified one: “Thou shalt not be imprisoned by those who are attached to the person of Osiris [that is, the mummy], and who have custody of souls and spirits, and who shut up the shades of the dead. It is heaven only that shall hold thee”. (Rit. ch., 92.) The shade of itself could never leave the tomb. For this reason it was commonly held that the shade remained with the corpse or mummy on the earth. But here the tomb, the mummy, and the shade are not on earth; they are in Amenta. Without the Ba-soul, the shade remains unvivified. Without the Sekhem, it lacks essential form or power of re-arising. Without the Khu-spirit the person does not ascend from the sepulchre or prison-house of the nether world. But when this has been attained the deceased is glorified. If chapter 91 is known, “he taketh the form of a fully-equipped Khu [spirit ] in the nether [Page 203] world, and does not suffer imprisonment at any door in Amenta, either in coming in or going out” (Renouf, ch. 91). It is only when the Manes is invested as a Khu that he ascends to the father as a son of god. So we gather from the following words addressed to Horus by the person who is now a Khu: “O mighty one, who seest thy father, and who hast charge of the books of Taht, here am I. I come, and am glorified and filled with soul and power, and am provided with the scriptures of Taht”, his copy of the book of life, his light in the darkness of Amenta. He now ascends to Ra his father, who is in the bark, and exclaims again and again, “I am a powerful Khu; let thy soundness be my soundness” (Renouf, ch. 105). When the deceased has been made perfect as a Khu, he is free to enter the great house of seven halls (ch. 145). Likewise the “house of him who is upon the hill”, and who is “ruler in the divine hall”. The great house is the heaven of Osiris based upon the thirty-six gates or duo-decans of the zodiac. The other is the house of Anup at the summit of the mount in Annu. “Behold me”, he exclaims; “behold me, I am come to you, and have carried off and put together my forms”, or constituent parts of the permanent soul, which were seven altogether. These are: (1) The Khabit or dark shade; (2) the Ba or light shade; (3) the breathing heart; (4) the Sekhem; (5) the Sahu; (6) the Khu; (7) the Ka. When the Manes has become a Khu, the Ka is still a typical ideal ahead of him; so far ahead or aloof that he propitiates it with offerings. In fact, he presents himself as the sacrificial victim that would die to attain conjunction with his Ka, his image of eternal duration, his type of totality, in which the seven souls were permanently unified in one at last. The Ka has been called the double of the dead, as if it simply represented the Doppel-ganger. But it is not merely a phantom of the living or personal image of the departed. It serves also for the apparition or revenant ; it is a type rather than a portrait. It is a type that was pre-natal. It images a soul which came into existence with the child, a soul which is food and sustenance to the body all through life, a soul of existence here and of duration for the life hereafter. Hence it is absorbed at last in the perfected personality. It is depicted in the Temple of Luxor, where the birth of Amen-hetep III. is portrayed as coming from the hand of god. The Ka of the royal infant is shown in the pictures being formed by Khnum the moulder on the potter's wheel. It is in attendance on the person all life through, as the genius or guardian angel, and the fulfilment of the personality is effected by a final reunion with the Ka. As already shown, when divine honours were paid to the Pharaoh the offerings were made to his Ka, not to his mortal self. Thus the Manes in Amenta makes an offering of incense to purify himself in propitiation of his Ka ( ch. 105). There is a chapter of “providing food for the Ka”. Also the mortuary meal was eaten in the chamber of the Ka, the resurrection chamber of the sepulchre. Food was offered to the Ka-eidôlon as the representative of the departed, instead of directly to the spirits of the ancestors. It was set up there as receiver-general of the offerings. Also the food was presented to it as a type of the divine food which sustained the human soul. Thus, when the divine sustenance is offered by the god or goddess to the soul of the mortal on the [Page 204] earth, or to the Manes in Amenta, it is presented by the giver to the Ka. Certain priests were appointed to be ministers to the Ka, and these made the offerings to the Ka of the deceased on behalf of the living relatives. This is because the Ka was the type of personality, seventh of the seven souls attained as the highest in which the others were to be included and absorbed. In the vignettes to chapter 25 of the Ritual (Naville, Todt., Kap., 25, vol. i., p. 36) the deceased is shown his Ka, which is with him in the passage of Amenta, not left behind him in the tomb, that he may not forget himself (as we might say), or, as he says, that he may not suffer loss of identity by forgetting his name. Showing the Ka to him enables the Manes to recall his name in the great house, and especially in the crucible of the house of flame. When the deceased is far advanced on his journey through Amenta, his Ka is still accompanying him, and it is described as being the food of his life in spirit world, even as it had been his spiritual food in the human life. “Thou art come, Osiris; thy Ka is with thee. Thou feedest thyself under thy name of Ka” (128,6). When the Osiris has passed from the state of a shade to the stage of the Ka, he will become what the Ritual designates a fully equipped Manes who has completed his investiture. As a Sahu he was reincorporated in a spiritual body. As a Khu he was invested with a robe of glory. As a sacred hawk with the head of a Bennu he was endowed with the soul of Horus (ch. 78). It was here he exclaimed “Behold me; I am come to you [the gods and the glorified], and have carried off my forms and united them”. But in chapter 92 he was anxiously looking forward to the day of reckoning, when he said, “Let the way be open to my soul and my shade, that I may see the great god within his sanctuary on the day of the soul's reckoning”, “when all hearts and words are weighed”. He is not yet one of the spirits made perfect, being neither judged nor justified. He has to pass his last examination, and is now approaching the great hall of judgment for his trial. He says, “I am come that I may secure my suit in Abydos”, the mythical re:-birthplace of Osiris. This is the final trial of the long series through which he has hitherto. successfully passed (Rit, ch. II 7, Renouf). He has now arrived at the judgment hall. It has been asserted that the deeds which the deceased had done here on earth in no wise influenced the fate that awaited the man after death (Maspero, Egyptian Archaeology. Eng. tr., p. 149). But how so, when the new heart which was given to the deceased in Amenta, where he or she was reconstituted, is said to be fashioned in accordance with what he has done in his human life ? And the speaker pleads that his new heart may not be fashioned according to all the evil things that may be said against him (Rit., ch. 27). He is anxious that the ministrants of Osiris in the Neter-Kar, “who deal with a man according to the course of his life”, may not give a bad odour to his name (ch. 3OB). And again he pleads,“Let me be glorified through my attributes; let me be estimated according to my merits” (ch.72). It is plainly apparent that the future fate of the soul was dependent on the deeds that were done in the body, and the character of the deceased was accreted according to his conduct in the life on earth.

The jury sitting in the judgment hall consisted of forty-two masters of truth. Their duty was to discover the truth with fierce interrogation [Page 205] and the instinct of sleuth-hounds on their track. Was this Manes a true man ? Had he lived a true life? Was he true at heart when this was tested in the scales ? His viscera were present for inspection, and these keen scrutinizers in their animal-headed forms were very terrible, not only in visage, for they had a vested interest in securing a verdict of guilty against the Manes, inasmuch as the viscera of the condemned were flung to them as perquisites and prey, therefore they searched with the zeal of hunger for the evidence of evil living that might be found written on this record of the inner man. Piecemeal the Manes were examined, to be passed if true, to be sent back if not, in the shape of swine or goats or other typhonian animals, and driven down into the fiery lake of outer darkness where Baba the devourer of hearts, the Egyptian “raw-head-and-bloody-bones”, was lying in wait for them. The highest verdict rendered by the great judge in this most awful Judgment Hall was a testimony to the truth and purity of character established for the Manes on evidence that was unimpeachable. At this post-mortem the sins done in the body through violating the law of nature were probed for most profoundly. Not only was the deceased present in spirit to be judged at the dread tribunal, the book of the body was opened and its record read. The vital organs, such as the heart, liver, and lungs, were brought into judgment as witnesses to the life lived on earth. Any part too vitiated for the rottenness to be cut off or scraped away was condemned and flung as offal to the powers who are called the eaters of filth, the devourers of hearts, and drinkers of the blood of the wicked. And if the heart, for example, should be condemned to be devoured because very bad, the individual could not be reconstructed for a future life.

In order that the Osiris may pass the Great Assize as one of the justified, he must have made the word of Osiris truth on earth against his enemies. He must have lived a righteous life and been just, truthful, merciful, charitable, humane. In coming to the Hall of Judgment or Justice to look on the divine countenance and be cleansed from all the sins he may have committed he says, “I have come to thee, O my Lord. I know thee. Lord of Righteousness is thy name. I bring to thee right. I have put a stop to wrong”. His plea is that he has done his best to fulfil the character of Horus-Makheru. Some of his pleas are very touching. “He has not exacted from the labourer, as the first-fruits of each day, more work than was justly due to him. He has not snatched the milk from the mouths of babes and sucklings. He has not been a land-grabber. He has not dammed the running water. He has caused no famine, no weeping, no suffering to men, and has not been a robber of food. He has not tampered with the tongue of the balance, nor been fraudulent, mean, or sordid of soul. There is a goodly list of pre-Christian virtues besides all the theoretical Christian ones. Amongst others, he says, “I have propitiated the god with that which he'loveth”. This was especially by the offering of Maat, viz., justice, truth, and righteousness. “I have given bread to the hungry, water to the thirsty, clothes to the naked, and a boat to the shipwrecked” (ch. 125). Yet we have been told that charity and mercy were totally unknown to the pagan world. He asks the forty-two assessors for the great [Page 206] judge not to go against him, for he did the right thing in Tamerit, the land of Egypt. His heart is weighed in the scales of justice.He passes pure, as one of those who are welcomed by Horus for his own faithful followers, the blessed of his father, to whom it is said, “Come, come in peace”. Horus the intercessor, advocate, or paraclete, now takes him by the hand and leads him into the presence of Osiris in the sanctuary. The Manes in the Judgment Hall is black-haired, as seen in the pictures of Ani (Papyrus of Ani, pI. 4). But when he kneels before Osiris on the throne his hair is white. He has passed as one of the purified and is on his way to join the ranks of the just spirits made perfect, who are called the glorified. The attendants say to him, “We put an end to thy ills and we remove that which is disorderly in thee through thy being smitten to the earth” in death. These were the ills of mortality from which he has now been freed in spirit. Here occurs the resurrection of the Osiris in the person of Horus, and it is said, “Ha, Osiris ! thou hast come, and thy Ka with thee, which uniteth with thee in thy name of Ka-hetep” ( ch. 128). An ordinary rendering of “Ka-hetep” would be “image of peace” = type of attainment; but as the word hetep or hepti also means number seven, that coincides with the Ka being an image of the septenary of souls, complete at last to be unified in the hawk-headed Horus.

In the book or papyrus-roll for invoking the gods of the Kerti, or boundaries, we find the speaker has now reached the limit of Amenta. He says, “I am the soul of Osiris, and rest in him” (ch. 127). He is hailed as one who has attained his Ka and received his insignia of the resurrection. It is now said to the Osiris, “Ha, Osiris! thou hast received thy sceptre, thy pedestal, and the flight of stairs beneath thee” (Rit., ch. 128). The sceptre was the hare-headed symbol of the resurrection first carried by Ptah the opener. The pedestal is the papyrus of Horus, and the stairs denote the means of ascent from Amenta to the summit of the Mount of Glory.He is now prepared and empowered to enter the bark of Ra which voyages from east to west by day and from west to east by night. Before entering the bark the Osiris has attained to everyone of his stations in Amenta previously to sailing for the circumpolar paradise upon the stellar Mount of Glory.

Chapter 130 is the book by which the soul is made to live for ever on the day of entering the bark of Ra, which means that it contains the gnosis of the subject. It was made for the birthday or re-birthday of Osiris. Osiris is re-born in Horus as the type of an eternal soul. Hence the speaker says, in this character, “I am coffined in an ark like Horus, to whom his cradle [or nest of reeds] is brought”. He is reborn as Horus on his papyrus, an earlier figure on the water than the bark of Ra. He prays, “Let not the Osiris be shipwrecked on the great voyage; keep the steering tackle free from misadventure”. When he entered Amenta the deceased in Osiris bore the likeness of the god in mummy form. Before he comes forth from the lower Aarru garden he can say, at the end of certain transformations in type and personality, “I am the soul of Osiris, and I rest in him” (ch. 127). This is in the character of Horus. “I am Horus on this auspicious day” at the “beautiful coming forth from Amenta”. He [Page 207] has reached the boundary, and now invokes the god who is in his solar disk, otherwise in the bark of Ra. He died in Osiris to live again in Horus, son of god, or in his likeness. Chapters 141 and 142 begin the book of making the Osiris perfect. And this, as the Ritual shows, was in the likeness of Horus the beloved sole-begotten son of Ra, the god in spirit. Now, when the Manes had included his Ka in the name of Ka-hetep (Rit., ch. 128) it is said to the deceased (in the Pyramid texts, Teta, 284, Pepi 1.,34), “Horus hath brought to pass that his ka, which is in thee, should unite with thee in thy name of Ka-hetep”, which shows the Ka within him was the image of Horus divinized. This corroborates the suggestion that the ka-type was derived from Ka (later Sa) the son of Atum-Ra, who was earlier than Horus as the son of Osiris. Thus the divine sonship of humanity which was personified in Horus, or Iu, or Sa, was also typified in the ka-image of a higher spiritual self; and when the Manes had attained the status of a spirit perfected it was in the form of the divine son who was the express image of the father god. He was Horus the beloved, in all reality, through perfecting the ideal type in his own personality.

He now enters the divine presence of Osiris-Ra to relate what he has done in the characters of human Horus, Har-Tema, and Har-Makheru on behalf of his father which constitutes him the veritable son of god. When the Manes had attained the solar bark he has put on “the divine body of Ra” and is hailed by the ministrants with cries of welcome and acclamations from the Mount of Glory ( ch. 133). In travelling through the under-world he had passed from the western horizon of earth to the east of heaven, where he joins the solar boat to voyage the celestial waters. There is a change of boat for the night. Hence the speaker says he is “coming in the two barks of the lord of Sau” (ch. 136B, Renouf). There may be some difficulty about the exact position of the chapter numbered 110 in the Ritual, but there is no difficulty in identifying the fields of peace upon the summit of Mount Hetep as the lower paradise of two, which was the land of promise attainable in Amenta. This was the sub-terrestrial or earthly paradise of the legends. When the Manes comes to these elysian fields he is still in the earth of eternity, and has to prove himself an equal as a worker with the mighty Khus (Khuti), who are nine cubits high, in cultivating his allotment of arable land. The arrival at Mount Hetep in this lower paradise or heaven of the solar mythos precedes the entrance to the Judgment Hall which is in the domain of the Osiris below, and the voyage from east to west in the Matit and the Sektit bark of the sun, therefore it is not in the ultimate heaven or the upper paradise of eternity upon Mount Hetep. We see from the Pyramid texts (Pepi I., lines 192, 169, 182, Maspero, Les Inscripions. des Pyramides de Sakkarah) that there were two stages of ascent to the upper paradise, that were represented by two ladders : one is the ladder of Sut, as the ascent from the land of darkness, the other is the ladder of Horus, reaching to the land of light. King Pepi salutes the two: “Homage to thee, O ladder of Sut. Set thyself up, O ladder of God. Set thyself up, O ladder of Sut. Set thyself up, O ladder of Horus, whereby Osiris appeared in heaven when he wrought protection for Ra. “Pepi likewise enters heaven [Page 208] in his name of the ladder (Budge, Book of the Dead, Intro., pp. 117, 118). The Manes also says, in ch. 149, “I raise my ladder up to the sky, that I may behold the gods”.

But, having traced the reconstruction of the deceased for a future life, we now return, to follow him once more from the entrance to Amenta on his journey through the under-world. His mortal personality having been made a permanent as possible in the mummy left on earth, the Manes rising in Amenta now sets out to attain the personality that is to last for ever. He pleads with all his dumbness that his mouth may be opened, or, in other words, that his memory, which he has lost awhile, may be given back to him, so that he may utter the words of power (chs. 21-23) with which he is equipped. The ceremony of opening the mouth after the silence of death was one of the profoundest secrets. The great type of power by means of which the mouth is opened was the leg of the hippopotamus goddess, the symbol of her mightiness as primum mobile in the Great Bear having been adopted for this purpose in the eschatology. The ceremony was performed at the tomb as well as in Amenta by the opener Ptah as a mystery of the resurrection. And amongst the many other survivals this rite of “opening the mouth” is still performed in Rome. It was announced in a daily paper not long since (the Mail, August 8th, 1903) that after the death of Pope Leo XIII. and the coronation of Pius X. “a Consistory would be held to close and open the lips of the cardinals newly created”, or newly born into the purple. The Osiris also prays that when his mouth is opened Taht may come to him equipped with the words of power. So soon as the mouth of the Manes is freed from the fetters of dumbness and darkness (or muzzles of Sut) and restored to him, he collects the words of power from all quarters more persistently than any sleuth-hound and more swiftly than the flash of light (chs. 23, 24, Renouf). These words of power are magical in their effect. They paralyze all opposition. They open every door. The power is at once applied. The speaker says, “Back, in retreat ! Back, crocodile Sui! Come not against me, who live by the words of power! ” ( ch. 31). This is spoken to the crocodiles or dragons who come to rob the Manes and carry off the words of power that protect the deceased in death. The magical mode of employing the words of power in the mysteries of Taht is by the deceased being assimilated to the character and assuming the superhuman type as a means of protection against the powers of evil. The speaker in the Ritual does not mistake himself for the deity. He is the deity pro tem. in acted Sign-Ianguage, and by such means is master of the magical power. It is the god who is the power, and the magician employs the words and signs which express that power; but instead of praying to the god he makes use of the divine words attributed to the god, and personates the god as Horus or Ra, Taht or Osiris, in character. He puts on the mask of a crocodile, an ibis, a lion, or other zootype of the primary powers, and says to his adversaries: I am the crocodile (= Sebek), or, I am the lion (= Atum), or, I am Ra, the sun, protecting himself with the Uraeus serpent, and consequently no evil thing can overthrow me (ch. 32). Repeating ch. 42 was a magical way of escaping from the slaughter which was wrought in Suten-Khen, and the mode of magic was for the deceased in his [Page 209] re-birth to become or to be assimilated to the divine child in his rebirth. He tells the serpent Abur that he is the divine babe, the mighty one. Not a limb of him is without a god. He is not to be grasped by arms or seized by hands. “Not men or gods, the glorified ones or the damned; not generations past, present, or to come, can inflict any injury on him who cometh forth and proceedeth as the eternal child, the everlasting one” (Rit., ch. 42), or as Horus, the son of Isis. These divine characters are assumed by the Manes when he commands his enemies to do his bidding. According to the magical prescriptions, in fighting the devil, or the evil Apap, a figure of the monster was to be moulded in wax with the name inscribed upon it in green (Budge, Proceedings Soc. of Arch., 1866, po 21). This was to be spat upon many times, spurned with the foot, and then flung into the fire, as a magical mode of casting out the devil. When the Apap reptile is first encountered and addressed in the Ritual it is said, “O one of wax! who takest captive and seizest with violence and livest upon those who are motionless, let me not become motionless before thee” (Rit., ch. 7). This is because the presence of the devouring monster is made tangible by the image of wax which represents the power addressed, that is otherwise invisible. The ideal becomes concrete in the figure that is thus magically employed. It is in this magical sense that the opening chapters of the Ritual are declared to contain the “words of power” that bring about the resurrection and the glory of the Manes in Amenta. This mode of magic is likewise a mode of hypnotism or human magnetism which was universally common with the primitive races, especially the African, but which is only now being timidly touched by modern science. The power of paralyzing and of arresting motion was looked upon as magical potency indeed. Hypnotic power is magical power. This is described as being taken from the serpent as its strength. In one passage (Rit., ch. 149) the serpent is described as he “who paralyzes with his eyes”. And previously, in the same chapter, the speaker says to the serpent, “I am the man who covers thy head with darkness, and I am the great magician. Thine eyes have been given to me, and I am glorified through them. Thy strength [ or power] is in my grasp”. This might be termed a lesson in hypnotism. The speaker becomes a great magician by taking possession of the paralyzing power in the eyes of the serpent. The description seems to imply that there had been a contest betwixt the serpent-charmer and the serpent, and that the man had conquered by wresting the magical power from the reptile. The Manes has much to say about the adversary of souls whom he meets in Amenta. This is the Apap of darkness, of drought and dearth, disease and death. It is the representative of evil in physical phenomena which was translated as a figure from the mythology into the domain of eschatology. In (chapter 32) the “Osiris standeth up upon his feet” to face and defy the crocodiles of darkness who devour the dead and carry off the words of power from the glorified in the under-world. They are stopped and turned back when the speaker says: “I am Atum. All things which exist are in my grasp, and those depend on me which are not yet in being. I have received increase of length and depth and fulness of breathing within the domain of my father the great one. He hath given me the [Page 210] beautiful Amenta through which the living pass from death to life” (ch.32). Thus the Osiris appears, speaks, and acts in the characters of a drama previously extant in the mythology. He comes forth: As the bull of Osiris (ch. 53A); as the god in lion form, Atum (ch. 54); as the jackal Ap-uat, of Sothis or Polaris; as the divine hawk, Horus (ch. 71); as the sacred hawk (ch. 78); as the lotus of earth (ch. 81); as the bennu-bird or phoenix-soul of Ra (ch. 83); as the shen-shen or hernshaw (ch. 84); as the soul that is an image of the eternal (ch. 85) as the dove or swallow ( ch. 86); as the crocodile Sebek ( ch. 88); as the khu, or glorified spirit ( ch. 91); and many more. But the individual is shown to persist in a human form. He comes forth by day and is living after death in the figure, but not as the mummy, that he wore on earth. He is portrayed staff in hand, prepared for his journey through the under-world (Naville, Todt., Kap 2, vignette). Also the ka-image of man the immortal is portrayed in the likeness of man the mortal. The human figure is never lost to view through all the phantasmagoria of transformation (Naville, Todt., vignettes to Kap 2 and 186). From beginning to end of the Ritual we see it is a being once human, man Or woman, who is the traveller through the nether-world up the mount of rebirth in heaven, at the summit of the stellar paradise, where the effigy of the earthly personality was ultimately merged in the divine image of the ka, and the mortal puts on immortality in the likeness of the dear old humanity, changed and glorified. This shows the ghost was founded on a human basis, and that it continued the human likeness in proof of its human origin.

Resurrection in the Ritual is the coming forth to day (Peri-em-hru), whether FROM the life on earth or to the life attainable in the heaven of eternity. The first resurrection is, as it were, an ascension from the tomb in the nether earth by means of the secret doorway. But this coming forth is in, not from, Amenta, after burial in the upper earth. The deceased had passed through the sepulchre, emerging in the lower earth. He issues from the valley of darkness and the shadow of death. Osiris had been cut to pieces in the lunar and other phenomena by the evil Sut, and the limbs were gathered up and put together by his son and by the mother in Amenta, where he rose again as Horus from the dead. And whatsoever had been postulated of Osiris the mummy in the mythology was repeated on behalf of the Osiris in the eschatology.

Osiris had originated as a god in matter when the powers were elemental, but in the later theology the supreme soul in nature was configurated in a human form. Matter as human was then considered higher than matter unhumanized, and the body as human mummy was superior to matter in external nature. Also the spirit in human form was something beyond an elemental spirit; hence the god as supreme spirit was based, as already shown, upon the human ghost, with matter as the mummy. Osiris as a mummy in Amenta is what we might call the dead body of matter invested with the limbs and features of the human form, as the type to which the elemental powers had attained in Ptah, in Atum, and in the human featured Horus, which succeeded the earlier representation by means of zootypes. Osiris is a figure of inanimate nature, personalized as the mummy with a human form and face, whilst being also an image [Page 211] of matter as the physical body of the god. The process applied to the human body first in death was afterwards applied to the god in matter, in the elements, or in the inert condition at the time of the winter solstice, awaiting corpse-like for his transformation or transubstantiation into the young and glorious body of the sun, or spirit of vegetation in the spring. The solar god as the sun of evening or of autumn was the suffering, dying sun, or the dead sun buried in the nether earth. To show this, it was made a mummy of, bound up in the linen vesture without a seam, and thus imaged in a likeness of the dead who bore the mummy form on earth, the unknown being represented by the known. The sun god when descending to Amenta may be said to mummify or karas his own body in becoming earthed or, as it were, fleshed in the earth of Ptah. Hence the mummy-type of Ptah, of Atum, and Osiris, each of whom at different stages was the solar god in mummied form when buried in Amenta. It has now to be shown how it was brought about that the final and supreme one god of the Egyptian religion was represented as a mummy in the earth of eternity, and why the mystery of the mummy is the profoundest of all the mysteries of Amenta. An essential element in Egyptian religion was human sympathy with the suffering god, or the power in nature which gave itself, whether as herself or himself, as a living sacrifice, to bring the elements of life to men in light, in water, air, vegetation, fruit, roots, grain, and all things edible. Whence the type was eaten sacramentally at the thanksgiving meal. This feeling was pathetically expressed at “the festival of the staves”, when crutches were offered as supports for the suffering autumn sun, otherwise the cripple deity Horus, dying down into Amenta and pitifully needing help which the human sympathizers tried to give. Can anything be more pathetic than this address to the sufferer as the sun god in Amenta: “Decree this, O Atum, that if I see thy face [in glory] I shall not be pained by the signs of thy sufferings”. Atum decrees. He also decrees that the god will look on the suppliant as his second self (Rit., ch. 173; Naville).

The legend of the voluntary victim who in a passion of divinest pity became incarnate, and was clothed in human form and feature for the salvation of the world, did not originate in a belief that God had manifested once for all as an historic personage.It has its roots in the remotest part. The same legend was repeated in many lands with a change of name, and at times of sex, for the sufferer, but none of the initiated in the esoteric wisdom ever looked upon the Kamite Iusa, or gnostic Horus, Jesus, Tammuz, Krishna, Buddha, Witoba, or any other of the many saviours as historic in personality, for the simple reason that they had been more truly taught. Mythology was earlier than eschatology, and the human victim was preceded by the zootype; the phenomena first rendered mythically were not manifested in the human sphere. The natural genesis was in another category altogether. The earliest Horus was not incorporated in a human form. He represented that soul of life which came by water to a dried-up, withering world upon the verge of perishing with hunger and with thirst. Here the fish or the first-fruit of the earth was the sign of his incorporation in matter; hence the typical shoot, the green ear, or the branch that were imaged [Page 212] in Child-Horus. The saviour who came by water was Ichthys the fish. The saviour who came in fruit as product of the tree was the Natzer. The saviour who came by spirit was the soul of the sun. This was the earliest rendering of the incorporation of Horus as the primary life and light of the world made manifest in external nature, before the doctrine was applied to biology in the human domain, where Horus came by blood, as the mode of incarnation in the human form. In the later myth Osiris is the deity who suffered as the winter sun, assailed by all the powers of darkness. He also suffered from the drought as imaged in the fire-breathing Apap-reptile, and in other ways as lord of life in water, vegetation, and in various forms of food. This suffering deity or provider was the god in matter. Ra is the god in spirit, Osiris in matter. Not only in the matter of earth, but also in the human form - the form assumed by Horus as the child of earth, or Seb. Osiris, the great sufferer in the dead of winter, was not simply the sun, nor was Osiris dead, however inert in matter, lying dumb in darkness, with non-beating heart. He was the buried life of earth, and hence the god in matter imaged in the likeness of a mummy waiting for the resurrection in Amenta. Such was the physical basis in the mythos of the mystery that is spiritual in the eschatology. Mummy-making in Egypt was far older than the Osirian cult. It was at least as old as Anup the divine embalmer of the dead. Preserving the human mummy perfectly intact was a mode of holding on to the individual form and features as a means of preserving the earthly likeness for identifying the personality hereafter in spirit. The mummy was made on purpose to preserve the physical likeness of the mortal. The risen dead are spoken of in the Ritual as “those who have found their faces”. The mummy Was a primitive form of the African effigy in which the body was preserved as its own portrait, whereas the ka Was intended for a likeness of the spirit or immortal - the likeness in which the just spirit made perfect was to see Osiris in his glory. Both the mummy and the ka were represented in the Egyptian tomb, each with a chamber to itself. From the beginning there had been a visible endeavour to preserve some likeness or memento of the earthly body even when the bones alone could be preserved. Mummy-making in the Ritual begins with collecting the bones and piecing them together, if only in a likeness of the skeleton. It is at this stage that Horus is said to collect the bones of his father Osiris for the resurrection in a future life by means of transubstantiation. The same primitive mode of preparing the mummy is implied when it is said to the solar god on entering the under-world, “Reckon thou thy bones, and set thy limbs, and turn thy face to the beautiful Amenta” (ch. 133, Renouf). Teta, deceased, is thus addressed, “O Teta, thou hast raised up thy head for thy bones, and thou hast raised up thy bones for thy head”. Also the hand of Teta is said to be like a wall as support of Horus in giving stability to his bones. Thus the foundation was laid for building the mummy-type as a present image of the person who had passed.

Amongst other types, the Yucatanese made little statues of their fathers. The head was left hollow, so that the ashes of the cremated [Page 213] body might be placed in the skull, as in an urn; this, says Landa, was then covered “with the skin of the occiput taken from the corpse”.The custom is akin to that which has been unearthed in the European bone caves, where the skulls of the adult dead are found to have been trepanned, and the bones of little children inserted instead of human ashes. In Sign-Ianguage the bones of the child were typical of rebirth in a future life. The desire to live and the longing for a life after death, in earlier times, are inexpressible and the efforts made to give some kind of expression to the feeling are ineffably pathetic.D' Acugna relates that it was a custom with the South American Indians to preserve and keep the dead bodies of relatives in their homes as long as was possible, so as to have their friends continually before their eyes. For these they made feasts and set out viands before the dead bodies. Here, in passing, we would suggest that in the Egyptian custom as described by both Herodotus and Plutarch it was not the dead mummy that was brought to table as a type of immortality, but the image of the ka, which denoted what the guests would be like after death, and was therefore a cause for rejoicing. Carrying the ka image round the festive board was just a Kamite prototype of the elevation and carrying round of the host for adoration in the Church of Rome. Indeed, the total paraphernalia of the Christian mysteries had been made use of in Egyptian temples. For instance, in one of the many titles of Osiris in all his forms and places he is called “Osiris in the monstrance” (Rit., ch. 141, Naville). In the Roman ritual the monstrance is a transparent vessel in which the host or victim is exhibited. In the Egyptian cult Osiris was the victim. The elevation of the host signifies the resurrection of the crucified god, who rose again in spirit from the corpus of the victim, now represented by the host. Osiris in the monstrance should of itself suffice to show that the Egyptian Karast (Krst) is the original Christ, and that the Egyptian mysteries were continued by the gnostics and Christianized in Rome.The mode of conveying the oral wisdom to the initiate in the mysteries of young man making was continued in the mystery of mummy making. Whilst the mummy was being prepared for burial, chapters of the Ritual were read to it, or to the conscious ka, by an official who was known as the man of the roll. Every Egyptian was supposed to be acquainted with the formula, from having learned them during his lifetime, by which he was to have the use of his limbs and possession of his soul restored to him in death, and to be protected from the dangers of the nether-world. These were repeated to the dead person, however, for greater security, during the process of embalming, and the son of the deceased, or the master of the ceremonies, took care to whisper to the mummy the most mysterious parts, which no living ear might hear with impunity. (Maspero, The Struggle of the Nations, Eng. trans., pp. 510, 5 I I.)

But it is an error to suppose with some Egyptologists, like M. de Horrack, that the new existence of the deceased was begun in the old earthly body (Proceed. Society of Bib. Archaeology, vol. vi., March 4, 1884, p. 126). The resurrection of the dead in mummy form may look at first sight as if the old dead corpse had [Page 214] risen from the sepulchre. But the risen is not the dead mummy, it is a type of personality in the shape of the mummy. It is what the Ritual describes as the mummy-form of a god. The Manes prays, “May I too arise and assume the mummied form as a god”, that is, as the mummy of Osiris, the form in which Amsu-Horus rose, a type of permanent preservation, but not yet one of the spirits made perfect by possession of the ka. It was this mistake which led to a false idea that the Egyptians held the dogma of a corporeal resurrection of the dead which became one of the doctrines that were fostered into fixity by the A-Gnostic Christians. The Osiris as mortal Manes, or Amsu-Horus as divinity, does rise in the mummy form, but this is in another life and in another world, not as a human being on our earth. It has the look of a physical resurrection in the old body, and so the ignorant misinterpreters mistook it and founded on it a corporeal basis for the future life. In the Christian scheme the buried dead were to rise again in the old physical corpus for the last judgment in time at the literal ending of the world. This was another delusion based on the misrendering of the Egyptian wisdom. The dead who rose again in Amenta, which was the ground floor of a future state of existence, also rose again for the judgment; but this took place in the earth of eternity which was mistaken by the Christians for the earth of time, just as they had mistaken the form of the risen sahu for the old body of matter that never was supposed to rise again by those who knew. The earthly mummy of the deceased does not go to heaven, nor does it enter the solar boat, yet the Osiris is told to enter the boat, his reward being the seat which receives his sahu or spirit mummy (Rit., ch. 130). Clearly this can only refer to the spiritual body, as the earthly mummy was left on the earth outside the gates of Amenta. Not only is the corporeal mummy not placed on board the boat of souls, the deceased was to be represented by a statue of cedar wood anointed with oil, or, as we might say, Christified (134,9, 10).There is no possible question of a corporeal resurrection. The object, aim, and end of all the spiritualizing processes is to become non-corporeal in the earthly sense - that is, as the Ritual represents it, to defecate into pure spirit. The word sahu (or the mummy) is employed to express the future form as well as the old. But it is a spiritual sahu, the divine mummy. Even the bones and flesh of souls are mentioned but these are the bones of Osiris, the backbone of the universal frame, and the flesh of Ra. The terms used for the purpose of divinizing are antipodal to any idea of return to corporeality as a material mummy. The mummy of the Manes is a sahu of the glorified spirit. This state of being is attained by the deceased in chapter 73: “I am the beloved son of his father. I come to the state of a sahu of the well-furnished Manes”. He is said to be mummified in the shape of a divine hawk when he takes the form of Horus (78, 15, 16), not as the earthly mummy in a resurrection on our earth. The resurrection of Osiris was not corporeal. The mummy of the god in matter or mortality rises from the tomb transubstantiated into spirit. So complete is the transformation that he is Osiris bodily changed into Horus as a sahu or spirit. The Egyptians had no doctrine of a physical resurrection [Page 215] 1of the dead. Though they retained the mummy as a type of personality, it was a changed and glorified form of the earthly body, the mummy that had attained its feet in the resurrection. It was the Karast mummy, or, word for word and thing for thing, Amsu-Horus was the Kamite Christ who rose up from the mummy as a spirit.

Also it is entirely false to represent the Egyptians as making the mummy and preserving it for the return of the soul into the old earthly body.That is but a shadow of the true idea cast backwards by Christianity. Millions of cats were made into mummies and sacredly preserved around the city of Bubastes, but not with the notion of a bodily resurrection. They were the totems of the great cat clan or its metropolis, the Egyptian “Clan Chattan”, which had become symbols or fetishes of religious significance to later times when the totemic mother as the cat, the seer by night, was divinized in the lunar goddess Pasht, and the worshippers embalmed her zootype, not because they adored the cat, but because the deess herself was the Great Mother typified by the cat. Both the mother and the moon were recognized beyond the cat, which was their totemic zootype and venerated symbol. Osiris was the mummy of Amenta in two characters; in one he is the khat-mummy lying laid out with corpse-like face upon the funeral couch, in the other he is the mummy risen to his feet and reincorporated in the glorious body. These two characters were continued as the Corpus Christi and the risen Christ in Rome. Hence in the iconography of the catacombs the Egyptian mummy as Osiris-sahu, and as Horus the new-born solar child, are the demonstrators of the resurrection for the Christian faith, where there is no testimony whatever to an historical event. Any time during the last 10,000 years the mummy made for burial in the tomb was imaged in the likeness of Osiris in Amenta, who, though periodically buried, rose again for ever as the type of life eternal. In making the mummy of Osiris the Egyptians were also making an image of the god who rose again in spirit as Osiris-sahu or as Horus divinized, the risen Christ of the Osirian cult. When the lustrations were performed with water in Tattu and the anointings with oil in Abydos, it was what may be termed a mode of Christifying or making Horus the child of earth into Horus the son of god who became so in his baptism and anointing that were represented in the mysteries. The first Horus was born of the virgin, not begotten. The second Horus was begotten of the father, and the child was made a man of in his baptismal regeneration with the water and with unction, with the oil of a tree or the fat of a bull.

We have now to show that in making the mummy the Egyptians were also making the typical Christ, which is the anointed. The word karas, kares, or karis in Egyptian signifies embalmment, to embalm, to anoint, to make the mummy. Kreas, creas, or chros, in Greek denotes the human body, a person or carcase, more expressly the flesh of it; cras, Gaelic and Irish, the body; Latin, corpus, for a dead body; these are all preceded by the word karas or karast, in Egyptian, with the risen mummy for determinative of the meaning. Each body that had been embalmed was karast, so to say, and made into a type of immortality in the likeness of Osiris-sahu or Horus, the prototypal [Page 216] Christ. It will be made apparent by degrees that the religion of the Chrestoi first began at Memphis with the cultus of the mummy in its two characters, which represented body and spirit, or Ptah in matter and Kheper(Iu-em-hetep) in spirit. Hence the hawk as bird of spirit issuing from the karast-mummy was an image of the resurrection. The origin of the Christ as the anointed or “karast“ will explain the connection of the Christ name and that of the Christiani with unction and anointing. Horus the Kamite Christ was the anointed son. The oil upon his face was the sign of his divinity. This supplied a figure of the Christ to Paul when he says that for those who “put on Christ” “there can be no male and female, for ye are one [man or mummy] in Christ Jesus“ (Gal., iii. 28). The Christ was “put on” metaphorically in the process of anointing which originated with the making of the mummy. Whether the dead were represented by the bones invested with a coating of blood, of flesh-coloured earth, or by the eviscerated and desiccated body that was bandaged in the cloth of a thousand folds, the object was to preserve and perpetuate the deceased in some permanent form of personality. The Egyptians aimed at making the mummy imperishable and incorruptible, as an image of durability and continuity, a type of the eternal, or of Osiris-karast in the likeness of a mummy. Hence the swathe without a seam and of incredible length in which the mummy was enfolded to represent unending duration. Some of these have been unwound to the extent of seven or eight hundred yards, and one of them is described as being a thousand yards in length. But, however long, it was made without a seam. This vesture is alluded to in the chapter of the golden vulture. The chapter is to be inscribed for the protection of the deceased on “the day of his burial in the cloth of a thousand folds” (Rit., ch. 157 1 3). This cloth was the seamless swathe of the Egyptian karast, which became the vesture or “coat without a seam woven from the top throughout “( John, xix. 23) for the Christ. Even the poorest Egyptian, whose body was steeped in salt and natron and anointed with a little cedar oil, was wrapped in a single piece of linen equally with the mummy whose swathe was hundreds of yards in length, because the funeral vesture of Osiris, his body of matter, was without a seam. The dead are often called “the bandaged ones”. On rising from the tomb the deceased exclaims triumphantly, “O my father! my sister! my mother Isis! I am freed from my bandages ! I can see ! I am one of those who are freed from their bandages to see Seb” (158, I). Seb denotes the earth, and the Manes is free to visit the earth again, this time as the ghost or double of his former self. Covering the corpse with the transparent tahn, or golden gum, was one way of turning the dead body into a type of the spiritual body which was imaged as the glorified. One cannot doubt that this was a mode of showing the transformation of the Osirian dead mummy into the luminous body called the sahu of Osiris when he was transfigured but still retained the mummy form in Amsu-Horus at his rising from the sepulchre. Mummies buried in the tomb at Medum had been thus enveloped. This was one form of investiture alluded to in the Ritual as distinguished from the mummy bandages. One of these mummies is now to be seen in the Royal College of Surgeons.[Page 217] “The mode of embalming”, says Prof. Petrie, “was very singular. The body was shrunk, wrapped up in linen cloth, then modelled all over with resin ( or tahn) into the natural shape and plumpness of the living figure, completely restoring all the fullness of the form, and this was wrapped round with a few turns of the finest gauze”. (Petrie, Medum, Introduction, chapter 2, pages 17 and 18.) There was no coffin present in the tomb. The mummy thus invested with the tahn had been buried in this primitive kind of glass case, in which the form and features could be seen either directly or by means of the modelling. The tahn, gum or resin, as a natural product from the tree, preceded glass, and would be fashioned for the earlier monstrance. Remodelling the dead in the likeness of the living form by means of the pellucid tahn is a mode of making the glorified body on earth that was imaged by the sahu in Amenta, and thus the mummy here attains the two-fold type of the Osiris Khat, or corpse, and the Osiris-sahu, or the glorified in spirit. In the Christian agglomerate of Egyptian doctrines and dogmas, rites and symbols, the pellucid tahn may, we think, be recognized in the sacred monstrance of the Roman ritual. This is a show-case in which the host or Corpus Christi is placed to be uplifted and exhibited. The eye of Horus is yet visible in the lanula or crescent-shaped crystal of the monstrance which holds the consecrated bread. The name of this show-case is derived from the Latin monstrare, “to show”, and this had been the object of the mummy makers in employing the transparent tahn. In the eschatological or final phase of the doctrine, to make the mummy was to make the typical anointed, also called the Messu, the Messiah, and the Christ. Mes or mas, in the hieroglyphics, signifies to anoint and to steep, as in making the mummy, and messu in Egyptian means the anointed; whence lah the Messu becomes Messiah in Hebrew. There was a previous form of the anointed in the totemic mysteries of young man making. When the boy attained the age of puberty he was made into the anointed one at the time of his initiation into the way of a man with a woman. It was a custom with certain Inner African tribes to slit the urethra of the boy and lubricate the member with palm oil. This was a primitive way of making the anointed at puberty. Australian aborigines are also known to slit the prepuce cover for the same purpose. At this stage of the mystery the anointed one is the adult youth who has attained the rank of begetter full of grace and favour, or is khemt, as it was rendered in Egyptian. Tertullian claims that the name of the Christians came from the unction received by Jesus Christ. This is in perfect keeping with the derivation of the typical Christ from the mummy which was anointed so abundantly with oil in its embalmment. It is said of the woman who anointed Jesus in Bethany,“ in that she poured the ointment upon my body, she did it to prepare me for my burial ” (Matt. xxvi. 12). She was preparing the mummy after the manner of Anup the embalmer, who prepared Osiris for his burial and resurrection. But it was only as a dead mummy and not a living man that the gnostic Jesus could have been embalmed for burial. We now proceed to show that Christ the anointed is none. other than [Page 218] the Osiris-karast, and that the karast mummy risen to its feet as Osiris-sahu was the prototypal Christ. Unhappily , these demonstrations cannot be made without a wearisome mass of detail. And we are bound for the bottom this time. Dr. Budge, in his book on the mummy, tells his readers that the Egyptian word for mummy is ges, which signifies to wrap up in bandages. But he does not point out that ges or kes, to embalm the corpse or make the mummy, is a reduced or abraded form of an earlier word, karas (whence krst for the mummy). The original word written in hieroglyphics is , .krst, whence kas, to embalm, to bandage, to knot, to make the mummy or karast (Birch, Dictionary of the Hieroglyphics, pp. 415-416; Champollion, Gram. Egyptienne, 86). The word krs denotes the embalmment of the mummy, and the krst, as the mummy, was made in the process of preparation by purifying, anointing, and embalming. To karas the dead body was to embalm it, to bandage it, to make the mummy. The mummy was the Osirian Corpus Christi, prepared for burial as the laid-out dead, the karast by name. When raised to its feet, it was the risen mummy, or sahu. The place of embalmment was likewise the krs. Thus the process of making the mummy was to karas, the place in which it was laid is the karas, and the product was the krst, whose image is the upright mummy = the risen Christ. Hence the name of the Christ, Christos in Greek, Chrestus in Latin, for the anointed, was derived, as the present writer previously suggested, from the Egyptian word krst. Karas also signifies the burial-place, and the word modifies into Kâs or Châs. Kâsu the burial place “was a name of the 14th Nome in Upper Egypt. A god Kâs is mentioned three or four times in the Book of the Dead, the god Kâs who is in the Tuat” ( ch. 40). This was a title of the mummy Osiris in the funerary dwelling. In one passage Kâs is described as the deliverer or saviour from all mortal needs. In “the chapter of raising the body” (178) it is said of the deceased that he had been hungry and thirsty (on earth), but he will (never hunger or thirst any more, “for Kâs delivers him” and does away with wants like these. That is, in the resurrection. Here the name of the god Osiris-Kâs written at full is Osiris the Karast - the Egyptian Christ. Not only is the risen mummy or sahu called the karast, Osiris as lord of the bier is the Neb-karast equivalent to the later Christ the Lord, and the lord of the bier is god of the resurrection from the house of death. The karast is literally the god or person who has been mummified, embalmed, and anointed or christified. Anup the baptizer and embalmer of the dead for the new life was the preparer of the karast-mummy. As John the Baptist is the founder of the Christ in baptism, so Anup was the christifier of the mortal Horus, he on whom the holy ghost descended as a bird when the Osiris made his transformation in the marriage mystery of Tat tu (Rit., ch. 17). We read in the funeral texts of Anup- being “Suten tu hetep, Anup, neb tser khent neter ta krast-ef em set” (Birch, Funereal Text 4th Dynasty). “Suten hept tu Anup tep-tuf khent neter ha am ut neb tser krast ef em as-ef en kar [Page 219] neter em set Amenta” (Birch, Funereal Stele of Ra-Khepr-Ka, 12th Dynasty). Anup gives embalmment, krast; he is lord over the place of embalmment, the kras ; the lord of embalming (krast), who, so to say, makes the “krast”. The process of embalmment is to make the mummy. This was a type of immortality or rising again.Osiris is krast, or embalmed and mummified for the resurrection. Passage into life and light is made for the karast-dead through the embalmment of the good Osiris (Rit., ch. 162)-that is, through his being karast as the mummy type. Thus the Egyptian krast was the pre-Christian Christ, and the pictures in the Roman Catacombs preserve the proof. The passing of the karast into the Christ is depicted in the gnostic iconography. It is in the form of a child bound up in the swathings of a diminutive Egyptian mummy, with the halo and cross of the four quarters round its head, which show its solar origin. It is the divine infant which has the head of Ra in the Ritual who says, “I am the babe; I renew myself, and I grow young again” (chs. 42 and 43). The karast mummy is the type of resurrection in the Roman Catacombs because the karast was the prototypal Christ. It is the Egyptian karast as thing and word that supplied and will explain the Greek Christ, Christos, Krstos, or Latin Chrestus and account for the Corpus Christi, the anointed, the Saviour, doctrinally, typically, actually in every way except historically, and of that the karast, Krstos, or Christ is entirely independent. “Henceforth”, said a dignitary of the Church of England the other day, “Christianity has done with the metaphysical Christ”. But there is no physical Christ except the karast mummy, which was Osiris when laid out and lying down in death, and Horus of the resurrection standing up as Amsu risen from the sepulchre, having the whip hand over all the powers of darkness and the adversaries of his father.

Say what you will or believe what you may, there is no other origin for Christ the anointed than for Horus the karast or anointed son of god the father. There is no other origin for a Messiah as the anointed than for the Masu or anointed. Finally, then, the mystery of the mummy is the mystery of the Christ. As Christian, it is allowed to be for ever inexplicable. As Osirian, the mystery can be explained. It is one of the mysteries of Amenta, with a more primitive origin in the rites of totemism.

We now claim sufficient warrant for affirming that Christ the anointed is a mystical figure which originated as the Egyptian mummy in the twofold character of Osiris in his death and in his resurrection; as Osiris, or mortal Horus, the karast; and Osiris-sahu, or Horus divinized as the anointed son. The Christ or karast still continues to be made when the sacrament of extreme unction is administered to the dying as a Roman Catholic rite. Though but a shadow of the primitive reality, it perpetuates the “sacred mystery” of converting the corpse into the sahu, the transubstantiation of the inert Osiris by descent of Ra; the mortal Horus, child of the mother, [Page 220]into Horus the anointed son of god the father. “Extreme unction”, the seventh of the holy sacraments, is indeed a Christian rite.

It will now be necessary to give an account of certain other mysteries of Amenta and doctrines of the Ritual. The Egyptians celebrated ten great mysteries on ten different nights of the year. The first was the night of the evening meal (literally the last supper), and the laying of offerings on the altar. It is the night of provisioning the Lord's table. Osiris had been overcome by Sut and the Sebau, who had once more renewed their assault upon Un-nefer when they were defeated and exterminated by his faithful followers. Therefore this was also the night of the great battle when the moon god Taht and the children of light annihilated the rebellious powers of darkness. On the second night the overthrown Tat-Cross, with Osiris in it, or on it, was again erected by Horus, Prince of Sekhem, in the region of Tat tu, where the holy spirit Ra descends upon the mummy and the twain become united for the resurrection. On the third night the scene is in “Sekhem; the mystery is that of the blind Horus or of Horus in the dark, who here receives his sight. It is also the mystery of dawn upon the coffin of Osiris. We might call it the mystery of Horus the mortal transfiguring into Horus the immortal. On the fourth night the four pillars are erected with which the future kingdom of god the father is to be founded. It is called “the night of erecting the flag-staffs of Horus, and of establishing him as the heir of his father's property”. The fifth scene is in the region of Rekhet, and the mystery is that of the two sisters with Isis watching in tears over her brother Osiris, and brooding above the dead body to give it the warmth of new life. On the sixth night the glorious ones are judged, the evil dead are parted off, and joy goeth its round in Thinnis. This is the night of the great festival named Ha-k-er-a, or “Come thou to me”, in which the blending of the two souls was solemnized as a glorious mystery by a festival at which there was much eating and drinking. The mystery of the seventh night was that of the great judgment on the highway of the damned, when the suit was closed against the rebels who had failed once more and were ignominiously defeated. After the verdict comes the avengement. The eighth is the night of the great hoeing in Tat tu, when the associates of Sut are massacred and the fields are manured with their blood. The ninth is called “the night of hiding the body of him who is supreme in attributes”. The mystery is that of collecting the remains of Osiris, whose body was mutilated and scattered piecemeal by Sut, and of hiding it. The mystery on the tenth night presents a picture of Anup, the embalmer, the anointer, or christifier of the mummy. This is in Rusta, the place of resurrection from Amenta. It may be the series is not in exact order, but that does not interfere with the nature of the mysteries. In each of the ten acts of the drama the suffering Osiris and the triumph over all his adversaries are portrayed as mysteries in a prototypal miracle-play or drama that was held to be divine. The chapter of these ten mysteries was recited penitentially for the purification of the Manes and the coming forth after death (Rit., ch. 18, rubric). With this we may compare the fact that the Jewish new year is ushered in with ten days of penitence. [Page 221]

The altar or communion-table thus provisioned was the coffin lid. This also was continued in the ritual of Rome, for it is a fact that the earliest Christian altar was a coffin. According to Blunt's Dictionary of Doctrinal and Historical Theology (p. 16), this was a hollow chest, on the lid or mensa of which the eucharist was celebrated. This, as Egyptian, was the coffin of Osiris that constituted the altar on which the provisions were laid in Sekhem for the eucharistic meal. Hence the resurrection is described as “dawn upon the coffin of Osiris”. Therefore he rose in spirit from the mummy in the coffin, beneath the lid which constituted the table. This was the body supposed to be eaten as the eucharist, which was represented by the provisions that were laid upon the altar for the sacramental meal. The first of the ten great mysteries is the mystery of the eucharist, and we find that the primitive Christian liturgies are all and wholly restricted to the eucharist as the one primordial sacrament of the Christian Church. The first of the Osirian mysteries is the primary Christian sacrament. “Provisioning the altar” was continued by the Church of Rome.“The mysteries laid upon the altar “which preceded” the communion of the body and blood of Christ “were then eaten in the eucharistic meal”. (Neale, Rev. J. M., The Liturgies, Introd., p. 33). Thus we see in the camera obscura that the provisions laid on the altar or table represented the flesh and blood of the victim about to be eaten sacramentally. The night of the things that were laid upon the altar is the night of the great sacrifice, with Osiris as the victim. The things laid on the altar for the evening meal represented the body and blood of the Lord.These, as the bread and wine, or flesh and beer, were trans-elemented or transub-stantiated by the descent of Ra the holy spirit, which quickened and transformed the mummy Osiris into the risen sahu, the unleavened bread into the leavened, the water into wine. Osiris, the sacrifice, was the giver of himself as “the food which never perishes”. (Rit., ch. 89).

The Christian liturgies are reckoned to be the “most pure sources of eucharistical doctrine”. And liturgy appears to have been the groundwork of the Egyptian ritual. It is said by one of the priests (Rit., ch. I ), “I am he who reciteth the liturgies of the soul who is lord of Tattu” - that is, of Osiris who establishes a soul for ever in conjunction with Ra the holy spirit in the mysteries of Amenta. In one character Osiris was eaten as the Bull of Eternity, who gave his flesh and blood as sustenance for humanity, and who was the divine providence as the provider of food. The eating of the mother was also continued in the eucharist, Osiris being of both sexes. This was typically fulfilled in one way by converting the bull into an ox. The duality was also imaged in the bread and beer or wine, which is the mother blood in a commuted guise. It is said of the body that was eaten in “the Roman mysteries” that it is “the body which bestows on us, out of its wounds, immortality and life, and the beatific vision with the angels, and food and drink, and life and light, the very bread of life, the true light, eternal life, Christ. Jesus”. “Wherefore this entrance symbolizes at the same time both the second advent of Christ and His sepulture, for it is He who will [Page 222] be our beatific vision in the life to come”, as Horus of the second sight, all of which was portrayed of Osiris and fulfilled. (Neale, The Liturgies, Introd., p. 30.) Blood sacrifice from the beginning was an offering of life, hence the life offering. When the mother was the victim her blood was offered as life to the ancestral spirits. It was also life to the brotherhood, and partaking of it in communion constituted the sacrament. So in the Christian eucharist the blood is taken to be the life, and is partaken of as the life, the “life of the world” (Neale, Liturgy of Basil the Great), “the divine life that is the life everlasting, the new life that is for ever” (Neale, Liturgy of St. Chrysostom, ii.). The bread broken in the Christian sacrament represents a body that was “broken, immolated, and divided”. This does not apply to the body of Jesus, according to the “history”. But it does apply to the body of Osiris, which was “broken, immolated, and divided” by Sut, who tore it into fourteen fragments. The altar table, or coffin lid, was provisioned with these parts of the broken body to be typically eaten as the eucharist on the night “when there are at the coffin the thigh, the head, the heel, and the leg of Un-nefer”. Moreover, when the mother was eaten as the sacrifice, the flesh and blood were warm with life. She was not eaten in cold blood. It was the same with the Meriah of the Kolarians, and also with the totemic animal. The efficacy lay in the flesh being eaten alive, and the blood being drunk whilst it was warm with life which constituted the “living sacrifice”. This type of sacrifice was also continued in the Christian eucharist. Hot water was at one time poured into the chalice with the wine at the consecration of the elements, to give it the warmth of life (Neale, Liturgy of St. Chrysostom, p. 120.) Even the act of tearing the flesh of the victim's body piecemeal is piously perpetuated by the breaking instead of cutting the bread for the Christian sacrament. The lights upon the coffin of Osiris are represented in the Roman ritual by a double taper, the dikerion, reputed to signify “the advent of the Holy Spirit”, which corresponds to the descent of Ra the holy spirit on the inert body of Osiris in Tattu, where the two souls are blended to become one in Horus of the resurrection.

The flabellum or fan is a mystical emblem in the Egyptian mysteries. For one thing, it signified the shade or spirit. Fans are frequently portrayed for souls of a primitive type. (Birch, Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., vol. viii., p. 386.) Souls burning in the hells are imaged by flabella. These fans were brought on in the Oriental Church. In the Clementine liturgy they are ordered to be made of peacocks' feathers (Neale, p. 76, Introd., pp. 29, 30). They are called fans of the Holy Spirit, and were carried in procession with the “veil that was wrapped about the body of the Lord Jesus” like the folds of gauze that were wrapped round the mummy at Medum. But the fan or shade = spirit had been reduced in status, and was then used as a flapper for whisking the flies away from the sacrifice (Durandus, iv, 33-8; Neale, Introduction, page 29). It is not pretended that the second advent is historical, nevertheless it is portrayed in the mystery of the eucharist by the descent of the Holy Spirit. The second advent is the coming forth of Horus in spirit from the [Page 223] mummy or corpse which was his image in the human form.The first is in being made flesh and putting on the likeness of mortality, the second is in making his transformation into a spirit, as the type of immortality. The marriage of Cupid and Psyche is a fable that was founded on this union of the two souls which we have traced in the Ritual as the soul in matter, or the human soul, and the soul in spirit. Cupid, under another name, is Eros, whilst Eros and Anteros are a form of the double Horus, Eros in spirit, Anteros in matter, and the blending of the two in the mysteries was the marriage of Cupid and Psyche in the mystery of Tattu. Now here is another of those many mysteries which have no origin in historic Christianity. The agape was celebrated in connection with the eucharist. This was not founded at the time of the Last Supper, nevertheless it was held to be a Christian sacrament. Paul in speaking of the love-feast at Corinth as a scene of drunken revelry (1. Cor. ii. 20-22), recognizes the celebration of two suppers, which he is desirous of having kept apart, one for the church, and one for the house. These two are the eucharist and the agape. Ecclesiastical writers differ as to which of the two ought to be solemnized first, but there is no question that two were celebrated in connection with each other. In his attack on the licentiousness of the Christian agape Tertullian asks the wives, “Will not your husbands know what it is you secretly take before other food?” and again, “Who will without anxiety endure her absence all night long at the Pascal solemnities?”. “Who will without some suspicion of his own let her go to attend that Lord's banquet which they defame?” (Keating, Y. F., The Agape and the Eucharist, p. 70.) As Egyptian, we can identify the two, and thus infer the order in which they stood to each other. Whether both were called suppers or not, the Egyptians celebrated the last supper of Osiris on the last night of the old year, and the mesiu, or the evening meal, on the first night of the new year. And this duality was maintained by the gnostics and continued by the Christians. These are two of the Osirian mysteries, and in the list of the ten great mysteries there are two nights of provisioning the altar - that is, two nights of a feast or memorial supper. One is held in Annu, the other in Sekhem, with the resurrection in Tattu coming between the two. In Sekhem the blind Horus receives his sight, or his beatific vision of the divine glory, which was seen when he had pierced the veil hawk-headed in the image of Ra. Provisioning the altar in Sekhem is designated “dawn upon the coffin of Osiris” (Rit., ch. 18). The eucharist was a form of the mortuary meal in which the death of Osiris was commemorated by the eating of the body and the drinking of the blood. The agape, or phallic feast, was a mode of celebrating the re-arising of Horus, Prince of Sekhem, as portrayed by the re-erection of the Tat. This accounts for the sexual orgie of the agape, a primitive form of which was acted by the Eskimo in the festival of reproduction. In their mysteries this was the reproduction of food. In the Egyptian it was the regeneration and resurrection of the soul that was celebrated at the agape. The death, of course, came first. This was on the night of the great sacrifice, and the eucharist was [Page 224] eaten in commemoration. Then followed the triumph in Tattu and the regenesis of the soul, which was acted by the “holy kiss” or blending of the sexes in the feast of love, as a dramatic rendering of this union betwixt the human nature and divine, or of the brother and sister, Shu and Tefnut. In the totemic mysteries of young man making begettal was included in the modus operandi, and in this the women invoked the spirit of the male for the new birth. The phallic festival of promiscuous intercourse still survived when the mysteries became religious, whether in Egypt, Greece, or Rome. In these Osiris was resuscitated as Horus the only begotten son, the women being the begetters or regenerators. In the evocations of Isis and Nephthys we hear them calling on the lost Osiris to come back to them in the person of the son. They plead that the lamp of life may be relighted, or more literally that the womb may be replenished”. Come to thine abode, god An”, they cry. “Beloved of the Adytum! Come to Kha” (a name of phallic significance), “oh, fructifying Bull”. This is in the beneficent formulae that were made by the two divine sisters, Isis and Nephthys, to effect the resurrection of Osiris, which are said to have been composed by them on the twenty-fifth day of the month Koiak, December 22nd. They are magical evocations of the god addressed to the inert Osiris, who is caused to rise again by Isis in his ithyphallic form.Most pathetic in its primitiveness is the picture of the two divine sisters, or mothers, Isis and Nephthys, watching by the dead or inert brother who is Osiris in death and Horus in his resurrection, crooning their incantations, brooding bird-like over the germ of life in the egg, and breathing out the very soul of their own life in yearning for him, until the first token of returning consciousness is given, the earliest sign of the resurrection is made in response to the vitalizing warmth of their affection. These evocations follow the night of “the last supper” and the battle with Sut and the Sebau. “Oh, come to thine abode!” the two dear sisters cry. “Come to thy sister! Come to thy wife! Come to thy spouse!” they plead whilst stretching out their longing arms for his embrace. “Oh, excellent Sovereign, come to thine abode. Rejoice; all thine enemies are annihilated. Thy two sisters are near to thee, protecting thy funeral couch, calling thee in weeping, thou who art prostrate on thy funeral bed. Thou seest our tender solicitude. Speak to us, Supreme Ruler, our Lord. Chase away all the anguish which is in our hearts”. These in the funeral scenes are the two women watching in the tomb (Records, vol. ii.,119). Then was the only son of god begotten of the holy spirit Ra. The “pair of souls” were blended in the Horus of a soul that was to live for ever, or to taste eternal life. The marriage rite was acted, and the marriage feast was celebrated in this prototypal ceremony that was continued in the Agape of the Osirian and the Christian cult.

The Christian dogma of a physical resurrection founded on the historic fact of a dead corpse rising from the grave can be explained as one of the Kamite mysteries which were reproduced as miracles in the Gospels. If we take the original representation in the solar mythos, the sun in the under-world, the diminished, unvirile, impotent [Page 225] or suffering sun was imaged as Ans-Ra, the solar god bound up in linen, as the mummified Osiris. The type remained for permanent use, but when the transformation had been effected the mummy vanished. The sepulchre was empty. The sun of winter or of night did not remain in Hades. Neither did it come forth as the dead body or unbreathing mummy of Osiris. Osiris, the hidden god in the earth of Amenta, does not come forth at all except in the person of the risen Horus, who is the manifestor for the ever-hidden father. To issue thus he makes his transfiguration which constitutes the mystery, not the miracle, of the resurrection. Osiris defecates and spiritualizes. The mummy as corpus is transubstantiated into the sahu, the mortal Horus into the immortal, and the physical mummy disappears. But it did not disappear because the living Horus rose up and walked off with the dead body of Osiris. When the transformation took place the type was changed in a moment, in the “twinkling of an eye”. The mummy Osiris transubstantiates, and makes his transformation into Osiris-sahu. As the Ritual expresses it, “he is renewed in an instant” in this second birth ( ch. 182 ). The place was empty where the mummy had lain upon the bier, and the body was not found. This change is described when it is said in the litany of Ra, he “raises his soul and hides his body”. Thus the body was hidden in the resurrection of the soul. “Hiding his body” is consequently a name of Horus, “emanating from Hes” as a babe in the renewal of Osiris. Concealing the body of dead matter was one way of describing the transubstantiation in texture and the transfiguration in form. This was one of the greater mysteries.

When Horus rent the veil of the tabernacle he had become hawk-headed, and consequently was a spirit in the divine likeness of Ra the holy ghost. Therefore the tabernacle was the body or mummy, “the veil of flesh” (Neale, Liturgy of St. James, pp. 46-7) from which he had emerged. The speaker in the Ritual says, “I am the hawk in the tabernacle, and I pierce through the veil” - that is, when he is invested with the soul of Horus and disrobes himself of the mummy (Rit., ch. 71, Renouf) or the veil which represented the flesh, as did the veil of gauze when folded round the mummy in the pyramid at Medum. The “holy veil” was carried in the Christian mysteries, together with the “holy gifts” and “fans of the spirit”, and this is said to represent “the veil that was wrapped about the body of the Lord Jesus” (Neale, The Liturgies, Introduction, page 30, “Prayer of the Veil”.) This (in the Liturgy of St. James, Neale, page 46) is “the veil of the flesh of Christ”, therefore the veil of the body or temple of the spirit that was rent in the resurrection by Horus when he “pierced through the veil”. He rends or pierces through the veil, saying, “I am the hawk in the tabernacle, and I pierce through the veil. Here is Horus!” who comes forth to the day as a hawk ( ch. 71 ). In the form of a divine hawk the risen one is revealed and goes forth as a spirit. In the Gospel the loud cry is immediately followed by the going forth as a spirit. “And behold, the veil of the sanctuary was rent in twain from the top to the bottom. And the earth did quake, and the rocks were rent and the tombs were opened, and many bodies of the saints that had fallen asleep were raised (Matt. xxvii. 45-53). Horus now takes his seat at the table of his father Osiris, with those who eat bread in Annu. He gives breath to [Page 226] the faithful dead who are raised by him, he who is the resurrection and the life. The same scene is apparently reproduced by John. Jesus makes his apparition to the disciples at what looks like the evening meal, although the meal is not mentioned. Jesus is the breather. “He breathed on them and said, Receive ye the Holy Spirit” - which in the Ritual is the breath of Atum-Ra, the father, imparted by lu the son, or by Horus to the faithful dead.The scene has now been changed from Amenta to the earth of Seb by those who made “historic” mockery of the Egyptian Ritual, and sank the meaning out of sight where it has been so long submerged. More of this hereafter. Enough at present to indicate the way that things are tending. In this divine drama natural realities are represented with no perniciously destructive attempt to conceal the characters under a mask of history. Majestically moving in their own might of pathetic appeal to human sympathy, they are simply represented for what they may be worth when rightly apprehended. But so tremendous was this tragedy in the Osirian mysteries, so heart-melting the legend of divinest pity that lived on with its rootage in Amenta and its flowerage in the human mind, that an historic travesty has kept the stage and held the tearful gaze of generation after generation for nineteen hundred years.

Amenta, the earth of eternity, is the land of the mysteries where Taht, the moon god, in the nether night was the great teacher of the sacred secrets together with the seven wise masters. The passage through Amenta is a series of initiations for the Osiris deceased. He is inducted into the mysteries of Rusta (I, 7, 9), the mysteries of the Tuat (130, 27), the mysteries of Akar (148, 2, 3). He knows the mysteries of Nekhen (I 13, I). Deceased invokes the god who dwells in all mysteries (14, I); deceased learns the mystery of the father god Atum, who becomes his own son (15,46); he is the mysterious of form (17, 91) and the mysterious of face, like Osiris (133,9). “I shine in the egg”, says the deceased, “in the land of the mysteries”. Chapter 162 contains the most secret, most sacred, the greatest of all mysteries. Its name is the book of the hidden dwelling-that is, the book of Amenta or the ritual of the resurrection. Obscure as these mysteries may seem, on account of the form-that of dramatic monologue and soliloquy-and the brevity of statement, we can recognize enough to know that these are the originals of all the other “mysteries”, Gnostic, Kabalistic, Masonic, or Christian. The dogma of the incarnation was an Egyptian mystery. Baptismal regeneration, transfiguration, transubstantiation, the resurrection and ascension, were all Egyptian mysteries. The mystery of an ever-virgin mother; the mystery of a boy at twelve years of age transforming suddenly into an adult of thirty years, and then becoming one with the father, as it had been earlier in the mysteries of totemism; the mystery in which the dead body of Osiris is transubstantiated into the living Horus by descent of the bird-headed holy spirit; the mystery of a divine being in three persons, one of which takes flesh on earth as the human Horus, to become a mummy as Osiris in Amenta, and to rise up from the dead in spirit as Ra in heaven. These and other miracles of the Christian faith were already extant among the mysteries of Amenta. But the meaning of the mysteries could only be known [Page 227] whilst the genuine gnosis was authentically taught. This had ceased when the Christian Sarcolatræ took possession of the “Word-made- flesh”, and literalized the mystical drama as a more tangible-looking human history, that was set forth in the very latest of the Gospels as a brand-new revelation sent from God, and personally conducted in Palestine by the “historic Jesus”. When Bendigo, the pugilist, became converted he proposed to take up preaching as his new profession. And when it was objected that he didn't know anything and couldn't read or write, he replied that he “expected to pick up a good deal by listening round”. So was it with the early Christians. They could neither read nor write the ancient language, but they picked up a good deal by listening round. “You have your man upon the cross”, said one of them to the Romans; “why do you object to ours?” Their man upon the cross being identical with Osiris- Tat or the ass-headed lu. It is said of Taht as a teacher of the mysteries, “And now behold Taht in the secret of his mysteries. He maketh purifications and endless reckonings, piercing the firmament and dissipating the storms around him and so it cometh to pass that the Osiris hath reached every station”, and, we may add, attained his immortality through the teachings communicated in the mysteries of Taht (Rit., ch. 130, Renouf). The 148th chapter of the Ritual recounts some of the most secret mysteries. It was written to furnish the gnosis or knowledge necessary for the Manes to get rid of his impurities and acquire perfection in the “bosom of Ra” the holy spirit.

At the entrance to the mysterious valley of the Tuat there is a walled-up doorway, the first door of twelve in the passage of Amenta. These twelve are described in the Book of Hades as twelve divisions corresponding to the twelve hours of darkness during the nocturnal journey of the sun. The first division has no visible door of entrance. The rest have open doors, and the twelfth has double doors. It is hard to enter, but made easy for the exit into the land of eternal life. Here is the mystery: how to enter where there is no door and the way is all unknown ? I t is explained to the Manes how divine assistance is to be obtained. When the stains of life on earth are effaced the strength is given for forcing the entrance where there is no door, and in that power the Manes penetrates with (or as) the god (Rit., ch. 148, 2, 3). Thus Horus was the door in the darkness, the way where no entrance was seen, the life portrayed for the Manes in death. The secret entrance was one of the mysteries of Amenta. It was known as “the door of the stone”, which name was given to their Necropolis by the people at Siut, the stone that revolved when the magical word or “open sesame” was spoken. The entrance to the Great Pyramid was concealed by means of a movable flagstone that turned on a pivot which none but the initiated could detect. This, when tilted up, revealed a passage four feet in breadth and three and a half feet in height into the interior of the building. This was a mode of entrance applied to Amenta as the blind doorway that was represented by the secret portal and movable stone of later legends. The means of entrance through what appeared to be a blank wall was by knowing the secret of the nicely-adjusted stone, and this secret was communicated to the initiates with the pass-word in the mysteries. [Page 228] Horus begins his work by carrying out the divine plans of his father Osiris on earth. He makes firm the battlements to protect Osiris against the assaults of all the powers of darkness. He makes the word of Osiris truth against his enemies. He opposes Sut, his father's adversary, to the death. He makes war upon the evil Apap, that old serpent, and overthrows the powers that rise up in rebellion, which are called the rebels in the Ritual, who are ever doomed to failure in the fight betwixt them and the father, who is now represented by Horus his beloved son, Horus of the resurrection, who is himself the door in death as the means of entrance to Amenta. He covers the naked body of the breathless one. He opens the fountains of refreshment for the god of the non-beating heart ( ch. I ). He wages battle on the “eater of the arm” ( ch. II) and the black boar Sut, two types of the power of dearth, death, and darkness. He protects his father from the devouring crocodiles (ch. 32), from the serpents Rerek, Seksek, and Haiu, also from the apshait, an insect that preys upon the buried mummy (chs. 33, 34, 36). He says, “I have come myself and delivered the god in his dismembered condition. I have healed the trunk and fastened the shoulder and made firm the leg” (ch. 102), t..e., in reconstructing the mummy. He restores to Osiris his sceptre, his pedestal, and his staircase from the tomb (ch. 128). He says, “I have done according to the command that I should come forth in Tattu, to see Osiris” ( ch. 78). He has kept the commandment that w as given him by the father. The Manes in Amenta tell of “the fortunes of that great son whom the father loveth”, and how he had “pierced Sut to the heart”, and how they had “seen the death”. They also tell of the “divine plans which were carried out by Horus, in the absence of his father”, when he represented Osiris on the earth (ch. 78). With his work accomplished, both on earth and in Amenta, Horus of the resurrection goes to see his father, and they embrace each other. Horus addresses his father, here called Ra-Unnefer-Osiris-Ra. He exclaims: “Hail, Osiris ! I am thy son Horus; I have come. I have avenged thee. I have struck down thy enemies. I have destroyed all that was wrong in thee. I have killed him who assailed thee. I stretched forth my hand for thee against thy adversaries. I have brought thee the companions of Sut with chains upon them. I have ploughed for thee the fields. I have irrigated for thee thy land. I have hoed for thee the ground. I have built for thee the lakes of water. I have turned up the soil of thy possessions. I have made for thee sacrifices of thy adversaries. I have made sacrifices for thee of thy cattle and thy victims. I have bound thy enemies in their chains. I have sowed for thee wheat and barley in the field of Aarru. I have mowed them there for thee. I have glorified thee. I have anointed thee with the offering of holy oil. I have established for thee thy offerings of food on the earth for ever”. (Rit., ch. 173, excerpt from Naville's rendering in Renouf’s Book of the Dead.) All this and more he claims to have done. “I have given thee Isis and Nephthys”. The twO divine sisters, the consorts of Osiris, the mothers and protectors of Horus, are thus brought back by him to the father. They have been with him from the beginning on earth in the hall of Seb; with him in his conception and incarnation [Page 229] by Isis and his nursing by Nephthys. They were his ministering angels, in attendance on him as protectors from the cut-throat Sut, or the monster Apap, who sought to slay the child or destroy it in the egg; with him in the agony of his blindness when torn and bleeding in the garden of Pa; with him as watchers in the tomb until he wakes; with him in his resurrection from Amenta. They are with him when he ascends to the father as conqueror of death, as ruler of the double earth and lord of the kingdom which he and his disciples or children have established for ever.The work attributed to Horus the divine exemplar, was to be fulfilled by his followers in the double earth of time and eternity. That was the object of the mysteries. It is in the character of the divine Horus that the human Nebseni says to Osiris, “Thou one God, behold me. I am Horus thy son. I have fought for thee. I have fought on thy behalf for justice, truth, and righteousness. I have overcome thine adversaries”. He also claims to have done the things that Horus did as set forth in the writings or represented in the drama, and thus fulfilled the ideal of self-sacrificing sonship in very reality. making -the word of Osiris truth against his enemies. And it was but the word even when personified. which to be of any actual efficacy must be made truth in human life, in conduct. and in character (Pap. of Nebseni. Rit., ch. 173, Budge).

If there be any revelation or inspiration in a great ideal dramatically portrayed. the Egyptians found it in their divine model set forth in Horus :

 

Type of power       Horus the saviour, who was brought to birth   As light in heaven and sustenance on
earth Horus in spirit, verily divine,  Who came to turn the water into
wine Horus, who gave his life, and sowed the seed For men to make the bread of life
indeed Horus the comforter, who did descend In human fashion as the heavenly friend
- Horus the word, the founder in his youth. Horus, fulfiller as the word made
truth. Horus the lord and leader in the fight Against the dark powers of the ancient
night Horus the sufferer with his cross bowed down, Who rose at Easter with his double
crown. Horus the pioneer, who paved the way  Of resurrection to eternal
day. Horustriumphant with the battle done,  
- Lord of two worlds, united and made one.  

 

 

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It was the object of their loftiest desires to grow in his likeness whilst looking lovingly upon his features, listening to his word. and fulfilling his character in their own personal lives. A mythical model may be no more than an air-blown bladder for learning to swim by. The reality lies in learning to swim. This was how the ideal Horus served the Egyptians. They did not expect him to swim for them and carry them and their belongings as well but learned to swim for themselves.

There is nothing in all poetry considered as the flower of human reality more pathetic than the figure of Horus in Sekhem.He has grappled with the Apap of evil and wrestled with Sut-the de-vil or .Satan-and been overthrown in the passage of absolute darkne.s5. Blind and bleeding from many wounds. he continues to fight with [Page 230] death itself; he conquers, rises from the grave like a warrior with one arm! Not that he has lost an arm; he has only got one arm free from the bonds of death, the bandages of the mummy made for the burial. But he lives, he rises again triumphant, lifting the sign of the Dominator aloft; and in the next stage of transformation he will be altogether freed from the trammels of the mummy to become pure spirit, in the likeness of the father as the express image of his person.

It is a common Christian belief, continually iterated, that life and immortality were brought to light, and death, the last enemy, was destroyed, by a personal Jesus only nineteen centuries ago, whereas the same revelation had been accredited to Horus the anointed and to Iu-su the coming son for thousands of years before, with Horus or Iu-su as the impersonal and ideal revealer who was the Messiah in the astronomical mythology and the Son of God in the eschatology. The doctrine of immortality is so ancient in Egypt that the “Book of Vivifying the Soul for Ever”,“ said over a figure of the enlightened dead” , was not only extant some 6,000 years ago in the time of Husapti, fifth king of the first dynasty, it was then so old that the true tradition of interpretation was at that time already lost.The Egyptian Christ- Jesus or Horus, as revealer of immortality, was the ideal figure of a fact known to the ancient spiritualists, that the soul of man or the Manes persisted beyond death and the dissolution of the present body, and the drama of the mysteries was their modus operandi for teaching the fact, with Horus (or Iu-su) as typical manifestor. In this character he was set forth as the first fruits of them that slept, the only one that came forth from the mummy on earth, as the sahu mummy in Amenta; the only one, however, as a type that prefigured potential continuity for all, the doctrine being founded on the ghost as the phenome9al apparition of an eternal reality.

The Egyptians, who were the authors of the mysteries and mythical representation., did not pervert the meaning by an ignorant literalization of mystical matters, and had no fall of man to encounter in the fallacious Christian sense. Consequently they had no need of a redeemer from the effects of that which had never occurred. They did not rejoice over the death of their suffering saviour because his agony and shame and bloody sweat were falsely supposed to rescue them from the consequences of broken laws; on the contrary, they taught that everyone created his own karma here, and that the past deeds made the future fate. The morality was a thousandfold loftier and nobler than that of Christianity, with its delusive doctrine of vicarious atonement and propitiation by proxy. Horus did such or such things for the glory of his father, but not to save the souls of men from having to do them. There was no vicarious salvation or imputed righteousness. Horus was the justifier of the righteous, not of the wicked. He did not come to save sinners from taking the trouble to save themselves. He was an exemplar, a model of the divine sonship; but his followers must conform to his example, and do in life as he had done before they could claim any fellowship with him in death. Except ye do these things yourselves, there is no passage, no opening of the gate, to the land of life everlasting. [Page 231]

The Christian cult is often said to be founded on the “mysteries of the incarnation”. But what teacher of the spurious mysteries has ever been able to tell us anything of their natural genesis ? What has any bibliolator ever known about the word that was in the beginning ? The word which issued out of Silence ? The word of life that came by water, by blood, and in the Spirit? For him such language has never been related to any phenomena extant in nature. The wisdom of old Egypt only can explain the typical word and its relationship to a so-called revelation. The doctrine of the incarnation is Egyptian, and to the Egyptian wisdom we must appeal if we would understand it. No other word was ever made flesh in any other way than in Horus, who was the logos of the Mother Nature as the Child-Horus, the khart, or inarticulate logos, and the word that was made truth in the adult phase of his character as Horus Mat-Kheru, the second Horus, theparaclete and direct representative of the father in heaven. The incarnation, which is looked upon as a central mystery of the Christian cult, had no origin and can have no adequate or proper explanation in Christianity. Its real origin, like those of the other Egyptian dogmas and doctrines, was purely natural; it was prehistorical and non-personal, and as the mystery of Horus and his virgin mother, who were equally prehistorical and non-historical, it had been the central mystery of the Egyptian faith for ages, utilized by the ancient teachers for all it ever was or could be worth, and was continued by the teachers of historic Christianity in ignorance of its origin and only true significance, or with a criminally culpable suppression of the gnosis by which alone the inexplicable latter-day mysteries could have been explained.

The primitive mysteries were founded on the facts in nature which are verifiable today as from the first, whereas the mysteries of the Christian theology have been manufactured, shoddy-Iike, from the leavings of the past by the modus operandi of miracle. These remain today unverified because they are for ever unverifiable; We know how Horus came by water on his papyrus; how then did he come by blood ? The child had been incorporated in the fish, the shoot, the branch, the beetle, calf, or Iamb, as the representative type; and in his incarnation, Horus came by blood, but not by the blood shed on a tree, or the tat-cross. He came to earth by blood as representative of the human soul that came by blood. The Ritual tells us that the gods issued out of silence (ch. 24): This was portrayed in the Osirian system when the infant Horus is depicted pointing with his finger to his mouth, making the sign of silence as it was understood in all the mysteries. Horus is not the ordinary child or khart of the hieroglyphics. He images the logos, the word of silence, the virgin's word, that gave a dumb or inarticulate utterance to the mystery of the incarnation. The doctrine of the incarnation had been evolved and established in the Osirian religion at least 4,000 and possibly 10,000 years before it was purloined and perverted in Christianity. It was so ancient that the source and origin had been forgotten and the direct means of proof lost sight of or obliterated except amongst the gnostics, who sacredly preserved their fragments of the ancient wisdom, their types and symbols and no doubt, with [Page 232] here and there a copy of some chapters of the Book of the Dead done into Greek or Aramaic by Alexandrian scribes. The doctrine of salvation by the blood of Isis connoted the idea of coming into existence by means of the mother's blood, or mystically the blood of the virgin mother. In primitive biology all birth and production of human life was first derived from the mother's blood, which was afterwards informed by the soul of the fatherhood. The lesson first taught by nature was that life came by blood. Procreation could not occur until the female was pubescent. Therefore blood was the sign of source as the primary creative human element. Child-Horus came by the blood of the virgin Isis, in that and no other way. Jesus, the gnostic Christ, also came by blood that way, not only according to the secret doctrine of John, for the Musselmans have preserved a fragment of the true gnosis. In the notes to ch. 96 of the Koran, Sale quotes the Arabic tradition that Jesus was not born like any other men from blood concreted into flesh, but came in the flow, or in the flowing blood-that was, in the virgin's blood first personalized in Horus, who was made flesh as the virgin.'s child. The doctrine of the incarnation was dependent on the soul of life originating in the mother blood, the first that was held specifically and exclusively human on account of its incarnation. This was the soul derived from a mother who was the mystical virgin in biology, and who was afterwards mystified by theology as the mother of god, the eternal virgin typified in the likeness of the totemic. The blood mother had been cognized sociologically the virgin. Thence came the doctrine of a virgin mother as a type. Blood was the mother of a soul now differentiated from the external souls as human. First the white vulture of the virgin Neith, next the red heifer of the virgin Isis, then the human virginity, supplied the type of an eternal virgin, she in whom the mystery of maternal source was divinized as the virgin mother in the eschatology.

Thus “incarnation” proper begins with the soul that came into being by means of the virgin blood. This was the child of the mother only, the unbegotten Horus, w ho was an imperfect first sketch of the soul in matter that assumed the form of human personality as Horus the mortal, who as blind and maimed, deaf and dumb and impotent, because it was a birth of matter or the mother only, according to the mythical representation. The mother being the source and sustenance of life with her own blood, this led to a doctrine of salvation by the blood of Isis the divinized virgin. Thus the mystical blood mother was the earliest saviour, not the male. The elder Horus was her child who came by blood. He was her blood child in the eschatology; hence the calf, as his type, was painted red upon the tablets. As the Child-Horus he was an image of her suffering in the human form; thence Horus the child of blood became a saviour through suffering, in a mystery which had a natural origin. This origin can be followed in the Christian iconography when, as Didron shows, a figure of Jesus was portrayed upon the cross, as a little child of two years, naked, and with its body painted red all over, as was the Horus-calf upon the tablets. A curious instance of salvation by the blood of Isis is given in the Ritual. In a vignette to ch. 93, the saving and protecting power of the red tet-buckle, which [Page 233] is an image of the blood of Isis, is shown. A pair of human hands are outstretched from this amulet to grasp the arms of the Manes and prevent him from going toward the east, as that way lies the tank of flame, or hell in modern phrase. In the Gospel account of the incarnation the “word” was “made flesh”, but the blood basis of the doctrine has been omitted. Salvation through the blood of Isis was imaged by the red tet-amulet that was put on by her when she had conceived her blood child. This salvation was effected when the child was brought into existence. According to the Ritual, the salvation of the Manes is in living- on hereafter. He pleads that he may live and be saved after death ( ch. 41 ), and he wore the tet-buckle in his coffin as the sign of his salvation by the blood of Isis.

Further, how did a purificatory power come to be associated with blood so that one of the horrible dogmas of later theology could be expressed in lines like these :—“There is a fountain filled with bloodDrawn from Immanuel's veins,And sinners plunged beneath that floodLose all their guilty stains” ? The natural genesis of such a monstrous doctrine can be traced on two lines of descent. One of these has its starting-point in the theological victim being slain as a scapegoat in a sacrifice that was held to be piacular. The blood of the sin offering thus acquired the character of the atoning blood. According to the Christian doctrine, “All things are cleansed with blood, and apart from the shedding of blood there is no remission” (Heb. ix., 22). On the other line of descent, the idea of purification by blood was derived from a human origin, and not merely from the blood of the animal that was slain as a sacrifice for sin. This is one of the origins that were unfolded to the initiated by the teachers of the secret wisdom in the mysteries. The earliest form of the purifying blood was female. It was first the blood of the virgin mother, the blood of Isis, the blood of the incarnation, the flowing blood, the element in which Horus manifested when he came by blood, the blood on which the rite of purification was founded as a natural mode of cleansing. This is the one sole origin in the whole realm of nature for the blood which cleanseth, and it was in this feminine phase that a doctrine of purification by blood was established for the use of later theology when the sacrificial victim had been made a male who was held to have shed the atoning, purifying, saving blood upon a tree. There was no other way by which a soul was ever saved by blood than this act of salvation effected by the virgin mother. There never was any other incarnation than this of Horus in the blood of Isis, and no other saviour by blood was possible in the whole domain of unperverted nature. Neither could the transaction be made historical, nor the saviour personal, not if every tree on earth were cut into the figure of across with the effigy of a bleeding human body hung on every bough. Purification by means of blood then originated in the blood of Isis, the virgin mother of the human Horus, who, as the red child, calf or Iamb, personated that purification by blood which became doctrinal in the eschatology. To substitute the blood of a Jew shed on a cross as a [Page 234] means of making the purification for sins and the mode of cleansing souls in the “blood of the Iamb” for the natural purification of the mother was the grossest form of profanity, inconceivably impious to those who knew the mystical nature of the doctrine and its origin in human phenomena continued as a typical purification by blood that was practised in the mysteries, either by baptism or sprinkling with blood, or drinking blood, or eating the “bloody wafer” of the Roman eucharist.The natural blood sacrifice was feminine. The typical blood sacrifice was that of the red calf, the Iamb, or the child. The Iamb on the cross was the Christian victim until the eighth century A.D., at which time the man was permanently substituted for the Iamb, and the blood sacrifice was thenceforth portrayed as human and historical. A doctrine of voluntary sacrifice was founded from the time when the human mother gave herself to be eaten with honour by her children in the most primitive form of the mortuary meal. She offered her flesh to be eaten and her blood to be drunk; she gave herself as a natural blood sacrifice on which the typical was founded when the female totem as a cow, a bear, or other animal was made a substitute for the human mother. Also, when the earth was looked upon as the mythical mother of food and drink who was a wet-nurse in the water, and who gave herself bodily to her children for food, the sacrifice was typically continued if! totem ism when the animal supplied the sacramental food. As before shown, the earliest form of voluntary sacrifice was female. The human mother as victim was repeated in the mythology as divine, the mother in elemental nature; she who gave her flesh and blood as life to her children was then continued as a type in .the more mystical phase. Hence came salvation by the blood of Isis-that is, by the virgin blood in which Horus was incarnated and made flesh, as the saviour who thus came by blood. A Spaniard, who was paying expensively to regain the lost favour of the Holy Virgin, on being told by his priest that Mary had not yet forgiven him, is said to have shaken his fist in the face of his fetish and to have reminded her that she need not be so proud in her present position, as he had known her ever since she was only a bit of green plum tree. The ancient Egyptians knew the natural origins of their symbols and dogmas. Christians have mistaken the bit of green plum tree for an historical virgin.
The earliest form of god the father who became a voluntary sacrifice in Egypt was Ptah in the character of Sekari, the silent sufferer, the coffined one, the deity that opened up the nether-world for the resurrection in the solar mythos. As solar god he went down into Amenta. There he died and rose again, and thus became the resurrection and the way into a future lire as founder of Egyptian eschatology. Atum the son of Ptah likewise became the voluntary sacrifice as the source of life, but in another way and more apparent form. The mother human and divine had given life with her blood, and now the father, who was blended with the mother in Atum, is portrayed as creator of mankind by the shedding of his own blood.

In the cult of Ptah at Memphis and Atum at On there was a strenuous endeavour made to set creative source as male above the female. Hence it was said of the symbolic beetles that there was [Page 235] “no female race among them” (Hor-Apollo, B. I., 10). In cutting the member, Atum showed that he was the creator by the blood shed in a voluntary sacrifice. Male source is recognized, but according to what had preceded as the mother element, blood still remained a typical essence of creative life. And this is apparently illustrated by the rite of circumcision. The custom pertains, world over, to the swearing-in of the youths when they join the ranks of the fathers or begetters and follow the example of Atum as the father Ra, who was previously Horus the son. Atum, like Ptah, was also the typical sacrifice in the earth of eternity, who gave his life as sun god and as the master of food that sprang up for the Manes in Amenta. Osiris follows. In him the human mother who first gave herself to be eaten, and the great mother Isis, who was the saviour by blood, were combined with god the father in a more complete and perfect sacrifice as mother and father of the race in one. Lastly, the son as Horus or as Iusa is made a vicarious sacrifice, not, however, as an atonement for sin, but as voluntary sufferer instead of his mother or his father. For in the Kamite scheme the mother never is omitted. Hence, when Horus comes in the character of the red god who orders the block of execution with the terrifying face of Har-Shefi. as the avenger of the afflictions suffered by his father ( or by himself in his first advent), it is he “ who lifteth up his father and who lifteth up his mother with his staff” (Rit., ch. 92, Renouf). Egypt, however, had anticipated Rome in attaining the “unbloody sacrifice” that was represented by the wafer, or loaf, of Horus as the bread of heaven, which took the place of flesh meat in the eucharistic meal, whilst retaining the beer or wine, as substitute for blood, in representing the female element. Thus Horus was eaten as the bread of life, and his blood was drunk in the red ale, or wine, as the final form in Egypt of the sacrificial, voluntary, living victim that had been the human mother, the typical mother, the totemic anima!, the cow of Hathor, the fish, the goose, the calf, the lamb, the victim in various forms, each one of which, down to the lentils and the corn, was figurative of the beneficent sacrifice that from the first was typical of a power in nature, call it mother or son, father, goddess or god, that provided food and drink, accompanied with an idea of sacrifice in the giving of life when blood was looked on as the life.

“How many sacraments hath Christ ordained in His Church?” is asked in the Prayer-book, and the answer is, “Two only as generally necessary to salvation-that is to say, baptism and the supper of the Lord”.And both of these were Egyptian thousands of years earlier. The proof is preserved in that treasury of truth, the Ritual of the resurrection. In the first chapter of the Ritual (Turin Papyrus) it is said by the priest, “I lustrate with water in Tat tu and anoint with oil, in Abydos”. We might call the Egyptians very particular Baptists for in the first ten gates of Elysium -or entrances to the great dwelling of Osiris the deceased is purified at least ten times over in ten separate baptisms, and ten different waters in which the gods and goddesses had been washed to make the water holy (Ritual, ch. 145). The inundation was the water of renewal to the life of Egypt, and this natural fact was the source and origin of a doctrine of baptismal regeneration. The salvation that came to Egypt in the [Page 236] Nile was continued in the Egyptian eschatology as salvation by water. ..I. give thee the liquid or humidity which ensures salvation”, is said to the soul of the deceased (Rit., 155, I ). They did not think that souls were saved from perdition by a wash of water or a bath of blood, but bodily baptism was continued as a symbol of purification for the spirit. The deceased explains that he had been steeped in the waters of natron and nitre, or salt, and made pure-pure in heart, pure in his forepart, his posterior part, his middle, and pure all over, so that there is no part of him remaining soiled or stained. The pool of baptism is dual in Amenta. In one part it is the pool of natron, in the other the pool of salt.Both natron and silt were used in preparing the mummy of the deceased, and the same process is repeated in the purification of the soul to make it also permanent, which was a mode of salvation. The deceased says, “May I be fortified or protected by seventy purifications“ (Mariette, Mon. divers, pl. 63, I), just as Christians at the present time speak of being “fortified by the sacraments of the Church”. “I purify myself at the great stream (the galaxy), where all my ills are made to cease; that which is wrong in me is pardoned, and the spots which were upon my body upon earth are washed away l' (Rit., ch. 86). “Lo, I come, that I may purify this soul of mine in the most high degree. Let me be purified in the lake of propitiation and of equipoise. Let me plunge into the divine pool beneath the two divine sycamores of heaven and earth” ( ch. 97, Renouf). The pool of purification and healing that was figured in the northern heaven at the pole, and also reproduced in the paradise of Amenta, has been repeated in the Gospel according to John (ch. 5) as the Pool of Bethesda. In the Ritual (ch. 124, part 3) one of two waters is called the pool or tank of righteousness. In this pool the glorified elect receive their final purification and are healed. They are thus made pure for the presence of Osiris. The healing process was timed to take place at certain hours of the night or day. The Turin text gives the fourth hour of the night and the eighth hour of the day. But there are other readings. The Manes, as usual in the gospels, are represented by the “multitude of them that were sick, blind, halt, and withered”, waiting to be healed. The elect or chosen ones are those who are first at the pool when the waters are troubled. Hence the story of the man who was non-elect.

It was a postulate of the Christians, maintained by Augustine and others, that infants who died unbaptized were damned eternally. This doctrine also had its rootage in the mysteries of Amenta. The roots have hitherto been hidden in the earth of eternity which has been mistaken for our earth of time. We are now enabled to exhibit them above ground and hold both root and product up to the light like the bulb of a hyacinth suspended in a glass water-bottle, These can now be studied, roots and all. The flesh that is formed of the mother's blood was held to share in the impurity of the female nature. It was in this sense solely that woman was the author of evil. The Child-Horus born of flesh and blood was the prototype of the unbaptized child-that is, the child unpurified by baptism. Without baptismal regeneration in Tattu there was no blending of the elder Horus with the soul or spirit of Horus divinized. According [Page 237] to the Egyptian doctrine, the development would be arrested and the soul from the earthly body might remain a wretched shade that was doomed to extinction, or, in the Christian perversion, was damned eternally. It was in Amenta that the dead were raised to inherit the second life. The resurrection had no other meaning for the Egyptians. And in the resurrection the Osiris is thus greeted: “ Hail, Osiris ! thou art born twice! The gods say to thee: ' Come ! come forth; come see what belongs to thee in thy house of eternity' ”(ch. 170). It is then that he is changed and renewed in an instant.

In blending the two halves of a soul that was dual in sex, dual also in matter and spirit, into one, according to the mystery of Tat tu, there was a return to the type beyond sex from which the two had bifurcated in the human creation. This one enduring soul was typical of the eternal soul which included motherhood and father-hood in one personality like that of the multi mammalian Osiris which the Child-Horus could only represent in some form of duality that imaged both sexes in one, as do the deities who are figured with one female bosom as a mode of en-onement. Female mummies have been exhumed that were made up wearing the beard of a male. This was another figure of the soul completed by uniting the two halves of sex in one figure, the type affected by the Queen Hatshepsu when she clothed herself in masculine attire and reigned as Mistress Aten. It was the same with the Pharaohs who wore the tail of the cow or lioness. They also included both halves of the perfect soul, as a likeness of the biune being divinized in heaven which they represented on the earth. The doctrine was brought on in the iconography of the gnostic artists when Jesus is figured as a woman with a beard, who is designated the Christ as Saint Sophia ( or Charis ) (Didron, fig. 50), and also when Jesus is depicted in the Book of Revelation as a being of both sexes, a youth with female paps; in the likeness of Osiris, whose male body is half covered with female mammæ, and who is Osiris in the upper and Isis in the lower part of the same mummy. Not only was it necessary to be regenerated and reborn in the likeness of god the father; the Manes could only enter the kingdom of heaven as a being of both sexes or of neither. The two halves of the soul that was established for ever in Tattu were male and female; the soul of Shu was male, the soul of Tefnut female. When these were united in one to form a completed Manes and a perfect spirit the result was a typical creation from both sexes in which there was neither male nor female. This oneness, in the Horus who was divinized, is the oneness in Christ described by Paul “As many of you as were baptized into Christ, did put on Christ. There can be no male nor female, for ye are all one in Christ Jesus”. One of the fragments preserved by Clement Alexander and Clement of Rome from the lost gospel of the Egyptians, which is more than fully recoverable in the Ritual, will show the continuity of the doctrine as Egyptian in a gospel that was designated “Egyptian”. The Lord having been asked by Salome when his kingdom would come, replied, “when you shall have trampled under foot the garment of shame; When two shall be one, when that which is without shall be like that which is within, and when the male with the female shall be neither male nor female”. The “garment of [Page 238] shame” was feminine, being as it was of the flesh. On this the Ritual has a word to say. The impurity of matter which came to be ascribed to the mother of all flesh, or female nature, is symbolically shown in the chapters for arranging the funeral bed (Rit., chs. 170-171). This is exemplified by means of the feminine garment-the apron-which is here considered to be a sign of all that was wrong in the deceased; the wrong that was derived from the mother, as elsewhere described in the Ritual, because it is the garb of impurity called “the garment of shame” in the Egyptian gospel, which was to be trampled under foot when the male and female were to be made one in spirit, or as spirit. In the ceremony of “wrapping up the deceased in a pure garment”, the impure one being now discarded is alluded to in ch. 172. When the deceased was stretched upon the funeral bed the body was divested of the apron and clothed in the pure garment of the khus or spirits, “ the pure garment allotted to him for ever” (Rit., ch. 171). But the feminine garment is still worn without shame by the masquerading male as the bishop's apron, which can be traced back as feminine to the loin-cloth and apron first worn by the sex for the most primitive and pitiful of human needs at the time of puberty. The bishop in his apron, like the priest in his petticoat and the clergyman in his surplice, is alikeness of the biune being who united both sexes in one; the modern Protestant equivalent for the Pharaoh with the cow's tail, and Venus with a beard, the mutilated eunuch, or any other dual typeof hermaphrodital deity. Men who masquerade in women's clothing are commonly prosecuted, but the bishop carries on his mummery without even being suspected. He walks about as ignorant of his vestmental origins as any of the passers by. Usually the custom of men dressing in women's clothing is limited to our Easter pastimes, but the bishops still carry it on all through the year.

The Christians prattle about the divine “sonship of humanity”, manifested in the historical Jesus. But they have no divine daughtership, no origin for the soul as female and no female soul. The Jews did all they could to get rid of the female part of the divine nature, and the exigency of the Christian history has suppressed the feminine element altogether in the human type that represented both sexes in humanity as it was set forth by the Egyptians in the mysteries. Finally, it has been frequently asserted that only through the Gospel Jesus has a god of the poor man ever been revealed- a statement most profoundly false. A god of the poor and suffering was personified in Horus the elder. But there is a corollary to the character. He is likewise an avenger of the sufferings. Horus at Edfu is said to protect the needy against the powerful. Also, in the great Judgment Hall the Osiris deceased upon his trial says, “I have not been a land-grabber. I have not exacted more than should be done for me as the first fruits of each day's work” (Rit. ch. 125). Various other statements tend to show that the unjust capitalists of those times had a mortal dread of facing Osiris the divinized judge, who was likewise god of the poor and needy. In an Egyptian hymn the one god, Atum the maker of men, is described as “lying awake while all men lie asleep, to seek out the good of his. [Page 239] creatures” (line 12), “listening to the poor in their distress, gentle of heart when one cries to him. Deliverer of the timid man from the violent, lord of mercy most loving, judging the poor, the poor and the oppressed” (Hymn to Amen-Ra, Records, vol. ii., p. 129). Taht was the recorder in the Judgment Hall. At the weighing of hearts he portrayed the character of the deceased, and in one of the texts it is said that when he placed the heart in the scales against Maati, the goddess of justice, he leaned to the side of mercy, that the judgment might be favourably inclined, as though he exerted a little pressure on the human side of the balance.

It has also been said that the historic Jesus came to glorify the lot of labour, which antiquity despised, whereas the Egyptian paradise was the reward of labour, and Horus the husbandman in the harvest-field of the Aarru is the worker, personified. No one attained the Egyptian heaven but the worker, who reaped solely in proportion as he had sown. The portion of land allotted to the Manes for cultivation in Amenta was enlarged only for those who had been good labourers on earth. The Shebti figures in the tombs are equipped for labour with the plough or hoe in their hands. As agriculturists they put their hands to the plough. There was no unearned increment for loafers in the earth of eternity. A flash of revelation lightens from the cloud of Egypt's past when we learn from the Ritual that a part of the work to be performed in the Aarru paradise or field of harvest in Amenta was to clear away the life-choking sand. These fighters and conquerors of the much. detested desert still retain that image of the earliest cultivators, the makers of the soil which they enclosed and first protected from the drifting, sterilizing sand. The Manes, addressing the Shebti figures, says to them, “O typical ones! If I should be judged worthy of doing the work that has to be done in Amenta, bear witness for me that I am worthy to fertilize the fields, to flush the streams, and transport the sand from west to east” (Rit., ch. 6). He became one of the glorified elect in being judged worthy of the work. This will show that in making the primeval paradise they were still the cultivators who had conquered on earth by their long wrestle with the powers of dearth in the desert when they made their passage through the wilderness of sand and held on to the skirts of Mother Nile, who led them to a land which she herself had made for them to turn into an oasis and a paradise of plenty with her waters for assistance in the war against Apap, or Sut, the Sebau, and the burning Sahara. It may also explain why the Pharaohs from the time of the eleventh dynasty were officially entitled “Masters of the Oasis”, the oasis, that is, which had been created in Egypt by human labour to be localized in Amenta as the promised land that was to be attained at last among the never-setting stars in the oasis of eternity.

The prototypes of hell and purgatory and the earthly paradise are all to be found in the Egyptian Amenta. There is, says the Christian rhymer, Dr. Watts “There is a dreadful hellAnd everlasting pains,Where sinners must with devils dwellIn darkness, fire, and chains”.
[Page 240] The darkness, fire, and chains, as well as the brimstone, which was the stone of Sut, and other paraphernalia of the Christian hell, are also Egyptian. But the chains were employed for the fettering of Sut, the Apap, and the Sebau, the evil adversaries of Osiris, the good or perfect being, not for the torturing of souls that once were human. The Egyptian hell was not a place of everlasting pain, but of extinction For those who were wicked irretrievably. It must be admitted, to the honour and glory of the Christian deity, that a god of eternal torment is an ideal distinctly Christian, to which the Egyptians never did attain. Theirs was the all-parental god, Father and Mother in one whose heart was thought to bleed in every wound of suffering humanity, and Whose son was represented in the character of the Comforter.

Also the hell-fire of Christian theology, the hell-fire that is unquenchable (Mark ix. 43, 44), is a survival of the representation made in the Egyptian mysteries. The Osiris in Amenta passes through this hell of fire in “which those who are condemned suffer their annihilation. He says, “I enter in and I come forth from the tank (or lake) of flame on the day when the adversaries are annihilated at Sekhem” (Rit., ch. I). When the glorified deceased had made his voyage in heaven “over the leg of Ptah” and reached the mount of glory, he exclaims, “I have come from the lake of flame, from the lake of fire and from the field of flame”. He has made his escape from destruction, and attained the eternal city at the pole of heaven. This lake of fire that is never quenched was derived from the solar force in the mythology on which the eschatology was based. Hence the locality was in the east, at the place of sunrise. The wicked were consumed by fire at the place where the righteous entered the solar bark to sail the heavenly waters called the Kabhu, or the cool, and voyage west- ward toward the heaven of the setting stars. The lake of flame was in the east, the lake of outer darkness in the west. For when the bark of Ra or the boat of souls had reached the west at sunset there was a great gulf fixed between the mount called Manu in the west and the starry vault of night, the gulf of Putrata (Rit., ch. 44), where the dead fell into darkness unless supported by Apuat the star-god, by Horus in the moon, and by Ra the solar deity, the visible representatives of superhuman powers in the astronomical mythology.

At the “last judgment” in the mysteries those who had failed to make the word of Osiris truth against his enemies, as the formula runs, were doomed to die a second death. The first was in the body on the earth, the second in the spirit. The enemies of justice, law, truth, and right were doomed to be destroyed for ever in the lake of fire or tank of flame. They were annihilated once for all (Rit., ch. I). The doctrine crops up in the Pauline Epistles and in Revelation, where the end of all is \with a destruction in the lake of fire. In the Epistle to the Hebrews the destruction of lost souls is compared \with that of vegetable matter being consumed by fire. The doctrine, like so many others, was Egyptian, upon \which the haze of ignorance settled down, to cause confusion ever since. Take away the Kamite devil, and the Christian world \mould suffer sad bereavement. The devil was of Egyptian origin, both as “that old serpent” the Apap reptile, the devil \with a long tail, and as Sut, w ho was Satan in ananthropomorphic guise. Sut, the power of drought and darkness in [Page 241] physical phenomena, becomes the dark-hearted evil one, and is then described as causing storms and tempests, going round the horizon of heaven II like one whose heart is veiled” (Rit., ch. 39, Renouf), as the adversary of Osiris the Good Being. The darkness, fire, and chains are all Egyptian. Darkness was mythically represented by the Apap dragon, also as the domain of Sut in the later theology. Darkness in the nether world is identical with the tunnels of Sut in Amenta. The chains are likewise Egyptian, but not for human wear. Apap and the Sebau, Sut and the Sami are bound in chains. It is said to the pre-anthropomorphic devil, “Chains are cast upon thee by the scorpion goddess” (Rit., ch. 39). Sut is also imprisoned with a chain upon his neck (ch. 108). As already explained, the Sebau and the Sami represent the physical forces in external nature that made for evil and were for ever opposed to the Good Being and to the peace of the world. These were always rising in impotent revolt as the hosts of darkness and spawn of Apap, headed by the evil-hearted Sut. They had to be kept under; hence the necessity for prisons, bonds, and chains. The mythical imagery has been continued in the Christian eschatology, and the sinners put in the place of the Sebau, whereas in the Egyptian teaching the sinners, once human, who were irretrievably bad, were put an end to once for all, at the time of the second death, in the region of annihilation (Rit., ch. 18). Coming to an end for ever was, to the Egyptian mind, a prospect worse than everlasting pains, so profound was their appreciation of life, so powerful their will to persist. They represented evil as negation.
Apap is evil and a type of negation in the natural phenomena that were opposed to good. In the eschatology Sut represents negation as nonexistence. Evil culminated in annihilation and non-being for the Manes, and the negation of being, of life, of good, was the ultimate form of evil. The Egyptian purgatory, called the Meskat, is a place of purgation where the primitive mode of purifying may be compared with that of Fulling. It is effected by beating. Hence the Meskat is the place of scourging. The Manes pleads that he may not fall under the knives of the executioners in the place of extermination, as he has “passed through the place of purification in the middle of the Meskat”. In chapter 72 the Manes prays that he may “not be stopped at the Meskat”, or in purgatory, but may pass on to the divine dwelling-place prepared for him by Tum “above the earth”, where he can “join his two hands together”, and eat the bread and drink the beer upon the table of Osiris. The same plea, “Let me not be stopped at the Meskat”, or kept in purgatory , is also uttered by the speaker in chapter 99. The enemies of the Good Being were likewise pilloried. Hence the Manes says, “Deliver me from the gods of the pillory. who fasten (the guilty) to their posts” (ch. 180).

A late attempt has been made on behalf of the Roman Catholic religion to lure people into Hades by showing that it is only a mitigated mourning department; that the devil himself is not so black as hitherto painted, and that there is really a tolerable amount of happiness to be obtained in hell. But this is only looking a little closer into the traditions of Amenta which survived in Rome.They belong to the same original source as that from which the Church derived its doctrines of purgatory, the second death, and other [Page 242] dogmas not to be found in the Gospels. There is no everlasting bonfire of eternal torture in the Egyptian hells, of which there are ten, known as the ten circles of the condemned, in the inferno or divine nether region. The utterly worthless suffer a second death upon the highways of the damned, and are spoken of as those who are no more. The Roman Church continued the dogma of a second death, and then somewhat nullified it by adding punishment of an infinite duration, as being more coercive to all who did or did not zealously believe. There was no other identifiable source for the Christian eschatology than the Egyptian wisdom. The Roman Church was founded on the Ritual. Possibly a version of the original may one day be found preserved in the secret archives of Rome, the text of which would explain numerous pictures in the Catacombs and other works of the gnostic artists who were the actual authors of the Egypto-Christian iconography, not the “few poor fishermen”. The Roman Church will yet find that she is at root Egyptian, and will then seek to slough off the spurious history which by that time will be looked upon as solely incremental.
The Egyptians were the greatest realists that ever lived. For . thousands and thousands of years it was their obvious endeavour at full stretch to reach the ultimate reality of eternal truth. Their interrogation of nature was like the questioning- of children, very much in earnest: “But is it really true?” The real was the quest of their unceasing inquiry. To be real was the end and aim; that was living in truth. The only one god was the real god. Horus in spirit was the real Horus. Reality was royalty. In the time of the fifth dynasty a certain Tep-en-ankh claims to be “the real judge and scribe”, the “real nearest friend of the king”. For them eternal life was the ultimate reality. The Egyptian was pre-eminently a manly religion, and therefore calculated to develop manhood. In the hall of the last judgment the deceased expects justice and equity. His god is a just and righteous judge. He does not pray for mercy or writhe in the dust to seek a sentimental forgiveness for sins, or sue for clemency. His was not a creed of that nature. He knows it is the life, the character, the conduct that will count in the scales of Maati for the life hereafter. The human Horus put in no plea for sinners on account of his sufferings. Divine Horus throws no make-weight into the scale. Deceased is judged by what he has done and by what he has not done in the life on earth. He must be sound at heart. He must have spoken and acted the truth. The word of god must have been made truth by him to be of any avail at the bar of judgment. That was the object of all the teaching in all the mysteries and writings which were held to be divine. The standard of law without and within was set up under the name of Maati or Maat, a name denoting the fixed, undeviating law and eternal rule of right. Hence the same word signifies law, truth, justice, rightfulness, and the later righteousness. The foremost and the final article of the Egyptian creed was to fulfil Maati. This is the beginning, the middle, and the end of the moral law.The deity enthroned by them for worship was the god of Maati, tile name, which has the fourfold meaning of law, justice, truth, and right, which are one as well as synonymous. Judgment with justice was their aim, their alpha and [Page 243] omega, in administering the law which their religious sense had divinized for human use; and its supreme type, erected at the pole, in the equinox, or the Hall of Judgment, was the pair of scales at perfect equipoise, for with them the equilibrium of the universe was dependent on eternal equity.

It may look like taking a flying leap in the dark to pass from the Egyptian Book of the Dead to Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, but whencesoever Bunyan derived the tradition, the Pilgrim's Progress contains all outline of the matter in the Egyptian Ritual. Christian personates the Manes on his journey through the nether earth, with the roll in his hand containing the word of life. The escape from the City of Destruction may be seen in the escape of the deceased from the destruction threatened in Amenta, when he exclaims. “I come from the lake of flame, from the lake of fire and from the field of flame” (ch. 98). The wicket-gate corresponds to the secret doorway of the mysteries; the “Slough of Despond” to the marshes in the mythos; the “Hill Difficulty” to the Mount of Ascent up which the Osiris climbs with “his staff in his hand”. The Manes forgets his name; Christian forgets his roll, the roll that was his guide book for the journey and his passport to the celestial city. The prototypal valley of the shadow of death is the Aar-en-tet in Amenta. This is the valley of darkness and death (Rit., ch. 19; 13, 6). The Ritual says, “Let not the Osiris advance into the valley of darkness” where the twice-dead were buried for ever by the great annihilator Seb. The monster Apap is the original Apollyon. The equipment of Christian in his armour for his conflict \with Apollyon in the Valley of Humiliation is one with the equipment of the Osiris, who enters the valley “glorious and well equipped” for the battle with his adversary the dragon. The fight of Christian and Apollyon is identical \with the contest between Ra and Apap. All the time of his struggle Apollyon fought with yells and hideous roarings; Apap with “the voice of strong bellowings ” (Rit., ch. 39). Christian passes by the mouth of hell; the Osiris passes by the ten hells, with all of them, as it were, making mouths at him for their prey. There are two lions at the gate of the Palace Beautiful, and in the Ritual the two lions crouch at the beautiful gate of exit from Amenta (Vig. to ch. 18). The waters of the river of life, the green meadows, the delectable mountains, the land of Beulah, the paradise of peace, the celestial city on the summit, all belong to the mythology of Hetep or the Mount of Glory-a bare outline, the mere skeleton of which has been clothed at different times in various forms, including this of the Pilgrim's Progress. Possibly Bunyan the tinker derived the tradition from those travelling tinkers the gipsies. However this may be, the Egyptian Ritual is the verifiable source of Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress.
Many illustrations might also be given to show that the mysteries of Amenta, which were finally summed up as “Osirian”, have been carried to the other side of the world. In the mythology of the [Page 244] aborigines of New Holland, “Grogoragally, the divine son, is the active agent of his father, who immovably presides over all nature (like Osiris, the mummy god of the motionless heart). The son watches the actions of men, and quickens the dead immediately upon their earthly interment. He acts as mediator for the souls to the great god, to whom the good and bad actions of all are known. His office is chiefly to bring at the close of every day the spirits of the dead from all parts of the world to the judgment-seat of his father, where alone there is eternal light. There he acts as intercessor for those who have only spent some portion of their lives in wickedness. Bayma, listening to the mediation of his son, allows Grogoragally to admit some such into Ballima, “or heaven (Manning, Notes on the Aborigines of New Holland, Sydney, 1883, copy from the author). Grogoragally is one with the hawk-headed Horus, the paraclete or advocate who pleads for the Manes before the judgment-seat of his father. Again, the aborigines of the McDonnell Ranges have a tradition that the sky was at one time inhabited by three persons. One of these was a woman, one was a child who always remained a child and never developed beyond childhood; the third was a man of gigantic stature called Ulthaana-that is a spirit. He had an enormous foot shaped like that of an emu. When a native dies he is said to ascend to the home of Ulthaana the spirit (Gillen, Notes, Horn Expedition, vol. iv., p. 183).
This is a far-off folk tale that may be traced back home to the Egyptian myth. In this Child-Horus never developed beyond childhood, and so remained the eternal child. This was Horus of the incarnation who made his transformation into the Horus that rose again as the adult, the great man, Horus in . spirit, the prototype of “Ulthaana”. The bird type is repeated. Horus has the head of the hawk, as a figure of the man in spirit;. Ulthaana, as a spirit, has the foot of an enormous emu.

The Arunta also have a kind of Amenta or world of spirits under ground. About fourteen miles to the south of Alice Springs there is a cave in a range of hills which rises to the north. This cave, like all others in the range, is supposed to be occupied by the Iruntarinia or spirit individuals, each one of whom is in reality the double of one of the ancestors of the tribe who lived in the Alcherinf!a. The individual spirits are supposed to live within the cave in perpetual sunshine and among streams of running water, as in the Egyptian meadows of Aarru. Here, as in Amenta, the reconstitution of the deceased takes place. Within the cave the Iruntarinia remove all the internal organs, and provide the man with a completely new set, after which operation has been successfully performed he presently comes to life again, but in a condition of insanity. This, however, is of short duration, and the coming round is equivalent to the recovery of memory by the Manes in the Ritual, when he remembers his name and who he is in the great house of the other world (Spencer and Gillen, p. 525). There are bird-souls also in this nether earth, which are favoured with unlimited supplies of down or undattha, with which they are fond of decorating their bodies as spirits.The mysteries of Amenta are more or less extant in the totemic ceremonies of the Central Australians at a more rudimentary stage of development, which means, according to the present reading [Page 245] of the data, that the same primitive wisdom was carried out from the same central birthplace in Africa to the islands of the Southern Sea, and there fossilized during long ages of isolation, which had been carried down the Nile to take living root and grow and flourish as the mythology and eschatology of ancient Egypt.

In the mysteries of Amenta the deceased is reconstructed from seven constituent parts or souls in seven stages of development.Corresponding to these in the Arunta mysteries, seven “status-terms are applied to the initiate”. (1) He is called Ambaquerka up to the time of his being tossed in the air. (2) He is Ulpmerka until taken to the circumcision ground. (3) He is the Wurtja during the time betwixt being painted for it and the actual performance of the ceremony. (4) He is Arakurta betwixt the operations of circumcision and sub-incision. (5) He is Ertwa-kurka after circumcision until he passes through the ordeal by fire. (6) Following this he is called IIlpongwurra, and (7) after passing through the engwurra he is designated Urliara. (Spencer and Gillen, N. T., p. 638.) In the mysteries of Amenta the mouth of the resuscitated spirit is opened and the silence of death is broken when the lips are touched by the sacred implement in the hands of Ptah.It is said in the “ceremony of opening the mouth”, “Let my mouth be opened by Ptah with the instrument of ba-metal with which he openeth the mouths of the gods” (ch. 23). The Arunta also perform the ceremony of opening the mouth by touching it with a sacred object when the initiates are released from the ban of silence (Spencer and Gillen, pp. 382, 385). A mystery of the resurrection is acted by the Arunta in the quabarra ingwurninga inkinja, or corroborree of the arisen bones, which bones imaged the dead body, whilst the performers represented the Ulthaana or spirits of the dead (p.473). The bones were sacredly preserved by those who were as yet unable to make the mummy as a type of permanence.

Messrs. Spencer and Gillen tell us that every Australian native has to pass through certain ceremonies before he is admitted to the secrets of the tribe. The first takes place at about the age of ten or twelve years, whilst the final and most impressive one is not passed through until probably the native has reached the age of at least twenty-five, or It may be thirty years ” (N. T., pp. 212, 213). These two initiations correspond to those in the mysteries of the double Horus. At twelve years of age the Child-Horus makes his transformation into the adult in his baptism or other kindred mysteries. Horus as the man of thirty years is initiated in the final mystery of the resurrection. So was it with the gnostic Jesus. The long lock of Horus, the sign of childhood, was worn by him until he attained the age of twelve years, when he was changed into a man. With the southern Arunta tribe the hair of the boy is for the first time tied up at the commencement of the opening ceremony of the series by which he is made a man. HIS long hair is the equivalent of the Horus lock. The first act of initiation in the Arunta mysteries is that of throwing the boy up into the air-a ceremony that still survives with us in the tossing of the new-comer in a blanket! This was a primitive mode of dedication to the ancestral spirit of the totem or the tribe, whose voice is heard in the sound of the churinga or bull-roarer whirling round. It is [Page 246] said by the natives that the voice of the great spirit was heard when the resounding bull-roarer spoke. The great spirit was supposed to descend and enter the body of the boy and to make him a man, just as in the mystery of Tat tu the soul of Horus the adult descends upon and unites with the soul of Horus the child, or the soul of Ra the holy spirit descends upon Osiris to quicken and transform and re-erect the mummy. Where risen Horus becomes bird-headed as the adult in spirit the Arunta youth is given the appearance of flight to signify the change resulting from the descent of the spirit as the cause of transformation. When one becomes a soul in the mysteries of the Ritual by assuming the form or image of Ra, the initiate exclaims “Let me wheel round in whirls, let me revolve like the turning one ” (ch. 83). The“ turning one” is the sun god Chepera (Kheper), whose name is identical with that of an Australian tribe. Kheper is the soul of “self-originating force” that was imaged under one type by the bennu, a bird that ascends the air and flies to a great height whilst circling round and round in spiral wheels (Rit., ch. 85).Whether this be the churinga, the bribbun, turndun, or whirler in a glorified form or not, the doctrine of soul-making at puberty is the same in the Australian as in the Egyptian mysteries.

In the Egyptian mythology Horus is the blind man, or rather he is the child born blind, called Horus in the dark. He is also described as the blind Horus in the city of the blind. In his blindness he is typical of the emasculated sun in winter and of the human soul in death. At the place of his resurrection or rebirth there stands a tree up which he climbs to enter spirit life. And we are told that “near to Charlotte Waters is the tree that Jose to mark the spot where a blind man died”. This tree is called the apera okilchya - that is, the blind man's tree, and the place where it stands was the camp of the blind, the city of the blind, the world of the dead, in which the tree of life or dawn was rooted (N.T., p. 552). Should the tree be cut down the men where it grows will become blind. They would be like Horus in the dark, this being the tree of light or the dawn of eternal day. In one of their ceremonies the Arunta perform the mystery of the oruncha which existed in the Alcheringa. These were evil spirits or “devil-devil men”, malevolent and murderous to human beings, especially to the women after dark (N.T., p. 329,331, 390-1). In this performance they are portrayed as prowling round, crawling, peering about, and seeking whom they may devour. They run backwards and forwards on all fours as beasts of prey, growling and pretending to frighten each other. The oruncha are the creatures of the dark, with horns like the mediæval devil, and they correspond to the Sebau fiends or evil spirits of the Egyptian mythos who are the enemies of the good Osiris in Amenta. These devil-devil men made war upon the lizard men, the men of the lizard totem, but there were two brothers who rushed upon them as avengers, and slew the whole of the oruncha. The evil powers were the creatures of chaos, the spawn of darkness, the devils of drought, with whom there was no law or order. The two brothers = brotherhoods belonged to the lizard totem, together with their wives. This was the earliest totem of the Arunta.

In the last of the initiation ceremonies the Arunta raise a special [Page 247] mound, called the parra, on the engwura ground, where the final rites are performed and full initiation is attained. Here the nurtunga was raised, and the parra mound was, so to say, erected at the pole. Messrs. Spencer and Gillen tell us they were unable to learn the meaning of the word parra. But, as the comparison is not simply verbal, we note that para is an ancient Egyptian name for Annu, the place of the column, the mount of the pole, and of the balance in the Maat. The Chepara tribe of Southern Queensland also throw up the circular mound for their greater mystery of the kuringal, in which may be identified the baptism and rebirth by fire (Howitt, Australian Ceremonies of the Initiation). Amongst the initiatory rites of the Arunta mysteries is the purification by fire. When the initiate has passed through this trial he becomes a perfectly developed member of the tribe, and is called an urliara, or one who has been proved by fire (N.T., p. 271).The natives say that the ceremony has the effect of strengthening the character of all who pass through it. This is one of the most obvious survivals. Afire ceremony is described in the Ritual as an exceeding great mystery and a type of the hidden things in the under world. It is an application of the fires by means of which power and might are conferred upon the spirits (khu) among the stars which never set. .These fires, it is said in the rubric ( ch. 137 , A), shall make the spirit as vigorous as divine Osiris. It is a great ordeal, and so secret is the mystery that it is only to be seen by the males. “Thou shalt not perform this ceremony before any human being, except thine own self or thy father or thy son”. Amongst other things the fire is good for destroying evil influences and for giving power to Horus in his war with darkness. It is of interest to note the part played by the females in the ordeals by fire. In one of these the fire is prepared by the women, and when the youth squats upon the fire they place their hands upon his shoulder and gently press him down upon the smoking fuel (N.T., p. 259). Now in the Egyptian mysteries of Amenta the punishers or purifiers in the hells or furnaces are women or goddesses, and it looks as if this character had survived in the mysteries of the Arunta. When the elders shout through the darkness to the women across the river, “What are you doing? ” the reply is, “ We are making a fire”. “ What are you going to do with the fire?” is asked, and the women shout, “We are going to burn the men”. This occurs during a pause by night in the ceremonies of initiation, which terminate with the ordeal by fire. (Spencer and Gillen.) The concluding ordeals by fire and the “final washing” in the Australian ceremonies can be paralleled in the Ritual. “Lo, I come”, says the speaker, “that I may purify this soul of mine in the most high degree” (ch. 97); and again, “I come from the lake of flame, from the lake of fire and from the field of flame, and I live”. He is now a spirit sufficiently advanced to join the ancient never- setting ones and become a fellow-citizen with them in the eternal city (ch. 98). The initiate in the Australian mysteries having passed through the initiatory ceremonies, joins the elders as a fully-developed member of his tribe.

The most sacred ceremonial object of the Arunta is called the kaltaua.This is erected at the close of the engwura mysteries. A young gum-tree, 20 feet in height, is cut down, stripped of its branches [Page 248] and its bark, to be erected in the middle of the sacred ground. The decoration at the top was “just that of a human head”. It was covered allover with human blood, unless red ochre had been substituted. The exact significance of the kauaua is not known to the natives, but, as the writers affirm, it has some relation to a human being, and is regarded as common to the members of all the totems (p.630). Its mystery is made known at the conclusion of the engwura, a series of ceremonies, the last of the initiatory rites through which the native must pass to become a fully-developed member who is admitted to all the secrets of the tribe, of which this is apparently final and supreme. All things considered, we think the sacred kauaua is a form of the Egyptian ka-statue, which is a type of eternal duration as an image of the highest soul. To make the kauaua, so to say, the pole is humanized. It is painted with human blood, and ornamented like the human head. It has but one form, and is common to all the totems. So is it with the Egyptian ka, the eidolon of the enduring soul. The name of the kauaua answers to a long-drawn-out form of the word “ka”, as ka-a-a.The mysteries of the Arunta, which sometimes take four months together for a complete performance, constitute their religious ceremonies, their mean of instruction, their books, their arts of statuary, painting, and Sign-language, their modes of preserving the past, whether lived on earth, or, as they have it, in the Alcheringa, during the times of the mythical ancestors beyond which tradition does not penetrate. The main difference betwixt the Australian and the Egyptian mysteries is that the one are performed on this earth in the totemic stage of sociology, the other in the earth of Amenta in the phase of eschatology. Also the Egyptians continued growing all the time that the Australians were standing still or retrograding. Lastly, we may be sure that such mysteries as these did not spring from a hundred different origins and come together by fortuitous concourse from the ends of the earth, to be finally formulated as the Egyptian mysteries of Amenta.

 

 

6
AMENTA
-
-
-
-
A
1
1
1
-
M+E
18
9
9
-
N+T+A
35
8
8
6
AMENTA
54
18
18
-
-
5+4
1+8
1+8
6
AMENTA
9
9
9

 

 

36) makes an allusion to “the wilderness of the land of Egypt,” which points to the lower Egypt of the mythos in Amenta. Egypt itself, as the land of the ... www.theosophical.ca/Book10AncientEgypt.

ANCIENT EGYPT- THE LIGHT OF THE WORLD - Gerald Massey BOOK - - X THE EXODUS FROM EGYPT

The Seed of Ysiraal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Title of Pharaoh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Page 629

WHEN roughly classified, the myths and legends generally show two points of departure for migrations of the human race, as these were rendered in the stellar and solar mythology. One is from the summit of the celestial mount, the other from the hollow under-world beneath the mount or inside the earth. The races that descended from the mount were people of the pole whose starting-point in reckoning time was from one or other station of the pole-star, determinable by its type, whether as the tree, the rock, or other image of a first point of departure. Those who ascended from the nether-world were of the solar race who came into existence with the sun as it is represented in the legendary lore, that is, when the solar mythos was established. The tradition of the pole-star people found in various countries is that they were born when no sun or moon as yet had come into existence. That is, they were pre-solar and pre-lunar in their reckoning of time. These are they, as was said by the Egyptians, who issued from the eye of Sut, or Darkness, the earliest type of which we reckon to have been Polaris, whether as the pole-star in the southern or the northern heaven. These were the Nahsi and the Blackheads of the dim beginnings in the stellar mythology. Following them, come the people born from the eye of Horus, which was a symbol of the moon. These were held to be the lunar race. Lastly came the children of the sun. Thus, the eye as symbol of a repeating period was stellar as the eye of Sut; it was lunar as the eye of Horus; it was solar as the eye of Ra. In the stellar mythos men descended from the summit of the mount, which was an image of the pole. And still in legendary lore they try to tell us from which of the seven stations they descended as a time-gauge in the prehistoric reckoning of their beginnings. But in the solar mythos they ascended from the under-world which had been hollowed out beneath the mount of earth for the passage of the sun. Thus there are two points of departure in the astronomical mythography, one from above and one from below. The oldest races that have kept the reckonings are descended from one or other of the seven stations in the mountain of the north, and in the later mythos men ascended from the earth below, or from below the earth; the human ascent being figured in the upward pathway of the sun. These were the solar race who followed the lunar and stellar people of the past. These, when born in Egypt, were the children of the sun-god Atum, who became the Hebrew Adam as the father of the human race.

 

ATUM 1234 4321 MUTA

 

Before Amenta was created by the excavator Ptah within the nether earth there was no typical ascent of man. Indeed there were no men until the time of Tum, since which time the race has been considered human. When the sun-god Ra arose up from the earth, or from the Lotus, as the father of created man, or man the mortal, the legend of the human ascent was established. In the “creation” of Atum, instead of being reckoned as the offspring of the old First Mother or the group of the seven pre-solar gods, men became the children of Ra, who are said to have come into existence as tears from his eye, or as germs of an elemental soul proceeding from the solar god. Stars were the children of Ra the sun-god in the solar mythos. Souls were the offspring of Ra the holy spirit in the eschatology; and here we may possibly delve down to one of the tap-roots of the legendary “Exodus.” The stars were looked on as a race of beings having souls of light that emanated from the sun. To these the solar race, as human beings, were affiliated by means of the totemic types, which included the crocodile of Sebek, the beast of Bes, the hawk of Horus, the scarabeus of Kheper. Hence it is said by the god Ra to the righteous in Amenta, “You yourselves are tears of mine eye in your person of superior men. I have shed abroad my seed for you” (Book of Hades, 5th division, D). These were the seed of Ra, who, as figured, were born like a tear from his eye, as a mode of effluence, and being solar they were the superior race of men, the Ruti, or men par excellence. Under the name of Khabsu in Egyptian the stars are synonymous with souls. These in their nightly rising from Amenta were the images of souls becoming glorified. They came forth in their thousands and tens of thousands from the lower Egypt of the astronomical mythos, the earliest exodus being stellar. Thus we can realise the leader Shu, who stands upon the height of heaven, rod in hand, and who was imaged in the constellation Kepheus as the Regulus or law-giver at the pole. In the “Destruction of Mankind” the stars are said to be “the multitudes which live in the nocturnal sky.” In this under-world Taht, the moon-god, is called the luminary of Ra “in the inferior heaven,” and in the deep region where he “inscribes the inhabitants” and it is said to him, “Thou art the keeper of those who do evil, whom my heart abhors” (Pl. C., lines 65-70). Taht was the reckoner of the stars here called the inhabitants of the nocturnal heaven, or sky of Amenta, whose names or numbers were inscribed by him, possibly as six hundred stars, which number was extended by the Jewish Kabalists to their six hundred thousand souls in Guph. Be this as it may, here are the souls in Amenta represented by stars as inhabitants of the underworld. And in the new creation by Atum-Ra, god of the nocturnal sun, they are spoken of as “these multitudes of men.” Ra orders that his heaven shall be depicted as a field of rest, and there arose the elysian fields or paradise of plenty on Mount Hetep. In this new heaven, says Ra, “I establish as inhabitants all the beings which are suspended in the sky, the stars! said by the majesty of Ra (to Nut), I assemble there the multitudes that they may celebrate thee, and there arose the multitudes.” These multitudes as stars had been the inhabitants in the deep region of the inferior sky. Ra having been “lifted up” as god alone in this new heaven of the astronomical mythos, the stars that were in the lower are to be assembled and grouped together in the upper heaven. This is followed by the stellar exodus from “lower Egypt and the desert of Amenta” under the leadership of Shu-Anhur, the uplifter of the sky together with its inhabitants, the stars, called the children of Nut, or heaven. It is said by Ra “my own son Shu, take with thee my daughter Nut, and be the guardian of the multitudes which live in the nocturnal sky,” or the sky in the lower Egypt of Amenta; “put them on thy head and be their fosterer,” or sustainer. (Pl. B, line 42.) Then, as said in the hymn to the god Shu, “Uplifted is the sky which he maintains with his two arms” as “king of Upper and Lower Egypt” in his new character of Shu-si-Ra, who, in the solar mythos, had become the son of Ra. In the Ritual, ch. 110, heaven is described as the mansion of Shu, “the mansion of his stars,” which was nightly renewed as “the beautiful creation which he raiseth up.” We have now delved down to an origin for the Egyptian exodus in the stellar mythos. Shu was the uplifter of the sky under his name of Anhur with his rod. As raiser of the firmament he uplifts the starry host or multitude of beings known as the offspring of Nut, or later, the seed of Ra, or later still, the children of Ra. These were previously the dwellers in the lower Egypt of the mythos who are to be set free from this realm of darkness and gathered together in the land of light, the starry heaven of Nut on high. Their deliverer was Shu-Anhur, the leader up to Heaven, with his rod, as “repeller of the dragon coming out of the abyss.” (p. 2, lines 5 and 6.) This exodus belongs to the rendering in the mythology, and underlies the Peri-em-hru or coming forth to day according to the Book of the Dead, in which the mythos has become the mould of the eschatology. The resurrection of souls has taken the place of the stars in the stellar, and of the sun in the solar mythos. The exodus was now the coming forth of the Manes from “Egypt and the desert” as localities in the mysteries of Amenta. This was then made geographical and practical by literalization in that exodus of the Israelites from the land of the Pharaohs which has hitherto passed as biblical history. In reviewing M. Renan’s work on Israel, a recent writer asks, what then is the origin and significance of the exodus and its attendant plagues and prodigies? “When did they come, where or when were they invented? The monuments are never likely to tell us.” No, not if we are looking for the Palestinian Jews in Egypt as an ethnological entity, or for the ancient Egyptian fables as biblical facts. But when we get clear of that cloud of iridescent dust which the Jewish writings have interposed betwixt us and the monuments, we shall find they do tell us more or less what was the origin of the wonderful tale by which the world has been beguiled so blindly through mistaking verifiable myth for God’s own historic word. The sufferings of the Chosen People in Egypt and their miraculous exodus out of it belong to the celestial allegory of the solar drama that was performed in the mysteries of the divine nether-world, and had been performed as a mythical representation ages before it was converted into a history of the Jews by the literalizers of the ancient legends. The tale of the ten plagues of Egypt contains an esoteric version of the tortures inflicted on the guilty in the ten hells of the under-world. We have seen somewhat of the descent of mankind from a celestial birthplace that was constellated as an enclosure on the mountain of the pole. We have now to trace the ascent from the regions of the nether-earth, which, as Egyptian, is an exodus from Lower Egypt and the “desert” of Amenta. We shall have to make the journey through this nether-earth once more in following the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt in the character of the manes issuing from Amenta. The legend of the exodus or coming forth to-day, like those of the creation, the deluge, and the lost paradise in the book of Genesis, belongs to that mythology which underlies and is the source of all the märchen and the folk-lore of the world. The clue, as will be shown, has been preserved in what is commonly termed the wisdom of the ancients, which we hold to be Egyptian in its origin and derivative on all the other lines of its descent. We find the mythos, the legends, and the folk-tales of the world are all involved in the Egyptian wisdom, and the Hebrew traditions are demonstrably the débris of Egyptian myth and eschatology. But, of all the various versions of the coming forth or exodus from out the under-world, not one has caused such deep perplexity as this of Israel issuing from Egypt, in which the mythos has been misappropriated and converted into an ethnical history. As Egyptian, it was not pretended that the children of Ra were ethnical, or that the mysteries of Amenta were transactions in the earth of time. The way up from Amenta was variously portrayed as an ascent by means of steps; by scaling a mount, or by climbing a tree, a grape-vine, a reed, a bean-stalk, or a papyrus reed. In the legends of many races we find the tradition of a deliverance from some subterranean dwelling-place which was their primeval home. This exodus from the under-world is common in the märchen of the red men. With the Lenni Lenape Indians, the beginning was in a subterranean abode up out of which they were led by the wolf as their chief totemic zootype. Now, the wolf is an equivalent for the jackal. In Egyptian the wolf and jackal (Seb) are synonymous; and the jackal was the guide of roads in Amenta who led the people through its wilderness, and showed a way for them to ascend into the world of light. All the myths and legends of an under-world depend upon there being an under-world, or nether-earth, and this again depends on there being a double-earth which was hollowed out by the God who represented the nocturnal sun for the passage through the mount of earth by night, and who as Egyptian was Ptah, the founder of Amenta. In the Mandan tradition of their origin, it is related that the whole nation once resided in one large village underground beside a subterraneous lake. A grape-vine extended its roots down to their habitation, and gave them an upward view of the light. Some of the more adventurous spirits climbed up the vine, and found themselves in a lovely region full of buffaloes, and rich with every kind of fruit. From this they returned with the grapes they had gathered, like the men who had gone forth to spy out the land in another version of the mythos. Their fellow-countrymen were so delighted with the taste of their newly-found fruit that men, women, and children determined to leave their lower earth and ascend to the upper by means of the grape-vine. But when the people were about half-way, a corpulent woman who was clambering up the vine broke it with her weight. This closed the aperture upon herself and the rest of the nation, and shut out the light of the sun. But when the Mandans die, they expect to return to this, the original country of their forefathers, the good reaching the ancient village of the vine by means of the lake which the wicked will not be able to cross by reason of the burden of their sins (Lewis and Clarke). This land of the forefathers was that of the ancestral spirits, the country of the tree of life, here identified with the vine. The subterranean lake is one with the lake in Tattu. The corpulent woman is the Great Mother, who was the enceinte Apt or Hathor in Egypt, whose tree is the sycamore-fig. The double-earth is the same as in the ritual. Consequently the vine is the tree of dawn up which the sun and souls ascended from the Tuat by means of the tree. The exodus from the nether-earth, or Lower Egypt, is the same as in the Hebrew and other versions of the mythos, the original of which is provably Egyptian. The Quiché “Popul Vuh” portrays the ancestors of the race as wanderers in the wilderness upon their way to the place where the sun was to rise. They also crossed the water, which divided whilst they passed, and which they went through just as if there had been no sea. They passed on the scattered rocks rolled on the sands, that served for stepping-stones. This is why the place was called “ranged stones and torn-up sands,” the name that was given to it on their passage through the waters that divided as they went. “At last they came to a mountain where, as they had been told, they were to see the sun rise for the first time” (Bancroft, vol. III, p. 51). This was the mount of glory in the solar mythos, and the waters which were crossed were those of the celestial Nun. The “ranged stones” in the waters correspond to the twelve stones that were set up by Joshua to mark the spot where the waters were held up for the Israelites to pass dry-footed through the river Jordan. In the Hawaiian tradition the king of the country, named Honua-i-lalo, was the oppressor of the Menehune people. Their god Kane sent Kane-Apua and Kanaloa the elder brother to bring away the oppressed people, and take them to a land which Kane their god had given them. The legend further tells how they came to the Red Sea of Kane, Kai-ula-a-Kane, and were pursued by Ke-Alii Wahanui. Thereupon Kane-Apua and Kanaloa prayed to Lono, and then they waded safely through the sea, and wandered in the desolate wilderness until at last they reached the promised land of Kane, called “Aina-Lauena-a-Kane.” This, says Fornander, is an ancient legend, which also contains the story of water being made to gush forth from a rock (Fornander, An Account of the Polynesian Race). The passage of the Red Sea and the destruction of those who follow the fugitives are also found in a Hottentot fable. Heitsi-Eibib was once travelling with a great number of his people, when they were pursued by the enemy. On arriving at the water which had to be crossed as the only way of escape, the leader said, “My grandfather’s father! open thyself that I may pass through, and close thyself afterwards.” So it took place as he had said, and they crossed the water safely. Then the pursuing enemy tried to pass through the opening likewise, but when they were in the midst of the divided water it closed upon them and they perished. (Bleek, Hottentot Fables, p. 75.) In this the personification of the water as the first father, God the grandfather, is in accordance with the Egyptian Nnu or celestial water, who is represented as the primordial male divinity, the father of the fathers, including Ra the solar god. The Nnu or Nun identifies the water as celestial, and it is this that divides to let the sun-god and his followers pass through dryshod. These in the Ritual are pursued by the Apap and the Sebau to the edge of the horizon. Then the water of day overwhelms the powers of darkness, and Apap the dragon with all his evil host are overthrown, submerged, and drowned in the waters of the lower Nun (Rit., ch. 39). They are described in the “Magic Papyrus” as the “immerged,” who do not “pass,” or go along, but remain floating on the waters like dead bodies drifting on the inundation; with their mouths for ever shut and sealed (Records, vol. x, 151). In another version of the Hottentot legend a Nama woman and her brothers are pursued by an elephant. “Stone of my ancestors,” cry the fleeing ones, “divide for us.” The stone opens and they pass. The pursuer used the same words, and the rock opened for him also, but it closed on the elephant and crushed it to death (Bleek, Hottentot Fables, pp. 64, 65). The fable can be read by means of the Egyptian wisdom. It belongs to the war that was waged for ever betwixt the powers of darkness and light. In the Egyptian mythos the pursuing monster as the Apap-dragon of the deep, in place of the elephant, pursues the children of light who are escaping from the under-world. They reach the rock of the horizon or the Tser-hill, which opens for the “coming forth” and closes again when the pursued ones have passed through in safety. Shu=Moses stands upon the rock to smite it with his rod, with the result that the waters of day gush forth in light. This is the water of heaven set flowing from the rock of the horizon for those who are followed by the Apap-reptile of darkness and consuming drought. The sun-god in the Ritual staggers forth upon the mount with many wounds, but Apap is caught and crushed and cut up piecemeal in the place appointed for the dragon to be drowned in the red lake of the mythos (Rit., ch. 39). Through this Red Sea the followers of Ra, of Heitsi-Eibib, or Jehovah, pass in triumph on their way to the land of promise on the mount of glory. But the hosts of evil are continually overthrown. The starting-point of the Mangaian migration was from Savaiki in the shades. The natives of the Penrhyns speak of going down to Savaiki in death, and they say their first ancestors came up as heaven-bursters from the same country. All such origins are mythical, not historical or geographical, although the mystical land gets localised on the surface of the earth as it is in the heptanomis of the Hervey Isles. Savaiki was known as the home of the ancestors, but the only ancestors first known were the ancestral spirits, and it was these as manes that sought deliverance from the under-world. In one of the traditions the Egyptians were reputed to come from the land of Puanta, the Ta-neter or country of the gods, the land of glory, or the golden land. When it is said to the sun-god, “Adoration to thee who arisest out of the golden,” it means out of Puanta, the nether-land of dawn (Rit., ch. 15, hymn 1). This land of the gods as a mythical locality was in the under-world, not on the surface of our earth; it is not the Puanta that was geographical in the south. The people from Puanta, the land of the gods, are those who had a solar origin. They issue from the land of glory with the sun. The gods and the glorified came up from this divine land when they emerged from Puanta in the Orient. One title of the first chapter in the Ritual is “The chapter of introducing the mummy into the Tuat on the day of burial.” This applies to the mummy interred on earth, and also to the Osiris or manes in Amenta, who was figured in the mummy-form. The Tuat is a place of entrance to and egress from the under-world. And in the Pyramid Texts (Pepi, i. 185) those who are in the Tuat are called the Tuata. Now, as the Tuat was in Tanen, the land (ta) beneath the waters of the Nen, they are the Tuata-Tanen, in whom we propose to identify the Irish mythical heroes or divine ancestors called the Tuatha de Danan. In the oldest account of the Tuatha it is said they came from heaven. Therefore their origin was not human. In issuing from the Tuat of Amenta they came from the lower paradise of two from which they brought the wisdom and the symbols of the Egyptians as their sacred treasures, including the four precious things belonging to the Tuatha de Danan. The Tuatha are described as the gods and the not-gods, a title that exactly corresponds to the Egyptian two classes of spirits called the gods and glorified. According to Giraldus in his Topographia Hibernia, it was a guess of the learned that the Tuatha “were of the number of the exiles driven out of heaven,” and if they were of those who came from the land of promise and issued from the Tuat, they would come from the subterranean Aarru or earthly paradise. The hills and mounds of Erin are the places of entrance to and exit from the invisible world of elfin-land, which answers to the hidden earth of the manes in Amenta. When euhemerised by tradition, the Tuatha de Danan are said to have retired into the hills and mounds after they were utterly defeated in battle. In other legends Dagda and his sons were once the rulers over this nether-land, and they are said to lie buried there with “the síd or fairy-mound of the brugh as covering for their resting-place” (Rhys). The brugh was originally the place of burial. He who sleeps at Philae is he who sleeps in the brugh, the burgh, or bury. The name written in hieroglyphics is Piruk=brugh, and there the mummy slept in the burgh of Amenta, or with the Tuata in the Tuat of the nether-world. The divine mother of the Tuatha is known by the name of Danan. The Tuatha are the tribe or people of the goddess Danan, who is also the deëss of death. Now, there is an Egyptian goddess Tanan who is a form of Hathor=the amorous queen in the earth of Tanen, the land of the nocturnal sun and the domain of the dead. The god Tanen is lord of that land, and the goddess is identified with Hathor by her headdress. The name of Tanan may also be written Tann. This agrees with the naming of the Welsh and Irish goddess Danu or Danan. Her name takes the form of Don in Welsh, and the deities who descend from her, like Gwydion and Arianrhod, are called the children of Don. The Tuatha de Danan are also termed the Fir Déa, or men of the goddess. Hence we propose to identify the goddess Tanen with Danan or Danu, the Great Mother of the Tuatha de Danan, who were the people of the goddess as the souls of the dead in the divine Neter-Kar, i.e. in Tanen, and who issued from the Tuat with the sun or solar god as the men of the Goddess, who was Tanan in Egypt, Danan in Ireland, and Don in Britain. The men of the goddess, as we suggest, were the Tuata of the Pyramid Texts, who as divine ancestors become the Irish Tuatha de Danan. The same word is represented by the Irish Tuath for the tribe; Breton Tud, Gothic Thiuda, Saxon Theod, for a people; the Oscan Tauta for a community; it is also extant in the name of the Teutons. One of the chief attributes of the Tuatha de Danan is the power they have of assuming any form at will, and this is a supreme trait of those who come forth when the Tuat is opened (Rit., ch. 2). Chapter 64 is the one by which the Tuata take all forms that each desireth, whether on entering or coming forth from this womb of Amenta. The transformation of the manes has come to be called shape-shifting, but there is no beginning with it as a faculty of the wizards in Ireland. There are various hints in the Irish fairy-lore of the Tuatha de Danan being one with the spirits of the dead. Their relation to the prehistoric mounds is the same as that of the Tuata with the mount of Amenta. There is also a still prevailing confusion in the Irish mind betwixt the fairies and the ghosts, which is very natural when we know that the fairies originated in the spirits of the elements which have got mixed up with the manes of the dead. According to Caesar, the Druids taught the Gauls that they were all descended from Dis Pater, the Demiurge — that is, from the god of Hades or Amenta, who is Tanan as consort of the goddess, and whose name was taken by Ptah-Tanan, the better known Dis Pater, who was earlier than Osiris in the Egyptian cult, and from whom the solar race ascended, whether from Puanta or from the Tuat. Thus interpreted, the Tuatha or tribes who brought the ancient wisdom out of Lower Egypt or the Tuat may have been genuine Egyptians after all, as the much-derided traditions of the Keltae and the Kymry yet allege and strenuously maintain. “The oasis of Tuaut” is another bit of ancient Egypt still surviving in the country of Morocco, where it testifies, like some strange boulder on the surface, to the buried past.The birthplace of the stellar races was in the celestial north. The solar race were they who came forth from the East. In going down to Amenta, as manes, they were the westerners; in coming forth they are the easterners. Thus, when we are told that Abraham came from Ur of the Kasdim, or the Magi, which was his birthplace, that goes far to identify him as a solar god, just as Laban, the white one, was a lunar deity, and Ur a mythical locality. Ur is an Egyptian name for that which is eldest, first, great, principal. The course of the sun-god by day is reckoned to run from Ta-Ur to Am-Ur, i.e. from east to west. Ta-Ur then is Egyptian for the land of the east, and the migration thence is solar, that is — mythical, — and would be astronomical when the birthplace is designated “Ur of the Kasdim” or Chaldees. Ur of the Kasdim is self-identified by name with the Magi, astrologers or astronomers. Moreover, the frequent coupling of Ur and Martu in the astrological tablets points to Ur as a name for the east being juxtaposed to Martu for the west, “Ur and Martu” meaning east and west, and not Ur a city on earth and Martu a quarter in the heavens.It has been pointed out by translators that various place-names in the Egyptian Book of the Dead denote celestial localities, and are not geographical. They are names in the astronomical mythology which had been first derived from Egypt on earth, that were afterwards applied to Upper Egypt in heaven and Lower Egypt in Amenta. The heaven above and Amenta below were divided into Upper and Lower Egypt. The Egyptian cities of Thinis, Hermopolis, Memphis, Thebes, Annu, and others were repeated in the planisphere as mythical localities which furnish place-names for the eschatology in the Ritual. When Osiris triumphs, and “joy goeth its round in Thinis,” that is the celestial, not the earthly city (Rit., ch. 18). When the deceased in Amenta exclaims, “May Sekhet the Divine One lift me up so that I may arise in heaven and issue my behest in Memphis” (Rit., ch. 26), it is the heavenly Memphis, the celestial Ha-ka-Ptah, or spirit house of Ptah, the enclosure of the white wall on high, that is meant. When the priest says in the first chapter of the Ritual, “I baptize with water in Tattu, and anoint with oil in Abydos”, the scene of the baptism is in Amenta, not on earth. Rekhet, the place where the two divine sisters waited and wept for the lost Osiris, was a locality in the earth of eternity, but Rekhet was also geographical in Egypt.At first the localities, as Egyptian, were topographical, next they were constellated as uranographical, and finally they constituted a double Egypt of the other world in the earth and heaven of eternity.The Egyptian Exodus is a mystery of Amenta. It is described in the Ritual as the Peri-em-heru or “coming forth to day” from “the Hades of Egypt and the desert” (Records, vol. x, p. 109). Thus when Horus comes forth in his resurrection it is said that “Egypt and the desert are at peace” (Rit., ch. 183). Egypt and the desert were the two parts in the double-earth that was divided between Sut and Horus, betwixt whom was internecine war that only ended temporarily at the coming of the prince of peace who came to set the prisoners free from the land of bondage, of drought and darkness, of Apap and the plagues of Egypt in the under-world.The sufferers depicted in the mythos were at first the stars that fell down headlong into the abyss to be swallowed by the dragon, of whom it is said, “Eternal Devourer is his name” (Rit., ch. 17). This was in the astronomical mythology. In the eschatology the prisoners are the manes or body-souls of the dead who passed into Amenta, the earth of eternity, as it were by way of the grave. Both were the children of light, mythical or eschatological, otherwise the children of Ra, at war for ever with the creatures of darkness in the nether-earth. The exodus or coming forth from this nether Egypt is represented astronomically on the great Mendes Stele. On one side Horus Behutet, the great god, lord of heaven and giver of life, is described as coming “out of the horizon on the side of Upper Egypt,” and on the other side of the Stele “the coming out of Lower Egypt” is spoken of instead. That is the exodus from Kheb or Lower Egypt, which is Amenta in the eschatology (Records, vol. viii, 91). This is the exodus from Egypt of the lower earth according to the representation in the solar mythos that preceded the version in the eschatology by which it was followed and enforced. In the making of Amenta the Egyptians mapped out Egypt in the nether-world in accordance with Egypt on earth, only on a vaster scale. They had their Lower and Upper Egypts in the other life as they had in this. But Khebt, the Egyptian original of the Greek Eguptos, is more expressly the Lower Egypt, hence the lower of the two Egypts in the mythical representation. This was the Egypt below, through which the nocturnal sun and the souls of the deceased passed on their way up to the land of liberty and light. This was the Egypt where the Lord (as Osiris, or the elder Horus) was crucified in the Tat (Rev. xI. 8), or where the solar god suffered his mortal agony, his death and burial; the Egypt from which he rose again. Here was the wilderness of the wanderings during the forty days of the Egyptian Lent, which represented the forty days of the seed that was buried in the earth to attain the new life in the regermination of Osiris, which forty days were disguised as forty years in the historic version of the Jewish exodus. It is unfortunate and humiliating to us as a nation that Egyptology and Assyriology in England should have first fallen into the hands of devout believers in the biblical “history.” Archaeology had to call itself “biblical” in order that a society might be founded for the study of Egyptology and Assyriology, and Egyptian exploration was for a long time limited to looking for “biblical sites” in Egypt, which are only to be met with as mythical localities in Amenta. Nor is this mania of the historic-minded yet entirely extinct! Jewish or Gentile commentators who know nothing of the astronomical mythology, or the Egyptian origin of the Hebrew legends, have never been able to apply the comparative method to these writings. There is but one Egypt for them. But there was another Lower Egypt, another Red Sea, another dragon, another deliverance from Rahab and the Apap-monster, and another exodus, which have not hitherto been taken into account by the Hebraists. It was not to Egypt topographically that the ransomed of the Lord were to return singing the songs of Zion. There is another and a truer version of these mystical matters possible, even as there was of old.The creation of Amenta in the Egyptian mythos has been already explained as the work of Ptah and the seven Knemmu or navvies who were his assistants in opening up the under-world, and who in the Hebrew rendering become the seven princes that digged the well, referred to in one of the fragments of ancient lore (Num. xxi. 18), which seven princes in the Semitic legends are identified with the chariot of the Lesser Bear. Amenta was a second terra firma for the souls of the departed, a mental fulcrum to the eye of faith laid on the physical foundation of the solar mythology for those who travelled the eternal road. Thus the origin of the exodus, as Egyptian, was in the coming forth of the heavenly bodies from below the horizon in the mythical representation. This was followed by the coming forth of the manes from dark to day, from death to life, from bondage to liberty, from Lower to Upper Egypt in the eschatology. In the coming forth of the Israelites from “the Hades of Egypt and the desert,” it is said the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light: that they might go by day and by night: the pillar of cloud by day, and the pillar of fire by night departed not from before the people” (Ex. xiii. 21, 22). It is possible that the zodiacal light supplied a natural image for the pillar of cloud and the pillar of fire described in the book of Exodus. The zodiacal light is a phenomenon visible in Egypt at certain seasons of the year. It is seen as a conical pillar of cloud towards the east in the morning, just before sunrise, and towards the west at sunset. In the pale light of dawn it is a pillar of cloud, and in the ruddy glow of sundown it becomes a veritable pillar of fire. It is said of the Great One God, “the living one, who liveth everlastingly,” and who was Atum-Huhi in his temple at On, “He traverseth the heavens, and compasseth the nether-world each day; he travels in the cloud to separate heaven and earth, and again to unite them” — that is, at morn and evening in making the passage of Amenta. The ‘Lord of the Cloud” is also addressed as the guide of navigation. The flame of the sun is the protection of those who cross the double-earth. He who “commands heaven causes his disk to appear in the desert” (Rit., 99). “He who purifies the water” “appears on the liquid abyss” (101). “He marches for the dead; for those who are overturned” (I.). The opening chapters of the Book of the Dead are called the Peri-em-hru or coming forth to day. In other words, this was the Kamite exodus of the manes from Amenta in the eschatological phase of the mythos, which has been converted by literalization into the “history” found in the book of Exodus. The Hebrew märchen are the legendary remains of the Egyptian mythos, whether in the book of Genesis or the book of Exodus. The “coming forth to day” with which the Ritual opens is the Egyptian exodus, and the Hebrew exodus is likewise the coming forth to day.An entrance to the mythical Amenta, previously shown, was localized at Abydos as the cleft or the mouth of the rock, a narrow gorge in the Libyan range of hills. Opposite this entrance stood the temple of Osiris Khent-Amenta, a name which denotes the opening to the interior of Amenta. Through this gorge the solar bark passed into the mountain of the west, and bore the image of the dying solar god on board. Once a year also there was a feast of the dead, or, as we have it in survival, of All Souls, and there came a funeral flotilla to the mouth of the cleft on one of the first nights of the year. This answers in the mythos to the starting-point in time of the Jewish exodus as history, in the first month of the year.Two ways of entering the other world are represented in two different categories of the ancient legend, both of which are derived from the same fundamental origin. One is by means of the dividing waters, the other by means of the passage that opens and closes in the earth at evening or in the equinox. In the Egyptian mythos the entrance to Amenta is both by land and water. The god on board the solar bark, or the children of Ra=Israel on board the bark of souls, passed through the cloven rock by water. Previously the water had to be divided for the travellers to pass. But the waters thus divided were celestial, being mythical. They are the waters divided by Shu-Anhur with his rod as leader of the manes from Amenta up to heaven. It is not written in the Old Testament what the Lord did for Israel in the vale of Arnon, but the Targum of Jerusalem tells us that when the Beni-Israel were passing through the gorge or defile, the Moabites were hidden in the caverns of the valley, intending to rush out and slay them. But the Lord signed to the mountains, and they literally laid their heads together to prevent it; they closed upon the enemy with a clap, and crushed the chiefs of the mighty ones, so that the valleys were overflowed with the blood of the slain. Meanwhile Israel walked over the tops of the hills, and knew not the miracle and the mighty act which the Lord was doing in the valley of the Arnon. Thus the miracle of the Red Sea was reversed. In the one case the waters stood up in heaps and were turned into hills; in the other the solid hills flowed down and were fused, whilst Israel passed over them as if they were a level plain. In the one miracle the Red Sea was turned into dry ground; in the other the dry ground was turned into a red sea of blood. The hills that rushed together to make a level plain are a familiar figure of the equinox, to be found in varied forms of legendary lore (Book of Beginnings, vol. II, pp. 356-357). This account therefore is as good as the biblical one, and it tends to prove that both belong to the astronomical mythos, and that the crossing here was in the equinox.In the mythos of Amenta the promised land of plenty, the land of corn and wine and oil, was the Aarru-field of divine harvest that awaited the righteous who had been wanderers in the wilderness and who fought their way to it through all the obstacles of the under-world. These obstacles can still be traced in the Jewish narrative compared with the books of Amenta and the mysteries of Taht. All through the journey of this Egypt underground, the objects besought and fervently prayed for are a good passage through the waters and all other hindrances, and a safe way out upon the eastern side, where lay the promised land. One great object of the manes in knowing the words of great magical power in Amenta is to obtain command over the waters. The deceased prays that he may have command over the waters which he has to pass through, even as Sut had command of force on the “night of the great disaster” (Rit., chs. 57 and 62). These waters are the Red Sea of the Jewish exodus, in which the Apap-dragon lurks and lies in wait. The later scholiasts tell us that the habitation of this monster was the Red Sea. Thus the Red Sea is identifiable with the lake of Putrata in which the dragon lurked that lived upon the drowned, the dragon that was turned into the cruel Pharaoh in the Hebrew version of the exodus.It is evident that the Jews were in possession of an esoteric rendering of the same mystical matter as is presented exoterically in the books ascribed to Moses. There were two versions of the dark sayings and the hidden wisdom, the esoteric and the exoteric, amongst them, as there were amongst the Egyptians, and these have doubled the confusion. The Christian world has based its structure of belief simply and solely on the exoteric version; thus the door of the past just now being opened anew in Egypt was closed to them and locked; they were left outside without the key, and in the darkness of the grossest, crassest ignorance the Christian faith was founded. We have now to recover such “history” as is possible from the Pentateuch by eliminating the mythos and the eschatology. Fragments of the original mythos crop up in the Haggadoth, the Kabalah, the Talmud, and other Hebrew writings, which tend to show that in the earlier time and lowermost strata the same matter had been known to the Jews themselves as non-historical. Thus it is provable and will be proved that “biblical history” has been mainly derived from misappropriated and misinterpreted mythology, and that the mythology is demonstrably Egyptian which can only be explained in accordance with the Egyptian wisdom. This is not to say that the books of Genesis, Exodus, and Joshua are intentional forgeries, but that the data were already more or less extant as subject-matter of the mysteries, and that an exoteric version of the ancient wisdom has been rendered in the form of historic narrative and ethnically applied to the Palestinian Jews. The most learned of the Rabbis have most truthfully and persistently maintained that the books attributed to Moses do but contain an exoteric explanation of the secret wisdom, though they may not trace the gnosis to its Egyptian source. The chief teachers have always insisted on the allegorical nature of the Pentateuch. Two laws, they tell us, were delivered to Moses on Mount Sinai. One was committed to writing, as in the Pentateuch; the other was transmitted orally from generation to generation, as is acknowledged by the Psalmist when he says, “I will open my mouth in a parable; I will utter dark sayings of old, which we have heard and known and our fathers have told us.” Parables and dark sayings of old are the allegories of mythology and enigmas of the ancient wisdom uttered after the manner of the mysteries. Now the subject of this psalm is the story of Israel in Egypt and the exodus from the old dark land. The plagues of Egypt are described. “He set his sign in Egypt; he turned their rivers into blood.” “He sent them swarms of flies which devoured them, and frogs which destroyed them.” He also gave their increase to the caterpillar and their labour to the locust. He killed their vines with hail and their sycamore-trees with frost, and “smote all the first-born in Egypt.” The coming forth is also described. The Psalmist tells of the marvellous things that were done “in the land of Egypt.” How the Lord “clove the sea” and “caused them to pass through” whilst the waters were made “to stand as an heap.” How he led them forth with a pillar of cloud by day and of fire by night. How he clove the rock in the wilderness “and gave them drink abundantly as out of the depths, “ and “ opened the doors of heaven “ and “ rained down manna upon them to eat.” This was heard and known orally as a tale that is told in dark sayings of old which did not originate in the biblical history of the exodus. They are “tried as silver is tried” in the refineries of the nether-earth. They go “through fire and through water,” and are “brought out into a place of abundance” in the pleasant Aarru fields. This journey is described in various psalms. “Working salvation in the midst of the earth, thou didst divide (or break up) the sea by thy strength; thou breakest the heads of the dragons in the waters. Thou breakest the heads of Leviathan in pieces” (Ps. LXXIV. 12-14). In the Hebrew Song of Moses we are in the same nether-earth, where the matter is eschatological. The adversaries are the same opponents of the chosen people — the same, that is, in the book of Deuteronomy as in the Book of the Dead. Ezekiel (XX. 36) makes an allusion to “the wilderness of the land of Egypt,” which points to the lower Egypt of the mythos in Amenta. Egypt itself, as the land of the living, the cultivable land, was the very opposite of the wilderness.Amenta in the Book of Hades, and also in the Ritual, is described as consisting of two parts, called “Egypt and the desert land or wilderness.” This latter was the domain of Sut in the Osirian mysteries. One part of the domain, named Anrutef, is self-described as the place where nothing grows. It was a desert of fruitless, leafless, rootless sand, in which “ there was no water for the people to drink” ; or, if any, the water was made bitter or salt by the adversary Sut or the Apap-dragon. The struggle of Sut and Horus (or Osiris) in the desert lasted forty days, as these were commemorated in the forty days of the Egyptian Lent, during which time Sut as the power of drought and sterility made war on Horus in the water and the buried germinating grain. Meantime “the flocks of Ra” were famishing for lack of pasture and for want of water in the wilderness. These forty days spent in the desert of the mythos have confessedly been extended into the forty years of the history. They were the forty days of suffering in the wilderness of the under-world which lay betwixt the autumn and the vernal equinox. And when it is threatened by Ihuh that only the children shall go forth with Joshua, it is said, “Your children shall be wanderers in the wilderness even forty days, for every day a year” (Num. XIV. 33, 34).The lower Egypt of Amenta was a land of dearth and darkness to the manes. It was the domain of Sut at the entrance in the west. Here was the typical wilderness founded on the sands that environed Egypt. Aarru or the garden far to the eastward was an oasis in the desert ready for the manes who were fortunate enough to reach that land of promise. The domain of Sut was a place of plagues; all the terrors of nature were congregated there, including drought and famine, fiery flying serpents and unimaginable monsters. There were the hells of heat in which the waters were on fire; there were the slime-pits, the blazing bitumen, and brimstone flames of Sodom and Gomorrah. The desert of engulfing sands, the lakes of fire, and the deluge of overwhelming waters had to be crossed, and all the powers of death and hell opposed the passage of the glorified elect, the chosen people of the Lord, who were bound for bliss in the land where their redemption dawned upon the summit of the mount. This then was the land of bondage where the manes were in direst need of a deliverer. The typical tyrant and taskmaster in the Hebrew “history” has never been identified on earth, and it may be somewhat difficult to identify him in Amenta, but it is not impossible. The devourer of the people in that land takes several forms. The Apap monster lies in wait and has to be encountered at the entrance to the valley of the shadow of death. But there is one typical devourer. The Red Sea is his dwelling-place, and “eternal devourer is his name.” Another of his names is Mates, the hard, cruel, flinty-hearted. He is described as having the skin of a man and the face of a hound. His dwelling is in the red lake of fire, where he lives upon the shades of the damned and eats the livers of princes. As he comes from the Red Sea, his overthrowal is in the Red Sea, like the overwhelming of Pharaoh and his host. The same typical devourer has another figure in the judgment hall, where it is named Amemit. Here it has the head of a crocodile. Where we might speak of the jaws of death, hell, or destruction, the Egyptians said or showed the jaws of the crocodile. Those who are condemned to be devoured pass into the jaws of the devourer. Thus the crocodile is the devourer, the typical tyrant, the cruel, hard-hearted monster who bars the gate of exit and will not let the suffering people go up from the land of bondage. When the manes seeks his place of refuge in Amenta or in the Ammah (Rit., ch. 72), he prays for deliverance from the crocodile in the land of bondage. He also says, “Let not the powers of darkness (the Sebau) have the mastery over me,” and he prays that he may reach the divine dwelling which has been prepared for him in the Aarru-fields of peace and plenty, where there is corn of untold quantity in that land toward which his face is set. This is the chapter “by which one cometh forth to day and passeth through Ammah or the Ammah” in seeking deliverance from the crocodile or dragon in the land of bondage. Protection is sought in Ammah because the god who dwells there in everlasting light is the overthrower of the crocodile. The crocodile is the dragon of Egypt to the Hebrew scribes, who use it as an image of the Pharaoh. When Ezekiel writes, “Thus saith the Lord God: Behold, I am against thee, Pharaoh, King of Egypt, the great dragon that lieth in the midst of his rivers,” the imagery is derived from the Egypt of Amenta, however it may be afterwards applied. The great dragon, as typical devourer in the land of bondage, is here identified with the Pharaoh of Egypt, as it also has been in the book of Exodus.Amenta is spoken of at least once in the Ritual as the place wherein the living are destroyed. It is also described as the Kâsu or burial-place. One of the twelve divisions of this under-world was known as “the sandy realm of Sekari,” the place of interment. The dead were buried underneath their mounds in this domain of Sekari, which was a wilderness of sand. This is the probable origin of the wilderness full of buried corpses in the book of Numbers. For, after all the promises made to the children of Israel, they are suddenly turned upon by the Lord and told that their carcases shall fall in this wilderness. “Your little ones will I bring in, but as for you, your carcases shall fall in this wilderness” (Num. xiv. 31, 32). Now, the carcases that were to rot in the wilderness are equivalent to the mummies buried in the sandy realm of Osiris-Sekari, god of the coffin and the desert sand. In the Kamite eschatology those who made the exodus from Amenta to the world of day are those who rise from the dead in the desert called “the sandy realm of Sekari” = the wilderness. Moreover, they rise again as children who are called “the younglings of Shu.” And Shu was the leader and forerunner of this new generation of divine beings, called his “younglings,” from the “sandy realm of Sekari,” when their redemption from that land of bondage dawned (Rit., ch. 55). The wilderness of the nether-earth being a land of graves, this gives an added significance to the question asked of Moses, “Because there were no graves in Egypt, hast thou taken us away to die in the wilderness?” (Ex. XIV. 11), which as the domain of Osiris-Sekari was depicted as a cemetery of sand, where the dead awaited the coming of Horus, Shu, Ap-uat (or Anup), the guide, and Taht, the lunar light, as servants of Ra, the supreme one god, to wake them in their coffins and lead them from this land of darkness to the land of day. Amenta, as the place of graves, is frequently indicated in the Hebrew scriptures, as in the description of the great typical burial-place in the valley of Hamon-Gog. This was in the Egypt described in the book of Revelation as the city of dead carcases, where also their lord was crucified as Ptah-Sekari or Osiris-Tat. Amenta had been converted into a cemetery by the death and burial of the solar god, who was represented as the mummy in the lower Egypt of the nether-earth. The manes were likewise imaged as mummies in their coffins or beneath their mounds of sand. They also rose again in the mummy-likeness of their lord, and went up out of Egypt in the constellation of the Mummy (Sahu-Orion), or in the coffin of Osiris that was imaged in the Greater Bear.In the Ritual the power of darkness called “the devourer of the ass,” which was a solar zootype, is Am-ã-ã, the great, great devourer by name. Am signifies the devourer, of whom it is said eternal devourer is his name (Rit., ch. 17). This Am-ã-ã, the great, great devourer, is apparently the Amalek of the biblical legend: Melek, the lord of rule, being suffixed to the name of Am, to describe the character. “Then came Amalek and fought with Israel in Rephidim,” in the region of the Rephaim, Sheol or Amenta (Ex. XVII. 8). “The Lord hath sworn he will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.” These are the two great opponents, who were Apap, the devourer of the ass, and Ra in the wars of Amenta. The wars of the lord, as Egyptian, were waged against the adversaries of Ra or Osiris in Amenta. These adversaries were the powers of evil, the Apap-dragon of drought, the serpent of darkness, the Sebau, the Sami, together with Sut and his co-conspirators in the later rendering of the mythos. The adversaries of the Good Being are annihilated in the tank of flame (ch. I). Osiris is thus addressed: “Hail to thee, the great, the mighty, whose enemies are laid prostrate at their blocks! Hail to thee, who slaughterest the Sebau and annihilatest Apap! Thou hast utterly destroyed all the enemies of Osiris” (Rit., ch. 15). Chapter 18 is in celebration of the triumph of Osiris over all his adversaries, who are slaughtered and destroyed. The great slaughter of the adversaries is carried out in the nether-world (ch. 41) or secret earth of Amenta, at a place called Suten-Khen. Also the plagues of Egypt had previously been let loose by the Lord on Abram’s account. “And the Lord plagued Pharaoh with great plagues” before “Abram went up out of Egypt” (Gen. xii. 17; XIII. 1). This is a bit of the same myth of Amenta, which was earlier than the Mosaic exodus. The scenery of Sodom and the pits of bitumen may be found in the Ritual, together with the night of reckoning, which is the “night of fire against the overthrown, the night of chaining the wicked in their hells, the night on which their vital principles are destroyed” (Rit., 17). In the Hebrew version this “reckoning” on the fatal night when the Typhonians (or Sodomites) were destroyed in the hells of fire and sulphur takes the shape of “reckoning,” whether there are fifty, forty-five, forty, thirty, twenty, or ten righteous persons to save the doomed city from destruction (Gen. XVIII. 24-32). In the legend of the monkey, the god who reposes in Amenta and traverses the darkness and the shadows, when he rises gives up the pig to the plague (Book of Hades). Now the pig was a type of the evil Typhon. In one of the pictures a pig called the devourer of the arm (of Osiris) is being driven by the monkey, which was a lunar zootype. Thus the pig which is here given to the plagues shows that in the true mythos the plagues of Egypt were let loose on the Typhonians or powers of evil, the Sebau, the Sami, the conspirators of Sut, the children of darkness, whether from a physical or moral point of view, and that this was in the lower Egypt of Amenta. These in the Hebrew version have been transformed into ethnical Egyptians who so cruelly oppressed and preyed upon the suffering Israelites. Thus the plagues of Egypt occurred twice over in a land which was not the Egypt of the Pharaohs, and the people who suffered from them were not Egyptians. This agrees with the hidden gnosis in the Wisdom of Solomon, and also in the book of Revelation, where the plagues are of the same mystical nature, but are only seven instead of ten in number. The “wilderness” was obviously a place or state in which the shoes and clothes of the people did not wear out. This was only possible to the manes in the desert of Amenta. The two regions of the clothed and unclothed are named in relation to the judgment hall of Mati. The clothed and unclothed are well-known terms for the elect and the rejected manes; the children of light and the offspring of darkness. In the trial scenes the spirits who are judged to be sound and pure are told that they may pass on as the clothed, whilst the condemned are designated the unclothed. Thus the clothed ones pass safely and freely through the desert region of the unclothed. In the Hebrew version we read, “I have led you forty years in the wilderness, (and) your clothes are not waxen old upon you, and your shoe is not waxen old upon your feet” (Deut. XXIX. 5). There can be no doubt about these being the divinely clothed and fed, as described in the Ritual, where they eat of the tahen and drink of the water made sweet by the tree of life, and pass, as the clothed, through the wilderness which is called the region of the naked. To say that the clothes and shoes of God’s own people did not wear out during a period of forty years is a mode of showing they were divinely made for everlasting wear, but not on earth, where nowadays they wear out all too fast for Gentile as for Jew. Apparently the Hebrew manna represents the Egyptian tahen which was given to the manes for food in the wilderness of Amenta. In passing through the desert or the region of the unclothed, the manes tells of the tahen that was given for sustenance (ch. 124). So far as the tahen is known, it agrees well enough with the Hebrew manna. “When the dew that lay (on the ground) was gone up, behold, upon the face of the wilderness a small round thing, small as the hoar-frost on the ground,” which was “like unto wafers made with honey.” Wafers made of tahen were also eaten sacramentally as food of heaven in the Osirian eucharist. In the mystery of opening the mouth and of giving breath to the breathless ones in Amenta, the Egyptians made use of an instrument called the ur-heka, or great magical power. It is sometimes a sinuous, serpent-like rod without the serpent’s head. At others it has the head of the serpent on it, united with the head of a ram. Both ram and serpent were types of the deity Khnef, who represented the breath of life or the spirit, Nef, Hebrew Nephesh, which was assumed to enter the Osiris when the mummy’s mouth was typically opened to inhale the breath of future existence. Here then is a magical rod that turned into a serpent, which may be seen figured in the Vignettes to the Ritual as a form of the magical rod with which the mouth of the deceased was opened in the mysteries of Amenta. It is held by the tail in the hand of the magician or priest who performs the ceremony of apru, i.e., opening the mouth, in illustration of the chapters by which the mouth is opened in the nether-world (Vignettes to chs. 21, 22, 23). The rod is changed into a serpent at the time when the Lord is desirous for Moses to become his mouthpiece. Moses objects, whereupon the Lord asks, “Who hath made man’s mouth? Now therefore go, and I will be with thy mouth and teach thee what thou shalt speak.” The contest ends in Moses having his own way, and in Aaron becoming a mouth to Moses. Moses is to take in his hand the rod wherewith he is to “do the signs” (Ex. IV. 1-17).Here then we identify the serpent-rod of the Egyptian priests that was known by name as the great magical power, and it was sometimes a rod, at others a serpent. This we take to be the original of that rod with which the tricks are played in the Hebrew märchen by the Lord God of Israel for the purpose of frightening Pharaoh. “And the Lord said unto him (Moses), What is that in thine hand? And he said, A rod. And he said, Cast it on the ground. And he cast it on the ground, and it became a serpent: and Moses fled from before it. And the Lord said unto Moses, Put forth thine hand and take it by the tail. And he put forth his hand and laid hold of it, and it became a rod in his hand” (Ex. IV. 2-5). The type of great magical power is thus turned to account in astonishing the natives and in giving lessons to the magicians of Egypt. In both scenes we have the opening of the mouth. In both we have the serpent-rod with which the signs and wonders are wrought. And it is admitted that Pharaoh had wise men, sorcerers, “magicians of Egypt,” who had rods which became serpents as types of transformation. These rods are to be seen in the hands of the wise men portrayed in the Ritual, but not for any such fool’s play as is described in the book of Exodus.There are two serpents in Egyptian symbolism — one is a type of evil, the other is the good serpent. One is the Apap of drought, darkness, and death or negation; the other is the Uraeus-serpent of life, that was worn on the frontlets of the gods and the glorified manes as a sign of protection and salvation or safety (ch. 34). In the chapter by which a person is not devoured or bitten to death by the eater of the head, which is a snake, an appeal is addressed to the solar Uraeus as the source of life, the flame which shineth on the forehead of the glorified. In the seventh abode there is a serpent named Retuk (the cartouche in my copy reads Ruruk or Rerek), that lives on the manes and is said to “annihilate their magical virtue” (149). The speaker says, “I am the master of enchantments” (149). He is the magician, the prototype of Pharaoh’s, who worked by enchantment (Ex. VII. 11). The “fiery serpent” of the wilderness may be traced in this great serpent of Amenta, whose name is “dweller in his flame.” However rendered, the hieroglyphics identify the mythical serpent of fire as the fiery serpent of the Hebrew märchen. The lifting up of the serpent can also be paralleled in the text when the speaker exclaims, “I am raised up to (or as) the serpent of the sun” — that is, the Uraeus, the good serpent when compared with Apap. The serpent Aker is joined to the nocturnal sun as he traverses the Amenta (or the wilderness) by night. Thus Aker, the serpent of fire, is the good serpent that is raised up as the fiery serpent in the exodus. The evil serpent Apap is then told that he must retreat before this uplifted solar serpent (which accompanies the orb in the Egyptian triad) and in presence of the revivifying sun. And in this way the mythos furnished matter for the märchen and the folk-tales about the evil serpents that bit the wandering Israelites, and how they were saved and healed by an image of the good serpent, which always had been lifted up in Egypt as a solar symbol of healing and of life. In playing off the serpent of fire against the serpent of darkness, the deceased anticipates Moses with Nehushtan the brazen. He exclaims triumphantly, “I understand the mystical representations of things, and by that means I repulse Apap” (108). Also in the zodiac of Esné fiery flying serpents are to be seen on the wing in the decans of Cancer as the sign of heat and drought (Drummond, Oed. Jud., pl. 8). The children of Israel, as followers of the solar god, are the children of Ra, or Atum-Ra, under whatsoever racial name; and these are to be met with even by name, making the passage through the lower Egypt of Amenta on their way to the promised land. People named the Aaiu, an Egyptian plural equivalent to our word Jews, are described in the under-world. Their god is the ass-headed Aiu, or Iu, who was one of the gods of Israel that led the people up out of Egypt — that is, the ass was one of the zootypes of the god Aiu, as the calf, bullock, or ox was another. We had to dredge this nether-earth for much of the sunken treasure of Egyptian wisdom that has long been lost in its authentic shape. And in Amenta we find the ass-headed god of the Jews, respecting whom they have been so ignorantly derided and maligned. His name, we repeat, is Aiu, Au, Aai, or Iu, both as god and as the ass in old Egyptian; and this name survived in the forms of Iao, Iau, Iahu, Ieou, and others. The god was Atum-Ra in Egypt, and Aiu the ass-headed is one of the types of the solar god. Aiu appears ass-headed in Amenta as a god stretched out upon the ground who has the solar disk upon his head, with the ears of an ass projecting beside the disk. He is holding the rope by which the solar boat was towed up from the nether-world (Lefébure, Records, vol. X,p.130). The figure lying on the ground denotes the god who was Atum-Aiu, the sun by night in the earth of eternity. The people who are with Aiu in this scene are amongst those “who guard the rope of Aiu, and do not allow the serpent Apap to mount towards the boat of the great god.” These are the Aiu as the people of Iu. It is said of them, “Those who are in this scene walk before Ra (Atum-Iu). They charm (or catalepse) Apap for him. They rise with him towards the heavens.”The Book of Amenta, called the Book of Hades by Lefébure, shows this god in his mummied form as one with Osiris in the body and with Ra in soul; otherwise it is Atum in the body, or mummy, and Iu in soul. And just as Ra the holy spirit descends in Tattu on the mummy Osiris, and as Horus places his hands behind Osiris in the resurrection, so Iu comes to his body, the mummy in Amenta. Those who tow Ra along say, “The god comes to his body; the god is towed along towards his mummy” (Records, vol. X, p. 132). The sun-god, whether as Atum-Iu (Aiu or Aai) or Osiris-Ra, is a mummy in Amenta and a soul in heaven. The imagery is quite natural: the nocturnal sun became a mummy as a figure of the dead, and a soul or spirit in its resurrection as a figure of the living. Atum, or Osiris, as the sun in Amenta, is the mummy buried down in Khebt or Lower Egypt, and Iu in the one rendering, or Horus in the other, raises the mummy-god. This is the meaning of the ass-eared Aiu when he is portrayed in the act of hauling at the rope of the sun or raising the mummy in Amenta. The god Aiu is represented mummified upon the tomb of Rameses the Sixth — that is, in the character of Atum the father, buried as the mummy in lower Egypt. Thus we identify the ass-god Aiu or Iu (an ancient Egyptian name of the ass) in lower Egypt, and his followers, who are the Aiu by name. The followers of Iu=Aiu then are the Aiu, Ius, or the later Jews. They fight the battle of the sun-god in the nether-earth, where the dragon Apap was the cruel impious oppressor; and when they do escape from this, the land of bondage for the manes, they are the Aaiu or the Jews, who “rise behind this god to heaven,” and their exodus is from Khebt, the lower Egypt of Amenta. The whole story of the faithful Israelites who would not bow down to the gods of Egypt is told in a few words relating to the Aiu (or Jews) in Amenta. As it is said, “These are they who spoke the truth on earth and did not rise to (prohibited) adorations” or heresies (Lefébure, Book of Hades, Records of the Past).The legends of the exodus, like those in the book of Genesis originated in the astronomical mythology, in which the making of Amenta is followed by the Peri-em-hru or coming forth to day from the lower Egypt of the under-world and the wilderness or desert. The story of this exodus is inscribed in hieroglyphics on the sarcophagus of Seti, now in the Soane Museum. The Book of Hades, or Amenta, and the Book of the Dead suffice of themselves to prove that “the Egypt and the desert” of the exodus were in Amenta, and not in the land of the pyramids. This was “the Egypt and the desert” in which the flocks of Ra were shepherded and fed. “Horus says to Ra’s flocks, Protection for you, flocks of Ra, born of the great one who is in the heavens. Breath to your nostrils, overthrowal to your coffins” (Book of Hades, 5th division, legend D). These are the manes in Amenta called the flocks of Ra, who are shepherded by Horus as Har-Khuti, lord of spirits. The overthrowal of the coffins shows that this was the deliverance of the dead, and that the exodus or coming forth to day was synonymous with the resurrection from the dead.Amenta had been mapped out in twelve domains, according to the twelve astronomical divisions and the twelve gates which the sun passed through by night. “As it is said, the great god travels by the roads of Hades, to make the divisions which take place in the earth” (Book of Hades). There are various groups of the twelve as divine personages or children of Ra in this lower Egypt of AmentaAs characters in the mythos, Jacob and the ten tribes, sons, or children correspond to Ra the solar-god, with his ten cycles in the heaven of ten divisions (Rit., ch. 18), whilst Israel — the same personage — with the twelve sons, answers to the same god, Ra, in the heaven of twelve divisions or twelve signs of the zodiac.It has now to be admitted that the twelve sons of Jacob are not historic, and the historical exodus must follow them, for that is founded on the twelve sons going down into Egypt as historic characters, and the people of Israel coming out of it as their direct descendants hugely multiplied. The twelve, as sons of Jacob, go down to Egypt in search of corn, and in the Book of Amenta we get a glimpse of the twelve or their mythical prototypes who make the journey as characters in the astronomical mythology. Twelve gods of the earth are to be seen marching towards a mountain, which shows they are on their way to the nether-world, as it is depicted upside down. Twelve gods in the earth of Amenta are marching towards another mountain, and these two mountains form a sort of forge toward which the divine boat voyages. This is the entrance to Amenta, and these are the twelve as sons of Ra, who are on their way down to the lower Egypt of the mythos, the prototypal twelve who are the sons of Israel in the Hebrew version. These are said to be “those who are born of Ra, born of his substance, and which proceed from his eye.” Thus Ra is the father of the twelve. Ra has prepared for them “a hidden dwelling” in this Egypt of the lower earth or desert of Amenta. Twelve persons called the blessed are portrayed as worshippers of Ra. Twelve others are the righteous who are in Amenta. Twelve mummies standing upright, each in a chapel with open doors, are “the holy gods who are in Amenta.” Twelve men walking represent “the human souls which are in Amenta.” Twelve bearers of the cord with which the allotments are measured for the glorified elect are represented by twelve persons carrying the long serpent Nenuti. These bearers of the cord in the Amenta are those who prepare the fields for the elect. Ra says, “Take the cord; draw, measure the fields of the manes, who are the elect in your dwellings, gods in your residences, deified elect, in order to rejoin the country, proved elect, in order to be within the cord.” Ra says to them of the enclosures, “it is the cord of justice”. Ra is satisfied with the measurement. “Your own possessions, gods, and your own domains, elect, are yours. Now eat. Ra creates your fields and appoints you your food”. “The gods are content with their possessions, the glorified are satisfied with their dwellings”. The followers of Har-Khuti, lord of spirits, are the twelve, who take the place in the solar mythos of the earlier seven Khuti in the stellar mythos, five more being added to the seven. These are the twelve as the children of Ra, who cultivate the fields of divine harvest in the plains of Amenta, where they reap for Ra as followers of Horus the beloved son: “They labour at the harvest, they collect the corn. Their seeds are favoured in the land by the light of Ra at his appearance.” Thus the twelve are the cultivators of corn in Egypt. They give food to the gods and to the souls of the elect in Amenta. As the bearers of food they are twelve in number. In one scene the twelve are portrayed in two groups of seven and five persons. The seven are the reapers. The five are seen bending towards an enormous ear of corn. These are described as the twelve who labour at the harvest in the land of corn which is in the earth of eternity. The scene with the twelve in a posture of adoration suggests the sheaf of corn in Joseph’s dream. “Behold, we were binding sheaves in the field, and lo, my sheaf arose, and also stood upright; and behold, your sheaves came round about, and made obeisance to my sheaf” (Gen. XXXVII. 7). In one form the Aarru enclosure was portrayed as the field of divine harvest, and the twelve were the typical reapers of the corn that grew there seven cubits high (Book of Hades, Records of the Past, vols. X and XII). This is sufficiently suggestive of the twelve enormous sheaves in Joseph’s dream, and of the reapers being a form of the twelve harvesters. The twelve as gods were also rulers in the twelve signs which formed the final circle of the Aarru paradise. And in Joseph’s second dream his star is greeted with obeisance like his sheaf. “Behold, the sun and the moon and the eleven (other) stars made obeisance to me,” he who was represented by the twelfth star as well as by the twelfth sheaf (Gen. XXXVII. 6-9). Horus in the harvest-field of lower Egypt has two characters, one pertaining to the mythos, one to the eschatology. In the first he is one of the twelve as harvesters: the twelve who row the solar boat, the twelve to whom the stations were assigned or thrones were given in the zodiac. In the other character he is Har-Khuti, lord of spirits, and in this phase he is the supreme one at the head of the twelve, who are now his servants.The pictures show the children of Ra both as the group of twelve and also as the twelve with Horus. In one scene Horus is depicted leaning on a staff, and eleven gods are walking towards Osiris. These are the twelve altogether, of whom Horus is one in presence of the father. But on the tomb of Rameses the Sixth the twelve appear, preceded by Horus, the master of joy, leaning on his staff. These are the harvesters: seven of them are the reapers, the other five are collectors of the corn (Book of Hades). Thus the fields of divine harvest are twelve in number; the cultivators are twelve in number; the reapers and bearers of food are twelve in number; the children of Ra=Jacob-El or Isiri-El are twelve in number. So it was not left for the historic Israelites to map out the land of promise in twelve allotments betwixt the twelve tribes and twelve children of Ihuh. Amenta in twelve sections with twelve gates represented the heaven in twelve divisions, and the chart was as old as the solar zodiac of twelve signs that was already in existence, as we reckon, in the heaven of Atum-Ra some 13,000 years ago. Not only was the promised land mapped out in twelve divisions in accordance with the twelve signs of the solar zodiac or the twelve pillars raised by Moses round the mount — not only did the chosen race, as children of the one god Atum, take possession of the land allotted to them, or the land appointed them by lot, as Joshua renders it; title-deeds were also issued to the glorified elect.This lower Egypt, the land of corn, in the Book of Hades is not geographical. Like Annu, Thebes, and Memphis in the Ritual, it is a mythical locality in the earth of eternity. It is the lower domain of the double earth, the country of the manes called Amenta that was hollowed out by Ptah the opener. It is the lower Egypt named Kheb, to which Isis was warned to flee by night as the place of refuge for the infant Horus when his life was threatened by the Apap-monster. Lower Egypt is the land of death or darkness, leading to the world of life and light. It is here that “Horus says to the flocks of Ra, which are in the Hades of Egypt and the desert”, “Protection for you, flocks of Ra, born of the great one who is in the heavens” as Atum-Ra. These flocks “in the Hades of Egypt and the desert” are the chosen people, the deified elect, as the children of Ra. Amenta was a land of darkness until it was lighted by the nocturnal sun. This was the origin of the typical “Egyptian darkness”. But in the Egypt of this lower hemisphere the god prepared a secret and mysterious dwelling for his children where the glorified elect were hidden in the light. “Ra says to the earth, Let the earth be bright. My benefits are for you who are in the light. To you be a dwelling”. “I have hidden you”. (Book of Hades, 1st division.) Food is given them because of the light, in which they are enveloped. This divine dwelling created by Ra for the elect is entitled “the Retreat”. As it is said, “The earth is open to Ra, the earth is closed against Apap. Those who are in the Retreat worship Ra”. This Retreat is equivalent to the biblical land of Goshen, where the chosen people dwelt in light. In the book of Exodus there is a three days’ solid darkness over the land of Egypt, “but all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings” (ch. X. 22, 23). The land of Goshen in the Hebrew version represents the Retreat of Ammah in the Ritual. Ammah is a locality that is traversed in knowing the spirits of Annu or of attaining the garden eastward. Those who belong to the state of the elect are hidden in Ammah. They are described as being concealed in light by Ra. Ammah is a region reserved for the gods and the glorified spirits who are the children of light bound for the land where there is no more night. It is a place impenetrable to the creatures of darkness and to those who are twice dead — dead in their sins as well as in the mortal body. These are they who do not rise again from the lower Egypt. There is no deliverance or exodus for them; they do not enter Ammah, or follow Shu, the lion of strength, who leads up the elect into the land of light. Ammah is the sixth one of fourteen abodes in the 149th chapter of the Ritual. It is an abode of peace reserved for the blessed, where the evil dead cannot enter. It is a mystery to the manes. The god who is there is called the overthrower of the crocodile or dragon. The deceased in saluting Ammah asks that he may take possession of its stuffs in peace. “O Ammah! Reservation of the gods; mystery for the manes where the dead may not enter. Hail to thee, O Ammah the august. I come to see the gods who are there. Open to me, that I may take possession of your stuffs.” (Cf. the spoils.) Ammah is the Goshen of the Ritual, reserved and set apart for the glorified as a place impenetrable to the powers of evil or the dead who do not rise again, and for whom there is no exodus or coming forth to day (149). It is the work of the worshippers in Amenta to destroy the enemies of Ra and defend the great one against the evil Apap. They “live on the food of Ra, and the meats belong to the inhabitants of Amenta. Holy is that which they carry unto the dwelling where they are concealed.” This divine food is apparently repeated in the quails and manna that were sent from heaven, according to the biblical account.Dreadful massacres are perpetrated in taking possession of this promised land mapped out in twelve divisions. Ra says, “I have commanded that they should massacre, and they have massacred the beings.” He orders his followers to destroy the impious ones in a suppression of blood. But these beings are not the human inhabitants of Canaan or any other land on earth. The wars of the lord in these battles of Amenta are fought by his true and faithful followers on behalf of Un-Nefer the good being. The enemies who are doomed to be slaughtered by the invaders are the Sebau and Sami, the creators of dearth and darkness, who were in possession of the land, and who are for ever rising in rebellion against the supreme god Ra. It was these dwellers in the ways of darkness who were to be annihilated by the children of light, the glorified elect, the chosen people, who are then to take possession of the land. Ra says to them, “Your offerings (made on earth) are yours. Take your refreshments. Your souls shall not be massacred, your meats shall not putrefy, faithful ones who have destroyed Apap for me.”Thus the massacres by which the Israelites were enabled to clear out the inhabitants of Canaan and take possession of their lands had been previously committed by the followers of Ra. Ra says to those who are born of him, and for whom he had created the dwelling-place in the beautiful Amenta, “Breath to you who are in the light, and dwellings for you. My benefits are for you.” But the beings there massacred were not human. In the biblical version it is said of a mythical event, “It came to pass, when Pharaoh would hardly let them go, that the Lord slew all the first-born in the land of Egypt, both the first-born of man and the first-born of beast” (Ex. XIII. 15). This insane proceeding on the part of the Lord may be explained by reference to the original. From this we learn that amongst the beings massacred or sacrificed were “quadrupeds and reptiles” (Book of Hades, 1st division, legend E). The Hebrew historian has discreetly omitted the first-born of the reptile, unless it is included as a beast. Again, one name of the keeper of the 17th gate is “lord of the massacre and of sacrificing the enemy at midnight!” (Rit., 145). With this we may compare the passage, “And it came to pass at midnight that the Lord smote all the first-born in the land of Egypt . . . and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead” (Ex. XII. 30).Now, amongst the glorified elect or chosen people who are the children of Ra, the ass-god, Aai, or Iu, there is a group of his defenders and followers who accompany him, and who are said to rise with Ra towards the heavens to be “for him in the two sanctuaries,” and to “make him rise in Nu” (heaven). These are among the worshippers of the ass-headed god Iu, who are called the Aaiu (the Ius or Jews) by name. Apap is threatened thus, “O impious cruel one, Apap, who spreadest thy wickedness. Thy face shall be destroyed, Apap! Approach thy place of torment. The Nemu are against thee: thou shalt be struck down. The Aaiu are against thee: thou shalt be destroyed”. It is these Aaiu as worshippers of the god Iu that we claim to be the Ius or later Jews of the mythical legends so long supposed to have been historical. Thus the glorified elect, the blessed, the righteous, who are in Amenta, that is in the lower Egypt of the mythos, are the chosen people of the most high god, who was Ra in his first sovereignty as the ass-headed Iu=Iao, Aiu, or Iahu; Atum-Huhi as god the father, Atum-Iu as god the ever-coming son. The Aaiu or Jews, then, are amongst those who “rise for Ra.” “They beat down Apap in his bonds”. Apap is stricken with swords. He is sacrificed. Ra rises at the finishing hour; “he ascends when the chain is fixed”. Those who are in this scene drag the chains of this evil-doer (Apap). They say to Ra, “Come Ra; advance Khuti! The chain is fixed on evil-face (Neha-her), and Apap is in bonds” (Book of Hades, 10th division). This is the scene of making fast the dragon in the pit which is preparatory to the rising of Ra. These Aiu or Jews accompany the sun-god when he makes the journey through the valley of darkness, the lake of Putrata, and the desert in “the Amenta of Egypt,” where they are protected as the “flocks of Ra.” Amidst the people that dwell in darkness and black night they are the glorified elect, enveloped and concealed in light, and fed mysteriously in the wilderness with food supplied from heaven. Earth opens to let them pass when they are pursued by their old enemy, and closes to protect them against the devouring dragon. Hence it is said by those who render the great serpent impotent by their magic, “Earth opens to Ra! Earth closes to Apap!” The monuments of Egypt are as truly and honestly historical as the geological record. Both have their breaks and their missing links, yet are perfectly trustworthy on the whole. And these monuments, from beginning to end, have no word of witness that the Jews or Hebrews ever were in Egypt as a foreign ethnical entity. They know nothing of Abraham as a Semite who went down into Egypt to teach the Egyptians astronomy. They know nothing of Jacob except as a Hiksos Pharaoh, or a divinity, Jacob-El, whose name is found on one of the scarabei. They know nothing of Joseph and his viziership, nor of the ten plagues, nor of the going forth in triumph from the house of bondage to attain the promised land. These and many other wonderful things related in the Word of God are known to the Egyptian records, but not as history. There is another Egypt not yet explored by the bibliolaters: the Egypt of mythology and the Kamite eschatology.Unless we take into account the mound of the Jew in the neighbourhood of On and the temple of Atum-Iu (W. M. F. Petrie, Hyksos and Israelite Cities), the only way of identifying the Jews in Egypt is by the name of the Iu or Aiu in the lower Egypt of the mythical Amenta, where we find the twelve sons or children of Israel, under the name of the Ius or Aiu, as worshippers of the god who was known in Egypt as the ass-headed Iu, Aiu=Iao, Ieou, or Iahu, and who, as we see from the scarabei, may also have been known in Egypt as Jacob-El, the father of the twelve who were reapers of the corn in the harvest of Amenta. The writer has previously suggested, in A Book of the Beginnings, that Jacob represents the god Ra as Iu in Kheb, the lower Egypt of Amenta. Jacob was known as a divinity in Northern Syria by the name of Jacob-El, and Joseph by the name of Joseph-El. The El is a Semitic suffix to the names, denoting the divinity of both, versus the ethnical origin of Jacob and Joseph. These, according to the present showing, were among the gods of Egypt as Huhi the father and Iu the son, or sif in Egyptian, Iu-sif being=Joseph in Hebrew. Thus we propose to identify the mummy of Jacob in Egypt with the mummy of Atum or Osiris as a form of the mummy-sun that was portrayed as being carried up from Amenta. Jacob, as we read, was embalmed in Egypt, and the mummy in its coffin was taken up by Joseph and carried to the land of Canaan. This was the land of promise, which is the Aarru-paradise, the field of the tree of life up which the sun-god climbs in his resurrection from the coffin. The “burying-place” of Jacob is “before Mamre,” where the tree of Atum in the garden or meadow, the Sekhet-Hetep, is represented by the oak or terebinth under which Abraham dwelt. Joseph the son (Iusif) is the same character in carrying up the mummy of Jacob that Horus the beloved son is to the dead Osiris in his coffin. Horus acts as the raiser-up of the mummy. This is expressed when the speaker says, “I am he who raises the hand which is motionless” (Rit., ch. 5). Elsewhere Horus comes to raise the mummy of Osiris. Thus the carrying up of Jacob out of Egypt by the son may be paralleled by the resurrection of Osiris, coffin and all. One name of the burial-place for the mummy-Osiris in the Ritual is Sekhem. The deceased is enveloped as a mummy in Sekhem. He rises again and goes, as pure spirit, out of Sekhem. Also the well of Jacob near Shechem answers to the water of Osiris, and the oak or terebinth in Shechem to the tree of life in the pool of the persea or the water of life. The fields of Shechem correspond to the Sekhet-Hetep or fields of peace and plenty, the oasis of fertility which prefigured the celestial paradise. “The parcel of ground that Jacob gave to his son Joseph” was in Shechem, also called Sichem. This is a parallel to Sekhem as place of burial given by Osiris the father to Amsu-Horus the son, who rose again as the living mummy or sahu after the burial, and went up from the lower Egypt of Amenta and the sandy wilderness of Sekari as the god in the coffin or sekeru-bark. The Egyptian Sekhem was no doubt localized as a sanctuary when Judea and Palestine were sown over with the old Egyptian names. Osiris was the reputed holder of property in Sekhem, unless we understand that his mummy, the body of the lord, constituted the property that was held in that sanctuary (Hymn to Osiris, lines 1 and 2).The lower Egypt of Amenta is a land of bondage to the manes who were doomed to labour in the harvest-field. Chapter 5 is called the chapter by which work is not imposed upon a person in the nether-world. But provision is made for the work being done by proxy. Chapter 6 is the chapter by which the funeral statuettes may be made to do work for a person in the nether-world. “Be thou counted for me,” says the speaker, “at every moment, for planting the fields, for watering the soil, and for removing the sands.” Thus there was a system of enforced labour in the lower Egypt of Amenta. The land of bondage is likewise alluded to as the land of rule in the Book of the Dead. In the chapter by means of which the manes come forth to day and pass through Ammah or the Ammehit it is said, “Hail to you, ye lords of rule (or ruling powers), living for ever, whose secular period is eternity. Let me not be stopped at the Meskat (or place of punishment); let not the Sebau have the mastery over me; let not your doors be closed upon me.” And amongst other pleas in this invocation it is said, “Deliver me from the crocodile of this land of rule,” or, as it got interpreted, this land of bondage in the lower Egypt of Amenta. In this chapter the crocodile has an evil character, and the evil crocodile is the mythical dragon, the dragon of Egypt, a figure of the Pharaoh who kept the people in bondage and would not let them go from out their prison-house in the Meskat where the evil Sebau had the mastery over the manes, who plead, “Let not the powers of darkness obtain the mastery over me. . . . . I faint before the teeth of those whose mouth raveneth in the nether-world” (Rit., chs. 72 and 74, Renouf).The Apap-dragon of Amenta is the real Pharaoh who held the people in bondage, but in certain of the Semitic legends Atum-Ra, the great judge and punisher of the wicked, has been mixed up with the cruel Pharaoh who would not let the people go. According to the Arab traditions, the name of the Pharaoh who detained the chosen people, the elect children of light, was known as “Tamuzi”. Castell gives this as the Arabic name of the Pharaoh who hindered the exodus of the Israelites, which name goes to the root of the matter, for Tamuzi appears in the Ritual as Atum-Ra, commonly called Tum. The name of this Ra or Pharaoh is derived from “tumu” to shut up, to close. Tum as the setting sun was the closer in the western gate. As shutter up of day or of autumn he wears the closing lotus on his head, the antithesis to Horus rising out of the opening flower of dawn. Atum was the closer as well as the opener of Amenta by name. Those who were captives in his keeping down in the Amenta were hindered from making their exodus until the plagues were passed or the conditions of freedom had been all fulfilled.The entrance to Amenta figured in the Egyptian itinerary was “the mouth of the cleft” as it was termed at Abydos. This is apparently represented in the Hebrew legend by the mouth of the gorge at Pi-ha-hiroth, “which is before Baal-Zephon.” Thus the opening in the mount of the swallowing earth is at the same point as the passage of the Red Sea which also opened for the Israelites to pass when pursued by Pharaoh and his host. There are, however, two starting-points in the biblical exodus of the Israelites. No sooner had they set out on the old road that ran from Rameses to Succoth (or Thuku) and Etham or Khetam, the border-fortress in the land of Thuku, than they were commanded to turn back for a fresh departure from Pi-ha-hiroth, the pass or gorge which was entered by the mouth of the cleft. At this point of divergence the local topography is brought to confusion and serves no further use for localizing the journey. We have to go back and start from the entrance to Amenta by the mouth of the cleft in the rock that was figured at Abydos as the beautiful gate of entrance to Khent-Amenta. This two-fold starting-point at least coincides with the two modes of entrance, one by land and the other by water. At Pi-ha-hiroth we enter the Red Sea of the mythos, the water of the west that was red at sunset, but not the geographical Red Sea. This was entered by the boat of the sun and the boat of souls which passed through the cleft by water as depicted in the vignettes (Maspero, Dawn of Civ., Eng. tr., p. 197). We are now upon the track of the exodus from the lower Egypt of the nether-earth, which was mythical in the lesser mysteries and mystical in the greater, and able to show where and how and why the children of Israel pursue the same route through Amenta as do the children of Ra in the Book of Hades (Records of the Past, vols. X. and XII). At Pi-ha-hiroth the Israelites come to the mouth of the cleft and enter on the passage of the Red Sea, pursued by Pharaoh the dragon and his evil host. In the book of Exodus the Israelites, of course, are treated as the glorified and the Egyptians as the powers of darkness, the conspirators against the elect, the chosen, the children of light. Or, according to the Ritual, by the Apap-dragon and the Sebau, whose habitat is in the Red Sea of the mythos and therefore was not geographical. The Egyptians made the passage by water, but by substituting the miracle for the mythos, “the children of Israel walked on dry land in the midst of the sea.” After crossing the waters they enter the wilderness, which is true to its character in the Egyptian books of the nether earth.When the land that flowed with milk and honey is promised to the children of Israel, it is said by Ihuh, “I will send my terror before thee — I will send the hornet before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite from before thee —“ (Ex. XXIII. 27, 28). Now the hornet, wasp, or bee was a type of Ra the solar god, and thence of the Egyptian Pharaoh. Hor-Apollo says, “They depict a bee to denote a people obedient to their king” (B. i, 62), the force of the creature’s sting being emblematic of the supreme power. Also the abait or bird-fly, a bee, wasp, or hornet, was their guide to the Aarru-garden in the Ritual. “I have made my way into the royal palace,” says the Osiris” (ch. 76), “and it was the bird-fly (abait) that led me hither” — that is, to the land flowing with milk and honey. Apparently this symbolic abait or bee as guide to the Aarru-paradise has been turned into the hornet that drove the people out of the land in the Hebrew rendering of the story. When Moses sends the explorers ahead to spy out the land of Canaan, and they come back afraid because it is inhabited by the Anakim or giants, “Caleb stilled the people before Moses, and said, “Let us go up at once and possess it, for we are well able to overcome it” (Num. XIII. 30). Caleb the explorer who had been sent forward by Moses to spy out the land of promise is another of these converted divinities. In the Semitic languages Caleb is the dog, and the dog as Egyptian was the jackal, apuat, the guide of ways, the zootype which was the guide of ways in the solar mythos, and the guide of souls to the garden of Amenta, wherein grew the grapes of paradise in brobdingnagian clusters which are to be seen in vignettes to the Ritual. Shu as son of Ra is the great leader of the people to the promised land; Anup the jackal=dog was the guide; and these two are represented in the book of Numbers by Joshua (or Hoshea) the son of Nun, and Caleb the son of Jephunneh. Those two, the leader and the guide, both in the astronomy and the eschatology, are the only two in the Hebrew version that are to go forth in the exodus from the wilderness and burial-place of the dead. “And they came unto the valley of Eschol, and cut down from thence a branch with one cluster of grapes, and they bare it upon a staff between two” (carriers). “And they returned from spying out the land at the end of forty days”. They showed the fruit of the land to Moses and the Israelites, and said, “We came unto the land whither thou sentest us, and surely it floweth with milk and honey, and this is the fruit of it” (Num. XIII. 23-28). The colossal cluster of grapes seen in Eschol by those who were sent to spy out the promised land is of itself almost sufficient to prove the mythical nature and Egyptian origin of the land that flowed with milk and honey and bore the grapes that took two men to carry one cluster. Not only was the circumpolar paradise the land of the seven cows, called the providers of plenty; as Egyptian it was also the garden of the grape-vine by name. Not as Eden, but as Aarru the garden of the vine or the grapes. In one of the Hebrew märchen it is said that when the explorers of the promised land returned they related, “We have seen the land which we are to conquer with the sword, and it is good and fruitful. The strongest camel is scarcely able to carry one bunch of grapes; one ear of corn yields enough to feed a whole family; and one pomegranate shell would contain five armed men. But the inhabitants of the land and their cities are in keeping with the productions of the soil. We saw men the smallest of whom was six hundred cubits high. They were astonished at us, on account of our diminutive stature, and laughed at us. Their houses were also in proportion, walled up to heaven, so that an eagle could hardly soar above them” (Baring Gould’s Legends of the Old Testament Characters, vol. II, p. 118; Weil, p. 175). These are based upon the gigantic inhabitants of Amenta in the Ritual, who have been vastly exaggerated in the märchen. This grand domain was constructed for the manes who as the glorified ones have joined the powers of the east at the point of coming forth where Shu uplifts the sky for Ra and blows off the divine barge with favouring gales. The great or glorified ones are said to be each nine cubits (about 18 feet) in height, and therefore this is the land of the giants to which the Israelites were bound under the leadership of Joshua and the guidance of Caleb the dog. This region of things gigantic may be found in the mystical abodes of the Ritual through which the manes have to pass on their way to the world of light and blessedness. The second abode is called the “greatest of possessions in the fields of the Aarru. The height of this corn is seven cubits; the ears are two, its stalks are three cubits”. The spirits also are said to be seven cubits in stature (ch. 149). Of the fifth abode it is said, “Hail, abode of the spirits, through which there is no passage. The spirits belonging to it are seven cubits long in their thighs. They live as wretched shades”. “Oh, this abode of the spirits”. In chapter 109 the inhabitants are nine cubits in height. The passage through the Hades in the eleventh abode is described as the belly of hell. “There is neither coming out of nor going into it, on account of the greatness of the terror of passing him who is in it”. That is, the devouring demon, the Am-Moloch. The same fear is reflected in the faces of the spies from the land of giants; they had seen the same sight. The Moabites called the giants who dwelt there in times past the Emim (Deut. II. 11), and the Am-am in Egyptian are the devourers. Am is the male devourer, Am-t the female devourer in the Ritual. As said in chapter 109, “It is the glorified ones, each of whom is nine cubits in height, who reap the Aarru fields (in the divine domain of the promised land) in presence of the powers of the east” (Renouf). The giants as Rephaim are also Egyptian (Rit., ch. 149, 5th Abode). These giants of Amenta and the religious mysteries still survive in the grotesque masks of the Christmas pantomime, which represent the huge inhabitants of an under-world that is the lowermost of three, the highest of which is on the mount of glory. Emim, Anakim, Rephaim, and Zamzummim are all giants” — hence the Anakim under different names, nine cubits high; and this land of the giants as Egyptian was in the nether-earth, the original of the Hebrew Sheol, in which the giants are identifiable as non-human inhabitants of a foreworld that had passed away. It is to that foreworld and its people, the children of darkness, that the writer of Deuteronomy refers, and as its inhabitants were altogether mythical (or eschatological), the children of Israel, and of Lot, who drove them out and destroyed them utterly, could not be human nor the transaction humanly historical. The land of the mythical giants can be localized in Amenta, but not elsewhere.The lower or sub-terrestrial paradise, otherwise called the garden of Aarru, was the garden eastward, the garden of the mount in Amenta, which was in prospect throughout the journey. This was the paradise to which Shu-Anhur was the leader from the western mountain and Anup-Ap-Uat was the guide as dog or jackal. It was the paradise of all good things, including the gigantic grapes and grain, the milk and honey, as types of food and drink in everlasting plenty.The point of emergence from Amenta was at the double gate of glory on the summit of the eastern mount; otherwise expressed, this was the place of exit from the lower to the upper Egypt of the mythos as celestial localities. Anhur was the uplifter and supporter of the heaven and its inhabitants by night. Shu was the deliverer by day who brought the solar orb to the horizon. In the Hebrew rendering Moses sustains the rôle of Anhur, and Joshua that of Shu, the halves of the whole round being extended to the circle of the year. The earthly paradise was planted as the Allu or elysian fields to the eastward of the nether-earth where stood the tree of life, and where the mountain of the double earth was climbed to get a glimpse of the land of promise that was visible over-sea. Upon this mountain “Moses stood, to view the landscape o’er”, or rather the skyscape. The lower paradise was but a picture and a promise for the wanderers in the wilderness of Amenta. The upper was the paradise of all the ancient and pre-solar legends. Thus far the deliverer as Anhur or as Moses was the conductor of the children of Ra or Israel. High on Mount Hetep, in the heaven of eternity, was the paradise of spirits perfected. This was the land of promise and final fruition both in one, the land overflowing with milk and honey. The milk, called “the white liquor which the glorified ones love”, was supplied by the seven cows, providers of plenty in the meadows of the upper Aarru. Here also was the land of corn in limitless abundance. No words could say how much. Lower Egypt was a land of corn, but the legendary promised land of corn, honey, and oil was in the Aarru fields of the mythos. These were the fields where the corn grew seven cubits high, with ears three cubits long and in eternal plenty for all comers. The landing-place upon Mount Hetep at the summit of attainment is called “ the divine nome of corn and barley” (Rit., ch. 110).The Egyptians were already tillers of the ground when Ptah laid out and planted the lower Aarru-paradise, as their other field of work, in an earth that was ruled or tyrannized over by the powers of evil, headed by the Apap-dragon. This was the earth of the abyss, the primeval desert which had to be reclaimed by the pioneers and planters of that under-world. It was laid out strictly on the allotment system. Each one of the manes had a portion in which to plough and sow and reap. The seed grown in the harvest-field of life on earth was garnered up to sow and bring forth a hundredfold in this, the field of divine harvest, which was so magnified by tradition because its bounty had been divinized. The Egyptian authorship of a paradise of peace and plenty is pre-eminently shown by their converting the “earth of eternity” into a world of work, the harvest-field that was cultivated by the manes, who dug and hoed and sowed in it, and reaped the corn according to their labours (Rit., ch. 6). Amenta was made from sand converted into fertile soil well watered by the all-enriching Nile. It was like lower Egypt, the land of honey, the land of the sycamore fig-tree, which was a veritable tree of life to the Egyptians. It was the land of the grapes that grew in clusters of prodigious size. It was the country of abundant corn. Not that the Egyptians thought the other world a replica of this, but such was the natural plan on which they wrought in making out the unknown by the known. They dramatized another intermediate state, and acted the eschatological drama in accordance with conditions familiar to them in this world. The Aarru-paradise in Amenta is copied from Egypt in the upper earth. The fulfilment of all blessedness was in its being a likeness of the dear old land made permanent and perfect in the spirit-world. It was the promised land for those who were prepared to take possession of it and to drink of the sacred Nile at its celestial source. Its tree of life was the same sycamore fig-tree that had always been the tree of life and food in season.The journey from the lower Egypt of the mythos through the deserts of Amenta was from west to east, from the place of sunset to the point of sunrise which was called the solar mount of glory. At sunset Anhur-Shu upraised his mansion of the starry firmament which he uplifted nightly, standing on the steps of Am-Khemen. This presented a stellar picture of the upper Egypt or the upper paradise for which the wanderers in the wilderness were bound. At dawn the mount of sunrise in the garden eastward was attained. This was the mountain of Amenta, also called Shennu or Shenni=Sinai. Shena in Egyptian signifies the point of turning in the orbit of the solar course. This point was figured on the mountain where the lions rested as supporters of the solar disk at dawn, or Shu uplifted Ra from out the darkness of Amenta and held the orb aloft with his two hands. At this point Anhur’s place as leader of the chosen people was taken by his alter ego Shu. The Magic Papyrus describes the warrior-god as “king of upper and lower Egypt” in his two characters of Anhur and Shu-si-Ra. By night Shu-Anhur was the uplifter of the firmament for the Egyptian exodus or coming forth to day from out the darkness of Amenta or of “Egypt and the desert” (Rit., ch. 110). (See the figure of Shu as the uplifter, p. 315.) Under the name of Anhur he is the leader of the upper heaven, rod in hand. His starry image probably was seen as Regulus in the constellation of Kepheus, the ruler there, arrested with the rod or staff still lifted in his hand. He repels the crocodile or dragon coming out of the abyss, the crocodile that is the dragon of Egypt and the Pharaoh of the Hebrew writers. This repelling of the crocodiles that issue from the abyss corresponds to the overthrowal of Pharaoh or the dragon and his host in the Red Sea. Anhur is the lord of the scimitar. He is designated “smiting double horns”; “the god provided with the two horns”, like Moses. “Uplifted is the sky which he maintains with his two arms”, like Moses. This two-fold character of Anhur is indicated when he is described as “the king of upper and lower Egypt, Shu-si-Ra”. This was the Egypt of Amenta. Thus, as the king of lower Egypt he was Anhur the uplifter of the firmament for the chosen people to come forth. At daybreak he assumed the character of Shu, the son of Ra, who lifted up the solar disk at dawn on the horizon, otherwise upon the mount of sunrise. As Regulus on the horizon in the zodiac the leader of the manes changed to Shu, who is then called “the double abode of Ra”. The Magic Papyrus, which contains “the hymn of the god Shu”, is called “the chapter of the excellent songs which dispel the submerged”. It is the celebration of the great victory over the Apap-reptile and all dangerous animals lurking in the depths of the mythical Red Sea. It is said to Shu in the hymn, “Thou leadest to the upper heaven with thy rod in that name which is thine of Anhur. Thou repellest the crocodile coming out of the abyss in that name which is thine of repeller of crocodiles”. The crocodile, of course, is the dragon of Egypt. The wicked are overthrown by Anhur the valiant as the lord of events. His sister Tefnut accompanies him. She is a form of Sekhet, “the goddess in her fury”, the “chastiser of the wicked”. “She gives her fire against his enemies, and reduces them to non-existence”. She is the Kamite prototype of Miriam, the sister of Moses. Tefnut accompanies her brother in his battles with the Sebau and the submerged. Elsewhere she changes her shape into a weapon of war. She shouts her defiance against “the wicked conspirators”, exclaiming, “I am Tefnut thundering against those who are annihilated for ever! “ and against those that “ remain floating on the waves, like dead bodies on the inundation”, just as it was on that day when “Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea-shore” (Ex. XIV. 30). Tefnut, the prototype of Miriam, “gives her fire” against her brother’s enemies to reduce them to non-existence by their being submerged in the waters, where “Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand, and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances. And Miriam answered them, Sing ye to the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea” (Ex. XV. 20-21). Moses corresponds to Anhur. He is the leader of the children of Israel during the first part of the journey towards the promised land. He conducts them through the Red Sea where Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea-shore; through the sandy wilderness, the waterless wastes, and the ways of darkness. “Then came Amalek, and fought with Israel in Rephidim”. This, as we reckon, was the great battle of the autumn equinox. It was not a battle fought by human beings once for all on mundane ground, but a war betwixt the Lord and Amalek, that went on for ever, from generation to generation, because it was periodic in the phenomena of external nature, and not a duel betwixt the Lord of heaven and an earthly potentate or people. The description of holding up the hands of Moses to maintain the equilibrium shows the equinoctial nature of the conflict. The going forth at the equinox is further identified by the month of the year. The Jewish new year still begins about the time of the autumn equinox, a little belated in consequence of its not having been carefully readjusted. “And the Lord spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you” (Ex. XII. 1, 2). This was the year that opened with and was determined by the full moon nearest to the autumn equinox. For six months thenceforth the moon was ruler of the year as the great light in the darkness of the double earth. Again, at the time of the vernal equinox there is another poising of the scales, if not a standing still of sun and moon, and another great battle in which the sun-god finally overcomes the dragon of darkness and all the evil powers that war against the light of life and welfare of the world; also against the children of Ra on their journey as souls or manes from the lower Egypt of the mythical Amenta to the upper heaven on the mount of glory.The present writer has previously suggested that the name of Moyses, or as some Hebrews pronounced it, Mouishé, was derived from the dual name of Shu, one of whose names as Ma, the other Shu, and Ma-Shu denotes Anhur, who manifests in the two characters of Ma and Shu. In the address to the god it is said, “Thou blowest the divine barge off with a favourable wind in that name which is thine of the goddess Ma”. Thus Ma, the goddess of truth, law, and justice, is here identified with Shu in a feminine character. The feather of Anhur also reads both Ma and Shu — Ma as light and Shu as shade. But, after all, the origin of the name is of little importance compared with the traits of character. This female character of Ma-Shu has also been assigned to Moses. There is a tradition, reported by Suidas, that the Hebrew lawgiver and author of the Jewish laws was a Hebrew woman named Musu, which is equivalent to Ma-Shu in Egyptian. Shu is the very personification of light and shade. The name reads both light and shade. This dual character of the god is to be read in the face of Moses, who wears the glory on it when in presence of the Lord upon the mount, and who covers or shades his face when he turns to speak with the people in the valley. He likewise is the personification of light and shade: Moses under the veil is Shu in the shade; Moses wearing the glory of God upon his face is Shu who “sits in his father’s eye, the eye of the sun; Shu-ari-hems-nefer — who keeps his residence radiant — which is a title of Shu at Philae. (Pierret, Le Panthéon Egyptien, pp. 22-3.) “When Moses had done speaking with the people, he put a veil on his face. But when Moses went in before the Lord to speak with him, he took the veil off until he came out”. And when he came out and spake unto them that which he was commanded, they saw the skin of Moses’ face”. And Moses put the veil upon his face again until he went in to speak with him” (Ex. XXXIV. 35). The glory on the face of Moses is described as sending forth horns, which is a way of portraying the god provided with “two horns”, that is a title of Anhur. Moses performs the same act as Shu the supporter of the firmament, but in the heaven with twelve supports instead of the earlier four erected by Shu-Anhur, which followed a readjustment that was made by the Hir-seshti of On in the heaven of Atum-Ra. Anhur was the elevator and supporter of the heavens, and Shu-si-Ra is the upholder of the solar disk. Moses with his arms uplifted on the mount, or with the “rod of God” in his hand, is the Hebrew version of Anhur the sustainer of heaven standing on the mount. Joshua, who becomes the supporter of Iah the solar god, is identical with Shu when he is the son and supporter of Ra upon the horizon east and west. Shu was at first the son of Nun, the deity of the celestial water, who was also called the father of the gods. He afterwards became the son of Ra as the supporter of the solar disk on the horizon “with his two hands”. Joshua also had a double character, like Shu. In the first he is called Hoshea, the son of Nun. In his later rôle Joshua becomes the upholder of Ihuh and his change of name is connected with the change in character. The name of Joshua or contains the name of Ihuh united to a word signifying assistance or help. In the form it denotes a lifting up, an upholding, as in the Egyptian name of Shu, to uphold, which describes him in the character of the uplifter to Ra the solar god. This should suffice to demonstrate the identity of Joshua, the son of Nun and the supporter of Ihuh, with Shu, who became Shu-si-Ra as the uplifter of the solar disk. Thus Shu, the son of Nun and supporter of the firmament as an elemental power, was afterwards personalized as the supporter of the sun-god Ra. Ra is Ihuh. The name of Shu denotes the supporter, and the deity whom he supported on the mount was Atum-Huhi; and in this character Shu became the leader of the children of Ra (or of Israel) as Io-Shua, who proclaims himself to be the supporter of Ihuh in the book of Joshua (XXIV. 15, 16). The firmament is the Nun by name, and Shu the uplifter of the firmament is called the son of Nun. Thus Shu in his uplifting of the firmament is the uplifter of his father. Now, to show once more how widely fragments of the Egyptian wisdom were scattered to become the later legends of many lands, let us glance for a moment at “the exploits of Maui”, a Polynesian form of Shu. Shu was the son of Nnu (Nun), and in Mangaia the name of Nnu is rendered by Ru. Ru is the father of Maui, and one of the exploits of Maui is to hurl his father Ru aloft, sky and all, to a tremendous height, so high indeed that the sky could never get back to earth again. Now for the conversion of the Kamite myth into the Mangaian märchen. Nnu or Nun was also the firmament upraised by Shu. Nnu as firmament was personalized in Nnu the father of Shu; and where Shu uplifts the sky, now personalized, Maui is humorously described as assuming gigantic proportions, and exerting prodigious strength to toss his father so far aloft that he was for ever entangled and suspended among the stars of heaven, and never could come down again (Gill, Myths and Songs, p. 58).Various legends derived from the Egyptian mythology were compounded in the Hebrew book of Exodus.One of the most remarkable of all the parallels to be adduced is to be seen in the fact that in one particular type there is a blending of Shu with Horus in Horus-Shuti, and that this is repeated in the story of Moses, who represents the deliverer as Horus in the ark of papyrus, and Anhur in other aspects of the character. Moses is the water-born. Josephus explains the name as signifying one who was taken out of the water. Pharaoh’s daughter called the name of the child Mosheh, and said, “because I drew him out of the water” (Ex. II. 10). Shu-Anhur likewise is the water-born. He is addressed in the Magic Papyrus as “the unique lord issuing from the Nun”, which is the firmamental water, and from which Shu as the breathing-force was born as the son of Nun.The growth of a legend from its source in the primitive representation or mythicizing of natural phenomena down to its becoming humanized at last as biblical and historical may be exemplified by the story of the child who was saved from the waters in a little ark of bulrush or papyrus-reed. It is told of Sargon in Assyria, of Maui in New Zealand, and various other children who were drawn forth from the water at the time of their birth. It is the myth of the child-Horus, first and far away the oldest in the world. The story has to be read backward in Hebrew a very long way before its primal meaning can be comprehended. In going back we meet at first with the child-Horus floating in an ark upon the waters. The speaker in the Ritual at the time of his re-birth says, “I am coffined in an ark like Horus, to whom his cradle is brought”. This cradle is often represented as a nest of papyrus-reed=the ark of bulrushes in the biblical version (Rit., ch. 130). This in its most primitive Egyptian form was the flower of the papyrus-plant, or later lotus. On this child-Horus is upborne from out the waters, which led to the Egyptian ark or boat that was made of papyrus-reeds. When the legend of child-Horus on his papyrus, or in his nest of reeds, took its Hebrew form, the little ark in which the child was saved is made of bulrushes, or some other form of rush called, which probably represents the Egyptian kama, a reed, the reed of Egypt, therefore the papyrus-reed. According to the legendary lore, repeated with a wise word of caution by Josephus, the young child Moses, saved from the river in the ark, was adopted and named by Thermutis. This name is a titleof the Great Mother Mut in Egyptian, the consort of Amen-Ra. But the genesis of the name from Mut the mother and Ta-Ur, which signifies the first and oldest, she who was personalized in Ta-Urt, shows that the Mut or mother, Thermutis, in her primordial form was Ta-Ur-Mut=Thermutis. Again, we learn from the same source that the black or Ethiopian woman who became the second wife of Moses was named Tharuis or Tharvis. In the Greek rendering of the Egyptian Ta-Ur (or Ta-Urt) this name becomes Thoueris, and in Ta-Ur(t) we can identify the prototype of Thermutis and the original of Thoueris or Tharuis (Antiq. B. 2, 10, 2). Both the foster-mother and the wife of Moses are here traced back to the old First Mother as Taurt and Thermutis, who are one and the same, in the Egyptian goddess that first brought forth the divine child from the waters or from the marshes and the bulrushes, as Uati or as Apt, the water-cow, the most ancient form of the Great Mother in Egyptian mythology. In the Hebrew legends the same old mother, under two names which are resolved into one, supplies two characters as the foster-mother and the consort of Moses. Now, the old First Mother Ta-Ur-Mut, who saved the young child from the waters in her primitive ark, is designated “the mother of him who is married to his mother”. In like manner the mother (or foster-mother) and wife of Moses are one and the same in Taurt, who was both mother and spouse of Sebek, the youthful solar god. Moses is saved from the water by Thermutis (Ta-Ur, as Mut, the mother), and he was married to Thaueris, who is the same by name and nature as Thermutis. Thus Moses also was both the child and the consort of his mother, which had been the status of the young sun-god from the time when the human fatherhood had not been individualized. Lastly, the two characters of the old First Mother were represented by the two mothers in the Osirian mythos. These are the two divine sisters, Isis and Nephthys, into which the old First Genetrix was divided as the water-mother and the mother-earth. Isis is the wateress. Hes, her name signifies the liquid of life. Nephthys i,s an earth-mother who carries the basket of seed on her head. As it is said in the Ritual, Horus the child is produced by Isis (from the water) and nourished by Nephthys (on the earth) (Rit. 17). And these two forms of the divine mother can be detected even in their biblical guise as the mother and the foster-mother of the young child Moses, one of whom saves him from the waters in the ark of bulrushes, just as Isis mothers Horus in the element of water and Nephthys nourishes and mothers him on land.There is nothing human or historical about the young child saved from the waters under any name whatsoever, in any kind of ark, no matter in what language the legend may be told or in what waters the little ark may float. The same legend is related of the mythical Sargon in the cuneiform tablets. He says, “My mother the Princess conceived me; in a secret place she brought me forth. She placed me in a basket of reeds; with bitumen my exit she closed; she gave me to the river, which drowned me not”. When Sargon says, “My mother knew not my father” (Records of the Past, vol. V, p. 3, First Series), he is claiming to be that divine child whose only parent was the divine virgin mother, like Neith, the bringer-forth of Horus (or Helios) without the male progenitorship. [Page 665] The hidden birth of the Child-Horus is also repeated for the Hebrew infant, of whom it is said that when his mother saw that he was a goodly child “she hid him three months” (Ex. II. 2, 3), to preserve him from the death decreed by the cruel Pharaoh. The time may not be given in any known hieroglyphic text, but the length is correct according to the astronomical data. Child-Horus at a later time was born in the winter solstice and the concealment in the nether earth came to an end in the vernal equinox. Therefore his mother hid him in the marshes and the rushes of Amenta for three months. When the babe was placed in the ark of bulrushes and laid in the flags by the river’s brink his sister was in charge of him. “And his sister stood far off to know what would be done to him” (II. 4, 5). And in the Hymn to Osiris it is said of the Child-Horus, “His sister took care of him by dissipating his enemies and repelling bad luck. She is wise of tongue, and beneficent of will and words” (Records, vol. IV, p. 101), as was the sister of Moses in her suggestion to the daughter of Pharaoh. Horus on his papyrus is the youthful god uplifted from the dark waters and saved from the coils of the Apap-reptile — a salvation that is effected by the two divine sisters Isis and Nephthys, one of whom was the conceiver of the child, the other being the nurse. Here as elsewhere it is the same in the mythos as in the “history”. In the biblical version the daughter of Pharaoh and the sister of Moses take the place of Isis and Nephthys. Here the cruel Pharaoh in the book of Exodus plays the same part as Herod and other tyrants who massacre the innocents, inasmuch as he commands the two midwives to kill all the male children at the time of their birth by drowning (Ex. I. 22). The human innocents were to be murdered en masse so as to include the divine child in the massacre. Only two midwives were appointed to deliver all the parturient women of Israel in Egypt. The mythos will also answer for this limited number. In the Osirian system the divine child was brought forth by the two sisters Isis and Nephthys. In an earlier rendering these were Sekhet and Neith. Josephus states that the two midwives given to the Jewish women by the Pharaoh were Egyptians (Ant. II. 9, 2). And as the midwives were but two for all the multitude of the children of Israel, they are evidently a form of the two mythical bringers-forth, who were Isis and Nephthys in the Osirian religion and Iusãas and Neb-hetep in the cult of Atum-Ra.In certain of the extra-biblical features of the Mosaic mythos the lower Egypt of Amenta is plainly indicated as the real land of the exodus. For example, when Moses went into India, he and his army enjoyed the light of the sun during the night-time, and this could only occur in the lower earth which the sun illuminated by night — that is, the land of Amenta. India, Sindhu and Hendu each represent the Egyptian Khentu, which is a name for the interior. Thus, we identify the mythical India with Khentu, and Khentu is the interior within the earth where the sun shone at night for Moses and his warriors in the Osirian Khentu-Amenta. Also when Moses is identified with Shu-Anhur this may account for his legendary reputation outside the Bible history as a mighty warrior. Anhur in Egypt is Har-Tesh, the red god Mars, or Arês, who passed into the Greek mythology by name as the great warrior Onouris = Anhur. Shu-Anhur is addressed under various names connected with his deeds. “Thou wieldest thy spear to pierce the head of the serpent Nekau, in that name which is thine of the god provided with horns”. ‘Thou seizest thy spear and overthrowest the wicked (the Sebau), in that name which is thine of Horus the striker!” “Thou destroyest the An of Tokhenti in that name which is thine of Double abode of Ra”. “Thou strikest the Menti and the Sati in that name which is thine of Young-elder!”, “Thou strikest upon the heads of the wicked in that name which is thine of Lord of Wounds!” (Mag. Pap., pp. 2 and 3).In one of the Rabbinical legends it is related that when Moses was condemned to lose his head for killing an Egyptian, the Lord permitted that his neck should become as hard as a pillar of marble, which caused the sword of the executioner to rebound and kill the wilder of the weapon. This in the mythos is the state of the justified manes in Amenta, who prays that his neck may be invulnerable at the block of execution. In the Hebrew märchen the Manes becomes a man called Moses.Fragments of the ancient wisdom survive in many foolish-looking legends. The Rabbins relate that Moses was born circumcised. So the kaf-ape is said to have been born in the same condition. “It is born circumcised, which circumcision the priests adopt”. (Hor-Apollo, B. I, 14.) Now Shu in one of his divers characters is said to have taken the form of a kaf-ape (Magic Papyrus, p. 8, Records, vol. X, p. 152). Thus Shu, or Ma-Shu, as the ape in the mythos becomes the man Moses or Mosheh, who is said in the märchen to have been born circumcised, when the anthropomorphic type had taken the place of the zootype. In another legend Shu the giant is portrayed as acting the part of a crazy man. The two characters are coupled together when it is said, “Though didst take the form of a kaf-ape, and afterwards of a crazy man” (Magic Papyrus, pp. 8, 9). This may possibly supply a gloss to the action of Moses when he waxed angry and smashed the tables of the law (Ex. XXXII. 19). For this reason: Shu in this character is called “the giant of seven cubits” (or he represents a shrine of seven cubits), and he is then commanded to make a shrine of eight cubits. And Moses, after breaking the tables of the law and acting uncommonly like a crazy man, is commanded by the Lord to hew two other tables of stone like unto the first, so that the Lord might write upon the second tables the words that were on the first set which the crazy man had broken.Shu-Anhur is described as he “who putteth a stop to them whose hand is violent against those who are weaker than themselves” (Rit., ch. 110). This is the character in which Moses begins his personal history. The first thing he does is to slay an Egyptian whom he saw oppressing a Hebrew (and bury his body in the sand). On the “second day” “behold two men of the Hebrews strove together, and he said to him that did the wrong, Wherefore smitest thou thy fellow?” (Ex. II. 11-13). This contention in the Ritual is betwixt the twin-brothers Sut and Horus when Shu-Anhur reconciles the two warrior gods where Moses tries to reconcile two fighting men who were fellow-Hebrews.Moses is said to have built an altar, and to have called it “Jehovah-Nissi, the Lord is my banner”. This, to say the least, is suggestive of a title of Anhur, to whom it is said, “ Thou comest here upon thy stately stand in that name which is thine of being in thy stately stand”, or on the standard (Am aat). Here there is the same dual rendering possible as in the Hebrew, the stately stand and standard being equivalent to the banner. Moses carries the “rod of God” in his hand. With this rod he divides the Red Sea for the people to go over on dry ground. With this he smites the rock in Horeb, and causes the water to spring forth abundantly. The plagues descend on Egypt at the stretching forth of Moses’s wonder-working rod. Shu-Anhur is likewise the bearer of the rod. He is represented with the rod in his hands, and is designated “Lord of the rod”. In the Hymn to Shu it is said, “Thou leadest the upper heaven with thy rod in that name which is thine of Anhur,” the uplifter of heaven (Magic Papyrus, 2, 5). The origin of smiting the rock to make the water come forth is connected with the rock of the Tser Hill, the mount of sunrise. The first waters that issued out of this rock were the springs of dawn and the floods of day. In the Ritual we meet with the hero who causes the water to gush forth. He says, in the character of the great one, who has been developed into a chief, “I make the water to issue forth”, or “I make water to come” (117). The striker of the rock with his rod or staff was Shu-Anhur, the impersonator of the force that burst up out of the rock at sunrise when the waters of day were once more set free. The water of dawn is called the “water of Tefnut”, she who is the twin-sister of Shu, and of which water the children of light “drink abundantly”. As one of these — who are the prototypes of the children of Israel — says, “I drink abundantly of the waters of Tefnut”. The waters of dawn (or the tree) were ascribed to the female source, whether as Tefnut or as Hathor. And it is noticeable that in the Hebrew version the first to make the water come forth by miracle for the people to drink is Miriam, whose relation to Moses is identical with that of Tefnut to Shu. The legend of the one god who reveals himself upon a summit of a rock, whether to Shu or Moses, is a matter of mythology, not a subject of human history, and as such the mythos is Egyptian. “And God spake unto Moses and said unto him, I am Iahu, and I appeared unto Abraham, unto Israel, and unto Jacob as El Shaddai, but by the name of Iahu I was not made known to them” (Ex. VI. 3). In the original rendering of the mythos Ra reveals himself to Shu and the elders as the deity in spirit, living in truth. He has become greater than the god who created him. He tells them that although later in point of time, he is the one primeval source who has been giving them light all the while, and in this new character he assumes his sovereignty as god over all, the one beside whom there is none other. This is the deity in the Ritual who says, “I am the self-originating force. Behold me, how I am raised upon my throne” (ch. 85). He is no longer merely solar, or one of the seven elemental powers. He is the god in spirit — the spirit that is divine, and a type of that which lives for ever. This accounts for the change of name or title which follows the change in status. Ra was known by other titles in the mythos, but as Huhi the eternal he was previously unknown. In this character the god reveals his secret self as the supreme one, whose name is then expressed by the titles of Huhi the eternal and Ra the holy spirit. The Hebrew deity Ihuh was not simply the one god in a single form of personality; he is the Egyptian one god in his various attributes. He is the one god both as the father and the son, who in the words of Isaiah (IX. 6) is the everlasting father and the prince of peace, who as Egyptian was Atum-Huhi the eternal father, and Iusa the ever-coming son; Atum-Ra as closer on the horizon west, and Atum-Horus as opener on the horizon east. He is the Egyptian god of Sinai as the lord of Shenni; the god who was “lifted up” in his ark-shrine of the sanctuary on the mount. He is the god of the Urim and Thummim, or lights and perfections; the Urai or Urur, of the winged disk and other figures of the Egyptian symbolism; the one god who was solar in the mythos and the holy spirit in the eschatology. In the book of Exodus the one god Ihuh supersedes all other gods, El-Shadai and the Elohim; and, like the Egyptian Ra, he assumes the sovereignty as Ihuh the eternal. It was in this new character Ra issued his commands for an ark, shrine, or sanctuary to be made, in which he was to be lifted up by Shu, the supporter of Ra.Ages before the Hebrew Pentateuch was written and ascribed to Moses, the one god had been worshipped at On or Annu as Egyptian under the title of Atum-Ra, and if he was made known to Anhur by revelation, whatsoever that may imply, the revelation was Egyptian. This is the god who was one by nature and dual in manifestation; one in the solar mythos as the closer and opener of the nether-world; one in the eschatology as Huhi the everlasting father, and Iu the ever-coming son as prince of peace; the one god, called the holy spirit, who was founded typically on the human ghost. This is the living (Ankhu), self-originating, and eternal god. This is he who was to be lifted up as god alone in his ark or tabernacle on the mount of glory — that is, as Ra-Harmakhu on the double horizon or in the dual equinox; the deity who gave the law upon Mount Shenni through the intermediation of Anhur or Ma-Shu, the son of Ra.In the so-called “destruction of mankind” the solar god resolves to be lifted up in an ark or sanctuary by himself alone. This sanctuary is carried on the back of Nut, the celestial cow. “There was Nut. The majesty of Ra was on her back. His majesty arrived in the sanctuary. And his majesty saw the inner part of the sanctuary”. This creation of the sanctuary for the one god Ra upon the mount is followed in the Hebrew book. Ihuh says to Moses, “Let them (the children of Israel) make me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among them. According to all that I show thee, the pattern of the dwelling and the pattern of all the furniture thereof, even so ye shall make it”. “And they shall make an ark of acacia-wood”. The two together, the sanctuary and the ark, constituted an ark-shrine of the true Egyptian pattern. As Egyptian, the ark of Ra-Harmakhu represented the double equinox in the two horizons. This was the “double abode of Ra” in the dual domain of light and shade, the model of the Jewish arks or tabernacles that were to be erected equally in sun and shade. The part open to the rays of light was exactly to balance the shade or veil of the covering, and not to have more sun than shade (Mishna, Treatise Succah, ch. 1). This was in accordance with the plan of the Great Pyramid in relation to the luminous hemisphere and the hemisphere of shade at the two equinoxes. The sanctuary of Ra was a figure of the heavens. The Hebrew ark was a portable copy, a tabernacle fitted for an itinerating deity. It was the Kamite custom to represent the heaven in miniature as an ark of so many cubits. There is an ark of seven cubits, one of eight cubits, another of four cubits, in which the god was “lifted up” or exalted. Inside the ark there was a shrine for the deity, with a figure of the god within the sanctuary. As water was the primary element of life, the nature-powers were held to have come into being by water. Hence their images were placed within the shrine that was carried on board the papyrus bark and borne upon the shoulders of the priests. These tabernacles, consisting of a boat and shrine, were the sacred ark-shrines of Egypt. Thus the beginnings were for ever kept in view. The ark-shrine on the water represented by the boat became a type of heaven as dwelling-place of the Eternal. Thus an ark of Nnu was constellated in the stars and pictured on the waters of the inundation. The ark of Atum-Ra was depicted with the solar orb on board, which was always red. In the religious mysteries, as already shown, an ark of four cubits imaged the heaven of four quarters or, as the Egyptians phrased it, of four sides. As we have seen, there was an ark of seven cubits for the heptanomis, and one of eight cubits for the octonary. This ark-shrine of eight cubits is to be built for the god to float in after there has been a great subsidence of land in the celestial waters. So likewise in the “destruction of mankind”, when Ra becomes the supreme one god, he orders an ark or tabernacle to be made for his voyage over the heavens. The inscription was engraved in the chamber of the cow that was herself a form of the ark as the goddess Nut. William Simpson in 1877 called attention to the Japanese ark-shrines or mikoshi, “which have many points of likeness to the Jewish ark of the covenant, and which are carried on men’s shoulders by means of staves. Mikoshi signifies the high or honourable seat. Temo-sama may be translated “heaven’s lord’ “ (Trans. Soc. of Bib. Arch., vol. V, p. II, 550). Now, the first type of heaven’s lord that is known to astronomical mythology was the ruler of the pole-star, whose high or honourable seat was at the pole, like that of Anup on his mountain. In some of these arks, we are told, there is the small figure of a deity, which is no doubt the “heaven’s lord” intended by the name. There were seven of these lords of heaven altogether, who, as here suggested, had been rulers of the seven pole-stars in succession. Now, Simpson tells us that there are seven of these arks preserved in the temple of Hachiman at Kamakura, Japan. “They are said by some to be state-norimans, but as these shrines are connected with the deified Mikado, they are most probably temo-samas or mikoshis as well as norimans”. This is confirmed by a statement of Kaempfer’s. He says, “The mikoshi themselves being eight”, the eight seats or ark-shrines answer to the Kami when the eighth one had been added to the seven as over-lord, but seven was the primary number of the Kami as of the Egyptian Akhemu or never-setting ones. We infer that seven ark-shrines or seats were typical of the seven rulers, in addition to all the other forms of the septenary, mounds, mountains, islands, menhirs, towers, temples, or cities that were raised on high to symbolize the seven stations marked by pole-stars in the circuit of precession. Now, Israel is charged by Amos with having borne an ark-shrine that was obviously the tabernacle of a star-god or gods who were once the Elohim after which she went a-whoring (Amos. V. 26). The passage in the revised version runs thus, “Yea, ye have borne siccuth your king and chiun your images, the star of your god, which ye made to yourselves”. The most probable rendering depends on siccuth being a tabernacle or ark of the god, corresponding to the Egyptian sekhet, for an ark, shrine, or cabin, and on chiun, from chun, denoting the pillar or pedestal of the star. Kûn signifies to found, set up, erect, heap up, and establish; it denotes the highest point, at the centre, and is applied to the founding of the world. The name was assigned to Saturn as god in the highest. But Sut was the earlier founder of a world as god of the pole, in conjunction with his mother, who first represented the mount. The siccuth as tabernacle, ark, or female abode is equivalent to the ben-ben or beth of the child, the god or king who as Sut was figured at times within the cone. The chun as pedestal would be the pillar of the star, and the images would signify the ark of the pole and its star in short, the Great Mother and her child, who were the primeval female and male as Apt (or the Egypto-Semitic naked goddess Kûn) and Sut, later Sut-Anup. The so-called tabernacle was a “hut”, which agrees with the conical pillar or ben-ben as a figure of the pole. The god of the pillar originated as god of the pole; Sut was primarily and pre-eminently god of the pillar, and El-Shaddai we hold to have been a form of Sut-Anup on his mountain of the pole.In the solar mythos the mount was figured on or as the horizon at the point of equinox, the point of turning and returning from Amenta in the circuit of the year, or from the lower Egypt of the mythos. Hence it was named Mount Shenni=the Hebrew Sinai. This was the place of crossing or passing over the line in the exodus or coming forth from the land of bondage when commemorated as an historical passover. The first day of the first month was the day of the equinox. The Hebrew dual year, sacred and civil, was based upon the double equinox. Hence the ark-shrine of Ihuh (Jehovah) is identifiable with that of Atum-Huhi, whose title of Ra-Harmachis shows that he was the deity of the double horizon, the double abode, or double sanctuary, first as Horus, next as Ra. This may be gathered from the statement, “And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, On the first day of the first month thou shalt rear up the tabernacle of the tent of meeting. And thou shalt put therein the ark of the testimony” (Ex. XL. 1) — that is, on the mount which was the equinoctial meeting-point upon the summit, the point at which the rescued spirits went on board the bark of Ra, as represented in the Ritual. “The tabernacle of the tent of meeting” is the full title of the portable dwelling-place that was built for Ihuh on Sinai, according to the imagery shown to Moses in the mount. “Moreover, thou shalt make the tabernacle with ten curtains. The length of each curtain shall be eight-and-twenty cubits, and the breadth of each curtain four cubits”. These numbers correspond to the ark of heaven in ten divisions, with the four corners and the twenty-eight measures of a lunar zodiac. Ten cubits also was to be the length of each board of acacia-wood. The seven-fold candlestick we look on as a figure of the celestial heptanomis and its mystery of the seven stars. It was thus the symbolism was compounded and continued in the later rendering of the imagery.The mount of the horizon in the equinox was the place of the two lions called the Sheniu, which also tend to identify the mount with Sinai. These two lions, the two kherufu or kherubs that support the sun upon the horizon, are repeated in the two cherubim that were portrayed upon the ark of testimony. One symbol of Mount Hetep is a table piled with food. This is reproduced in the table of shew-bread that was to be always set as the oblation in the presence of the Lord. Ihuh was to commune with Moses from between the two cherubim. The position is that of Atum-Ra-Har-Makhu in the equinox when he rises as the sun-god from betwixt the two kherufu or lions on the mount (Rit., Vig. to ch. 18). Atum-Ra-Har-Makhu was the lion-god of the double force, or the power and glory of the sun upon the mount of the horizon. He rose up betwixt two lions which imaged the double solar force, and was also represented by the fore-part and the back-part of the lion.The lion in sign-language was an Egyptian type of the terrible (Hor-Apollo, I, 20). This was applied to the sun or solar god as an image of his double force, and represented by Anhur and Tefnut. The hinder part of the lion that is carried on the head of Anhur is a sign of force. But the fore-part, the face and front of the lion, which reads peh-peh, denotes the glory of the double force. The fore-part of the lion or lion-god being the symbol of his glory, this was not to be seen by Moses, who is told to stand in the cleft of the rock whilst the glory of the Lord, or fore-part of the lion, passes by, and he is only to see the deity’s hinder part. As Egyptian, the cleft in the rock was the place of entrance to and egress from Amenta. The solar god who rose again as lord of terror was the lion of the double force, the power and the glory of the god being figured and differentiated by the hind-part and the fore-part of the lion. In strict accordance with Egyptian symbolism, the dual nature of Ihuh was made known to Moses — that is, if the promise was kept and the Lord revealed his hinder part (Ex. XXXIII. 18, 23). Moreover, it was made known by means of the lion or the man-lion as zootype. Moses asks to see the glory, and the Lord replies, “Thou canst not see my face” and live, so terrible was the glory imaged by the lion’s face. The glory being in front, the power was behind, and this alone could be seen by the mortal who desired to live. The unbearable glory obviously depended on the Lord as solar lion because he had first shown his face to Moses “as a man”. “And the Lord spake unto Moses face to face as a man speaketh unto his friend” (Ex. XXXIII. 11). On one occasion, when Anhur comes into the presence of the solar god, it is said, "Turn thou back, O Rehu; turn thou back from before his mightiness, the glory, or, as otherwise said, from him who keepeth watch and is himself unseen”, or is not to be seen, which is equivalent to the Hebrew “Man shall not see me and live”. Now, according to the astronomical mythology — with the twin lions stationed east and west — the lion of the hinder part was to the west, the lion with the face of glory to the east, the place of sunrise. The entrance to the nether earth was in the west. This was the side of the Amenta through which the first of the two leaders was Moses; he was to see the back part only, whether of the double horizon, or the god in person, or the lion of Atum-Ra. Thus, the statement that Moses was not to see the glory or fore-part is equivalent to his not being allowed to enter the promised land upon the other side of the water, which was visible from the mountain of Amenta that reached up to the sky.As shown by the Vignettes, there is an Egyptian origin likewise for “the burning bush” in which the one god was manifested to Moses in Mount Horeb. The Lord as Iahu-Elohim was previously revealed to Moses in his solar character. As it is said, “Moses was keeping the flock of Jethro”, and he “came to the mountain of god unto Horeb”. “And the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed. And Moses said, I will turn aside now, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burned” (Ex. III. 1, 3). Now, this “burning bush” is to be seen full blaze in pictures to the Ritual. There is a vignette to chapter 64 in which the burning bush is saluted (figure, Papyrus du Louvre, III, 93; Renouf, Book of the Dead, pl. 17). In the texts the golden unbu is a symbol of the solar god. It is a figure of the radiating disk which is depicted raying all aflame at the summit of a sycamore-fig tree which thus appears to burn with fire, and the tree is not consumed. It images the lord of the resurrection going forth from the state of the disk to give light (Rit., 64). The manes, without shoes on his feet, saluting the tree with the flaming disk in or upon it, from which there issue tongues of flame, addresses the god concealed in the solar fire, who is going forth from the state of the disk, saying, “Shine on me, O unknown soul” “I draw near to the god whose words were heard by me in the lower earth” (64). This was the burning bush in which the sun-god manifested as Tum, whose other name is Iu or Unbu, the burning bush being the solar unbu. There are two corollaries following this identification: the one is that the god of the burning bush is the same as the god of the flaming thornbush named the “unbu”, and the god being the same, the person addressed by the god is the same in both versions, and the lion-god who is Shu-Anhur in the Ritual is the prototype of Moses in the book of Exodus. Further, in the manifestation of the burning bush duality of person is implied. First it is “an angel of the Lord” that appears “in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush”. Then the Lord or Elohim speaks in person and calls on Moses by name (Ex. III. 4). These two correspond to the divine duality of Ra and Unbu in the original representation, when Unbu (Horus or Iu) as the ever-coming son of god the eternal father (Huhi), is the manifestor for Ra in the flowing thorn. The burning bush, then, is identical with the “golden unbu” of the Egyptian Book of the Dead, and the “golden unbu” of the Pyramid Texts is literally the “golden bough” of later legends — as in the English work of that name.Here we may say in passing, that The Golden Bough contains a learned, large, and serviceable collection of data, but the theories of interpretation derived from the writings of Mannhardt are futile. Besides which, mythology is not to be fathomed in or by a folk-tale, and The Golden Bough is but a twig of the great tree of mythology and sign-language — a twig without its root. The reception of the work in England served to show how prevalent and profound is the current ignorance of the subject-matter. It was hailed as if it had plumbed the depths instead of merely extending the superficies. The writer never once touches bottom; never traces the comparison home either in the Assyrian or the Egyptian version. In the former, for example, Gilgames goes to the other world in quest of the tree of life and the fountain of youth. His desire is to learn how to become immortal. In that other world across the water, not in the nether-earth of Arali, there grows the tree of renewal. Like the Kamite Unbu, it is described as similar to the bush of hawthorn in flower, and its thorns are said to “prick like the viper”. When Gilgames touches the shore of that upper paradise, he is told of this tree, shrub or plant, and it is said that if he can lay hold of it without his hand being torn, gather a branch and bear it away, it will secure for him eternal youth. The tree is identical with that which grew in the sacred grove at Nemi, from which no branch was to be broken. And beyond the Babylonian legend lies the Egyptian myth in which the tree is rooted. The Egyptian golden bough is a bush of flowering thorn. It is a symbol of the young solar god who says, “I am Unbu, who proceedeth from Nu (heaven), and my mother is Nut” (Rit., ch. 42; Pyramid Texts, Teta 39). “I am Unbu of An-ar-ef, the flower in the abode of occultation” (Rit., ch. 71). This identifies the golden bough with Horus in the dark and the bush that flowered at Christmas like our Glastonbury Thorn. The golden bough or burning bush is a solar symbol of Atum-Huhi, who says to Anhur, “O lion-god, I am Unbu”, and who thus identifies himself with Ihuh in the burning bush. “I am Unbu”, says the Egyptian deity in the flowering thorn, where the Hebrew god announces that he is Ihuh from the midst of the burning bush.The golden calf in Israel had also been the gilded heifer in Egypt. Hes, the sacred heifer, was adored under the name of Isis in the time of the old empire. This was also a type of the golden Hathor, the habitation of Horus, her calf. The setting up of the golden calf for worship is likewise evident in “The destruction of mankind”. It is “said by the majesty of Ra (to the calf-headed Hathor), Come in peace, thou goddess, and there arose the young priestess of Amu”. “Said by the majesty of Ra to the goddess: I order that libations be made to her at every festival of the new year under the direction of my priestesses. Hence it comes that libations are made under the direction of the priestesses at the festival of Hathor, through all men, since the days of old” (Pl. B., lines 24-6). This was the worship of the golden calf, thus instituted as Egyptian. There was a special form of the cow-headed goddess called the golden Hathor, and a particular type of her child or calf known as the golden Horus. Both were imaged in one by the virgin heifer, or, as in the Exodus, by the golden calf, the image of the goddess of Amu. A dual type of deity originated with the child that was potentially of either sex, or both. Hence the boy like Bacchus with the female mammae, and the lad in Revelation with the feminine paps and girdle, or Horus with the female breasts. Also the lock of childhood, or the long hair of the Egypto-gnostic Christ, represented this dual type of deity, as well as “the long garment in which was the whole world”, because it had been the clothing of both sexes for the child. Hathor in Egypt was the goddess of the golden calf, or heifer with the golden neck. One of her titles was Nub the golden (Wilk., vol. III, p. 115), and the goddess Iusãas, consort of Atum-Ra and mother of Iusa in the cult of On, was a form of the golden Hathor, as is shown by the ears of the heifer in her headdress. Hathor was the Egyptian Venus, also the goddess of music and dancing, and of female ornaments, including precious stones, particularly the turquoise. The calf or heifer of gold was a befitting figure for the cult whose gods were Iu the calf, Iusaas the cow, and Atum-Iu the bull — the gods which they, the Jews or Ius, brought out of Egypt in the Hebrew exodus. So soon as the metal was fused, the image fashioned, and the calf set up, the festival of Hathor-Iusãas followed. “And Aaron made proclamation, and said, To-morrow shall be a feast to Ihuh. And they rose up early on the morrow and offered burnt offerings, and brought peace offerings; and the people sat down to eat and drink, and (then) rose up to play” (Ex. XXXII. 5-6). The festival was phallic, for the people remembered Iusaas, the consort of Ihuh and the divine mother of the non-ethnical Jews, who were born Egyptian. In connection with peace offerings, one might mention that Iusãas was also called Neb-hetep, the lady of peace, and her son, Iu-em-hetep, was the prince who comes with peace. But the libation to the cow-headed or calf-headed goddess was turned into waters of bitterness when Moses, according to the story, “took the calf and burnt it with fire, ground it into powder and strewed it upon the water, and made the children of Israel drink of it” (XXXII. 20).There is but one calf mentioned in the book of Exodus, but in the first book of Kings we see the type is dual. “The king took counsel, and made two calves of gold; and he said . . . Behold thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt” (1 Kings XII. 28). These in Egypt were the heifer that imaged the mother as the goddess Iusãas, and the calf of Iu, her sa or su — that is, her son — Iusaas being a form of the golden Hathor, who was the goddess of Mount Sinai. Also it was pardonable, if not pleasing in the sight of Ihuh, that Jehu did not forsake the golden calves of Jeroboam (2 Kings X. 29, 31). The golden calf was the great symbol of sin in the eyes of the monolators, because it was a figure of both sexes and pre-eminently sacred to the divine mother, Neith, Hathor, or Iusãas. Although the one god as the god in Spirit was evolved in the Egyptian cult of Ptah and Atum-Ra as Huhi the eternal, he was compounded with the child and mother of an earlier religion. His consort Iusaas was a form of Hathor, the mother of fair love, who was the Egyptian Venus, and the child was Iu (em-hetep), the wise youth who became the Hebrew prince of peace. These were the gods which brought the Hebrews up or were brought up by them out of Egypt. The later monotheists sought to exclude the child and mother from the nature of the deity, which was a holy family in itself, consisting of the father, mother, and child. The mother was cast out, for the god to be imaged by a figure of the father alone. But the goddess was continued in her types of the birthplace. Hers were the ark, the tabernacle, the sanctuary, the temple, the meskhen, the holy of holies, as the abode of the divine child or reborn god. Hence the Hebrew tabernacle or ark-shrine is the mishken, which as Egyptian is the meskhen, the chamber of birth, that was imaged in the constellation of the “thigh” or haunch of Nut in the astronomical mythology. This change had been made in the theology of Annu, as witnessed by the legend of the cow in the tomb of Seti I., in which the god is “lifted up” in his sanctuary as male alone. Nevertheless, there was a continual recrudescence of the old Egyptian cult, and a return to the worship of the mother, as is shown in Israel by the setting up of the golden calf, and the denunciation of it by the later writers.This worship of Hathor in the mount had already extended from Sinai to Jerusalem as an Egyptian cult. Eusebius relates that when Constantine was about to build the Basilica, he discovered a “mound of Venus” already raised above the Saviour’s tomb (Life of Constantine). This was a mount of the mother, who was Hathor-Iusaas in Egypt; and no one was buried in or born from the typical mount of Venus except child-Horus, or his other self, Iu-em-hetep, whose mother was a form of the Egyptian Venus. The primitive mound had been perpetuated, as it was in the Tel-el-Jehudieh (near On). The mount which typified the means of ascent from the valley of Amenta to the summit where the glorified elect were taken on board the bark of Ra is variously represented in the Hebrew version of the exodus. As in the astronomical mythos, it is the one mountain with several names, and, being celestial, it may be localized in numerous sacred sties on earth as the place of worship. The mount upon which Moses stood in conversation with Ihuh is identified with the celestial height, when it is said to the children of Israel, “Ye yourselves have seen that I have talked with you from heaven”. This, again, is celestial as the mount on which the pattern of the divine dwelling, or ark and tabernacle of the Lord, was shown to Moses. In the Ritual it is the mountain of Amenta that touches the sky. It is said almost in the opening of the book of Exodus, when the call is made to Moses by Ihuh, “When thou hast brought forth the people out of Egypt, ye shall serve God upon this mountain” (Ex. III. 12), which is here called Mount Horeb, the mountain of God. It is also said of the chosen people, in this ancient fragment of the mythos, “Thou shalt bring them in, and plant them in the mountain of their inheritance, the place, O Lord, which thou hast made for them to dwell in, the sanctuary, O Lord, which thy hands have established”, where “the Lord shall reign for ever and ever”. This was in the mount of Jerusalem on high, the celestial mount of the gathering and congregating together in the Aarru-Salem = Aarru-Hetep in Jerusalem below by those who built the city as outcasts or colonists from Egypt. The mountains are several. Elsewhere it is Mount Zion or Sinai. But the mountain of God, the holy mountain, is one, because it was astronomical; therefore in the eschatology it is the mount for which they were bound as spirits, and not as leprous and abominated mortals fleeing from the land of the Pharaohs. In making the passage from Amenta, the supreme object of attainment is the mount of peace and plenty, called Mount Hetep in Egyptian. Hetep is a word of various meanings besides peace and plenty. It is the mount of the oblations, one sign of which is a table piled with provender. The mount itself presents the oblations to the gods and the glorified upon the summit, on a scale that is worthy of the eternal feast. And this, we would suggest, is the prototype of the Oblation described by Ezekiel (XLVIII), which is colossal in its magnitude. It is commanded that a huge oblation shall be offered to the Lord, with the sanctuary in the midst thereof. It is to be “an oblation from the oblation of the land”, just as Hetep was the oblation to the heaven from the offerings made by the worshippers on earth as contributions to the table of the Lord. The mound-builders raised their mount or mound of oblation in Britain the size of Silbury Hill. Here it is to be a city the size of paradise, or the New Jerusalem, the eternal city built upon the square, and therefore a heaven of the four quarters, raised upon twelve pillars erected round the mount. The difficulty of identifying Sinai as a geographical mount, according to the book of Exodus, may be explained when we know that the beginnings were not geographical, and that the mount on which Shu-Anhur shared the throne of Ra his father was the mountain in Amenta, not on earth. It was the stellar mount of glory in the eschatology which had been the mount of sunrise in the mythology.After the passage of the Red Sea, in the exodus, the children of Israel arrive at “the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai” (Ex. XVI. 1). This wilderness can be identified in the Ritual with Anrutef, the region of sterility. After passing the red pool, lake, or sea, we come to the desert of Anrutef, which is said to be near Sheni. Here there is some evidence to show that the Hebrew Sinai is derived from the Egyptian Sheni. Ra, the solar god, is designated lord of Sheni in the Ritual. The speaker in chapter 36 says, “I am Khnum, the lord of Sheni”, or Shennu, equivalent to Sinai in Hebrew. When Osiris becomes the supreme lord of the mountain in Amenta he is also described as the “commander in the region of Sheni.” He is a form of that lord over all who gave the Commandments on Mount Sinai. Horus also issues from the region of Sheni with the other divine chiefs who repulse the enemies of Osiris in these battles against his enemies. He also is the lord who came from Sinai. The word Shennu or Sheni in Egyptian also denotes an orbit, the circuit or circle, to turn and return. Hence the solar god was designated lord of Sheni. Mount Sheni, as the place of turning and returning, is the mount of the equinox. This was the mount of the two lions, and these also are the Sheni by name. Ra may be Khnum or Amen or Atum, according to the cult. The Ra of Annu was Atum, otherwise Huhi, whom we also identify as the Hebrew god Ihuh. In the vignettes to the Ritual, Atum-Ra, the one god living in truth, is portrayed upon the summit of the mount of glory, with the seven spirits praising him upon the mount (Naville, Todtenbuch, Kap. 16, A.), the mount of the circle of turning and returning and of the lions, therefore Mount Sheni=Sinai. The mount of glory in the Ritual is represented in the book of Exodus as a mount of fire or the mount on fire — that is, with the solar glory. The circuit of fire about the mount is the “sheniu of fire”. This occurs as the title of a chapter in the Ritual. Thus the sun-god Ra or Atum-Huhi=Ihuh was the lord of Sheni. His throne was on the mount of glory where he sat surrounded by the Sheniu who form the divine circle of the celestial court. “The Sheniu of this chapter”, says Renouf, “are living personages who attend upon the Osiris and greet him (on the mount of glory) with their acclamations. The word is often translated ‘princes,’ ‘officers,’ but it signifies those who are in the circle of a king or god, hence ‘ministrants,’ ‘courtiers,’ as in the rubric to ch. CXXV”. (Renouf, Book of the Dead, XXX. Note 1). These Sheniu constitute the upper circle round the throne of God upon Mount Sheni in Egyptian, or Sinai in Hebrew. Here it may be noted that the Japanese call their divine Kami, the 7+1 primeval powers, the Shin, whence came the Shintu gods, which as stellar correspond to the Egyptian Sheniu, who are a group of gods in the upper celestial circle, and of whom it is said “the Sheniu marshal the Osiris” on his way to the “mount of glory” (Rit., ch. 130).The descriptions of Mount Sinai in the book of Exodus show that it was the mount of glory in the solar mythos — that is, the mount of sunrise in the daily course, and the mount of the equinox as the horizon of the annual sun. Various meanings of the word Sheni coincide in showing that the typical Mount Sinai, Sin, or Ba-Shen was the Mount Sheni in the Egyptian astronomical mythology. We have to remember that as far back as the time of the first dynasty Egypt included the mount and surrounding region of Sinai as a part of the double kingdom. Thus the Sarabit el Khadem was considered very holy ground by the Egyptians seven thousand years ago. It was the seat of Hathor there, whose sanctuary of the mother was a primitive cavern in the rock. The turquoise mines of the Sinaitic peninsula were also worked by the Egyptians for the gems of the goddess to whom they were consecrated. In fact, Mount Sinai was Egyptian at any time from seven thousand to thirteen thousand years ago, both as a geographical locality and as a sacred site. The deities who were worshipped on it were likewise Egyptian. It was the seat of Hathor, of Atum-Ra, and Horus the calf. There is a vignette to the Ritual in which this dynasty of divinities from On or Heliopolis may be seen grouped together on the mount. The scene portrayed is on Mount Sheni, which became the Hebrew Sinai. In this, as in the Osirian dynasty of deities, Atum the father was the bull, Iusãas the mother was the cow or heifer; and the calf as a type of renewal for either sex was an image of all three, as was the child-Horus in the anthropomorphic representation. The calf is again represented in another vignette in presence of the god with the worshipper (Naville, Todt., Kap. 108 and 109) in the attitude of adoration behind the calf. This is literally the worship of the golden calf, which was a dual image of both Hathor the Egyptian Venus and of Horus as her calf (ch. 108). So ancient is it, when measured by the mythos, that Horus is the crocodile-headed Sebek as the son of Hathor, who was represented at Annu by the heifer-headed Iusãas. These three are designated the powers of the east. Horus of the solar mount is represented by the calf in presence of the great god Atum-Ra and the star of dawn, or of Hathor as the morning-star. Professor Petrie’s explorations show us that a transformation of this old Egyptian religion into a Semitic or Syrian cult took place at Sinai amongst the miners, many of whom were no doubt slaves who were sent to work the mines, according to the Egyptian practice of devoting captives to the service of the gods. But the goddess Hathor and her child Horus, who were the objects of worship at Sarabit el Khadem in the Sinaitic peninsula, did not originate as Syrian or Semitic deities. They were Egyptian from the first, and were continued wheresoever the Egyptian miners went, whether as the diggers for the turquoise gems of Sinai, the tin of Cornwall, or the gold of the Zimbabwe in Mashonaland.The summit of Amenta at the head of the valley was attained upon the horizon in the east. It was the mount of glory in the solar mythos, which is Sinai, the mount of the glory of god and the seat of judgment in the book of Exodus. “Now these are the judgments which thou shalt set before them”, Ex. 21. 1.) This is the height on which the kneeling Anhur, in the character of Shu-si-Ra, uplifts the solar orb upon the horizon, called the mount, from the summit of which the hosts of darkness were hurled down the steps and for the time being annihilated. Also from this Pisgah-height the promised land was visible as the paradise across the firmamental waters, which are represented by the river Jordan in the Hebrew exodus. A peak of Mount Sinai in Arabia Petrea is known by the name of Djebel Mousa, the mount of Moses, which is traditionally identified as the scene of the events and occurrences on the mount described in the book of Exodus. Taking Mousa or Mouishé to be the Hebrew equivalent for Ma-Shu, the lion-god Shu, Mount Sinai is a localized form of the typical mount on which the lion-god stood to uplift the heaven or sustain the solar disk with his two hands. This in the annual course was at the equinox, and therefore on the mount at the point of turning and returning, or on Mount Sheni=Sinai.From the peak of Pisgah Moses is shown the land here called Canaan as the land flowing with milk and honey, oil, corn, and wine, which was one and the same in all the legends of this paradise of peace and plenty at the summit of the mount. Those who went up from the valley to the top of the mountain neither died there nor were buried there. They were the glorified spirits of the dead, or the leaders of the starry host, like Shu upon the mount of Am-Khemen. Upon the solar mount of glory or Mount Sheni, the mount of the Sheniu, was the Egyptian maat in which the law was given on the mount. This is the hall of justice. The maat was a double law court, first erected for Anup at the pole; but in the solar myth the place of equipoise was changed, and the maat was represented where the annual or periodical assize was held. This was at the point of equinox, which was at one time imaged in the sign of the Scales. Maat or mati in Egyptian is the law. The maat was the hall of justice or of law. The tablets of mati in the maat were the books of the law. Ages before Osiris was enthroned as the great judge in the maat, Atum-Iu the son of Ptah was the divine law-giver in the great hall of justice which was figured on the mount, with Anhur as the intermediary. A divine law-giver was worshipped in Egypt as Atum-Iu, the original giver of the law which was given first by him to Egypt, not to Israel. But when Atum-Huhi had become the Hebrew Ihuh, the law was repeated at second-hand in Israel. The tables of the law are identical by name with the tablets of mati, and the comparative process will show that the matter is the same so far as the Hebrew records go; and if the law were divinely revealed and had any superhuman authority, it would be as the law of mati, which was first inscribed in the papyrus of Ma-Shu or Anhur, and not as the law of the Hebrew Moses, written in the later letters of the Pentateuch. Several meanings are connoted by the word maat or mati in Egyptian, such as law and justice, truth and right. The equilibrium of the universe was expressed by maat, which represented the natural immutable and eternal law. The balance is a symbol of maat and its oneness in duality. It was erected as a figure of the equinox, or the two halves of night and day at equal poise. Makha is a name for the scales and to weigh. The scales were erected at the place of poise and weighing in the equinox. Har-Makhu was the deity of the double equinox, who represented the duality of mati in the oneness of the equinox. The Sphinx was a figure of this duality in oneness at the equinox. The feather of Shu (or Ma) was another type of the same duality, in this case the duality of light and shade which meet and mingle in one at twilight. The Hebrew “two tables of the testimony, the tables of stone, written by the finger of God” (Ex. XXXI. 18), are the equivalent of the laws, or truths and commandments that were “consigned, performed, engraved in script, and placed beneath the feet of Ra-Har-Makhu in the great temple at On to last for ever. The tables of the law and commandments represent the tablets in the hall of maati. The tablets in the Ritual (ch. 28) are expressly assigned to the god Atum-Ra. “This whole heart of mine is laid upon the tablets of Tum, who guideth me to the caverns of Sut” or through the dark passages of Amenta. The tablets of Tum are records of the law or maat. They are kept by Taht the divine scribe in the hall of judgment. We learn from the Ritual (ch. 28) that the Egyptian tables of the law are the tablets or kanu of Atum-Iu; the same word denotes carving in ivory and engraving on stone, and Atum-Huhi is the Kamite original of the Semitic Ihuh. The tables of Moses were the tables of the law, and the law in Egyptian is ma (mati in the plural). The tables or tablets of the law were produced in the judgment hall, and we know from the pleadings of the deceased in what is called the negative confession that these tables of the law contained the commandments or prohibitions concerning the things which the manes says he has not done because of the “thou shalt not” in which the law originated. The speaker, addressing Taht-mati, the recorder in the great hall, says: “O thou bearer of peace offerings, who openest thy mouth for the presentation of the tables (or tablets), for the acceptation of the offerings and for the establishment of mati (law or justice) upon her throne; let the tables be brought forward and let the truth be firmly established” (Rit., ch. 41). These tablets, we repeat, were the tables of the law (ma, maat, or mati); they are produced at the trial before the judges when the heart (character) of the deceased is weighed in the balance of Mati and the goddess (of law or justice) is established on her throne. Otherwise stated, when the law was given in the judgment hall upon Mount Sheni or the mountain of Amenta. The religion of Egypt was based on maat, that is, on law, or more abstractly on truth and justice. And the law was impersonated in the goddess Mati, the Kamite original of the Greek Themis. It is said in the Ritual, “The gods and their symbols come into existence by virtue of law” (ch. 50). This in one sense was by means of Ma or Ma-Shu, the intermediary betwixt the great god and the people; who is represented in Israel by Moses. It is said that the Ten Commandments were given by Ihuh, the Egyptian Huhi, to Moses on Mount Sinai. The Jewish Commandments, however, are not limited to ten in number. The ten are followed by a series of judgments or laws (Ex. XXI, XXII, and XXIII). And here it may be observed that the laws and judgments are identical in Hebrew, as in the duality of maati for law and justice in Egyptian. Also in the book of Deuteronomy (XXVII) twelve statutes are enacted under the form of commandments, enforced with twelve curses. And in the Papyrus of Ani there is a company of twelve gods sitting on twelve thrones as judges in the maat or judgment hall upon the mount — a picture that suggests “the House of the Lord” in the celestial Jerusalem, of which it is said“ ; there are set thrones for judgments, the thrones of the House of David” (Ps. CXXII. 5). These, as described in Revelation, were likewise twelve in number. The maat is identified with the mount of God by Zechariah when he says, “Jerusalem shall be called the city of truth (maat) and the mountain of the Lord of Hosts the holy mountain” (VIII. 3, 4). The law was given to Israel on Mount Sinai, where the sanctuary or divine dwelling answers to the maat. Also when Ihuh comes “to judge the world with righteousness, and the peoples with his truth” (Ps. XCVI. 13), that is according to maati in the maat. “Thou shalt have no other god but Ihuh”, in the book assigned to Moses, was preceded ages earlier in the books of Ma-Shu and Taht at On by “Thou shalt have no other god but Huhi the eternal one”, besides whom there was none other in the cult of Atum-Ra. Thus the god Ihuh is one with Atum-Huhi the eternal. Mount Sinai is one with Mount Sheni, whether as the mount of the lions or of turning in the solar orbit; and Moses is one with Anhur. The tabernacle or sanctuary of Ihuh is one with that of Atum-Huhi. The tables of the law that were given to Moses are identical with the tablets of the law in the hall of mati. This taps once more the sealed-up source of “God’s Word”, which was derived from the Egyptian wisdom written in the books of Taht and Shu that were preserved in the great library of On (Annu), where Atum-Huhi was god the father, and Iu was the ever-coming son, the prince of peace in person, the Egyptian Jesus, Iusa, or Iu-em-hetep.Most of the Hebrew commandments are acknowledged and fulfilled by the speaker, who protests in the judgmentt hall that he has neither said nor done any evil thing against the gods, but the following quotations will show that the Hebrew commandments were compiled directly from the Egyptian. The pleadings are in reply to the commandments which the deceased declares he has kept. The following parallel will briefly indicate how directly the Mosaic commandments were borrowed from the wisdom of Egypt:-

 

Egyptian.   Hebrew
I have not blasphemed a god Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain
I have not committed adultery  Thou shalt not commit adultery
I have not committed theft Thou shalt not steal
I have not borne false witness (or told lies) in the tribunal of truth  Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour
I am not a murderer Thou shalt do no murder
- -
Rit. of the Resurrection, ch.125. Exodus, ch. xx.,

 

Shu-Anhur, the prototype of Moses as giver of the law, has been somewhat overlooked as a god of the writings in which the revelation of Ra was made known by him to men. When he is mentioned in the Ritual as the author of writings called “his rules (or laws) and his papyrus”, Renouf considers this to be an error of the scribes, and moots the opinion that the god Taht is meant (Book of the Dead, ch. 110). Nevertheless, Renouf is wrong. Shu is said to work in the abode of the books of Seb, that is, of earth (Rit., ch. 17). This we can identify with the great library at On or Annu. (See Records, X. 138.) “The papyrus or writing, mahit, of Shu” are mentioned in the Ritual when the speaker says, “I am in unison with his successive changes, and his laws (or rules) and his writings” (Rit., ch. 110). The book of the laws is the book of ma or mati, which was presented by the duality of Shu-Anhur and represented in that of Moses and Joshua. Shu is called “truth” (Magic Papyrus, p. 1, line 9). And as is shown by “the hymn to the god Shu”, among the records that were kept in the great temple library or, as it is called, “the royal palace at On”, there were writings ascribed to Shu-Anhur, the lord of truth or mati. It is said of him, “He made hereditary titles” for Ra, “which are in the writings of the lord of Sesennu” — that is, in the collection of Taht, here called “the scribe of the king Ra-Har-Makhu” and these titles were “consigned, performed, engraved in script under the feet of Ra-Har-Makhu”, or beneath the feet of the statue of the god. Moses likewise is the writer of “hereditary titles” for Ihuh. He also fulfils the same rôle as transmitter of titles in the book of Exodus. When he asks for the name of the new divinity “God said to Moses, I am that I am”. And he added, “Thus thou shalt say unto the children of Israel: I am (Eyeh) hath sent me unto you. This is my name for ever, and this is my memorial for all generations” (Ex. III. 13-16). The writings of Shu-Anhur were preserved at On among the 36,000 books that were traditionally ascribed to Taht. He wrote them as the mouthpiece of Ra, or Atum-Huhi the father of Iu, who was carried into Judea as Ihuh the god of the Ius, Aaiu, or Jews, who brought on the sacred writings that had been “consigned, performed, engraved in script”, and memorized for ever in “the royal palace of On”, or Heliopolis Magna. Now the priest named Osarsiph by Manetho, who was afterwards called Moses, is reputed to have been born at On (Annu), and to have been a priest of the great temple there, the temple of Atum-Ra-Har-Makhu, where the writings were kept, including those in which Ma-Shu had made hereditary titles for Ra-Har-Makhu to be transmitted from generation to generation for time and eternity. The most perfect rendering of the name “I am” would be “the self-existent”, and in the hymn to the god Shu Atum-Ra is designated “the self-existent” (p. 1, l. 9). Also his other title of Kheper signified “he who is” in the Egyptian tongue. Amongst the subject-matter of the exodus is the revelation of the one god that was made to Moses on the mount, which revelation had previously been made to Anhur. It is to Anhur that the one god Ra who is to supersede all other gods and elemental powers is revealed as Huhi the eternal. Anhur is represented as being the medium of communication betwixt the god and mortals. “His substance is blended with the substance of Ra” as intermediate power. He makes divine law known to men (Magic Papyrus). As it is said, the people present their offerings to the god with Anhur’s own hands. Moses is represented as being the same to Ihuh that Anhur was to Atum-Ra — his medium for communication with the people, the medium that was the human mouthpiece for the god. So the ancestral spirit that inspires the Zulu Inyanga says to the medium, “You will not speak with the people; they will be told by us everything they come to inquire about” (Callaway).We learn from the very ancient magical texts that amongst the 36,000 books ascribed to Taht by tradition there was a particular collection known as “The Four Books”. These had the titles of (1) The Old Book, (2) The Book to Destroy Men, (3) The Great Book, (4) The Book to be as God. There was also a group of four books that were astronomical and astrological. Whether these were the same or not, the “Four Books” were in the temple of the sun at Annu or On, where Osarsiph is said to have been a priest. The number does not coincide with that of the Pentateuch. But then the books originally assigned to Moses were only four in number, not five. The wisdom of Egypt, in which Osarsiph was so profoundly learned, would naturally be written upon rolls of papyrus in the library at On, from which it was carried forth in one of the exodes from Egypt. The original nucleus of the Hebrew collection consisted of “the precepts of the Pentateuch” (by which the law was given), “together with their traditional implications” (Montefiore, C. G., Hib. Lect., p. 469). This, in a limited or possibly primitive sense, was the Jewish torah. In Egyptian the Teruu is a roll of papyrus and the torah has the form of the papyrus-roll. Also torah, denotes the whole law, and in Egyptian teruu signifies all, entire, the whole.There is a tradition of the assumption of Moses in the so-called apocryphal “Assumptio Moysis” (Apocryphal Literature, vol. II, p. 177). Such a mode of translation bodily does not apply to any human being, under whatsoever name. But it was the way in which Anhur made his exit from the mount or from the mouth of Ra. Anhur is an entirely mythical character, and if he be the prototype of Moses, it would seem to follow that this is the origin of the legend concerning his disappearance on the mount. The present writer does not attempt to fathom the meaning of the mythos in the form of märchen to which the tradition belongs, but the disappearance of Moses from the mount may be taken as identical with that of the god who represented wind and in the solar mythos was the breathing force of the rising sun personified. With the cessation of the breeze, or, if very fierce, the tornado, Shu-Anhur might be said to pass away, as a current saying has it, “like the devil in a high wind”. It is recorded (Deut. XXXIV. 5) that Moses died, literally “upon the mouth of the Lord” (Ihuh). And Shu-Anhur was the breath of the Lord. He was the spirit of Ra as the breathing solar force emaned from the very mouth of the god, or, as might be, he was represented by the panting lion on the mount of dawn. At sunrise on the mount the all-embracing, all-absorbing fires of Ra did veritably swallow up the force of Anhur, who passed away as breath from the mouth of the solar god. The personality of Shu-Anhur is united with that of Ra, the supreme lord. His very substance is blended with the substance of Ra (Magic Papyrus, I. 6), and is absorbed into it as nutriment when he passes away upon the mount or makes his change in character. Also there is a legend of Anhur’s final disappearance from the mount, an occurrence that took place during a nine days’ tempest, and of which Maspero says, “We may here note the most ancient known reference to the tempest whose tumult hid from men the disappearance or apotheosis of kings, who ascended alive into heaven” (Maspero, Dawn of Civilisation, Eng. tr., p. 178). Thus Shu-Anhur as an elemental power had represented breathing force with lion-like capacity, the equinoctial wind, the breeze of dawn, but in the solar myth the increase of the twilight current was attributed to the sun; it was considered to be breath of Ra, the lord of all, which died upon the mount of sunrise. This becomes the vanishing of Moses on Mount Pisgah, Alphi-Jehovah, in the Hebrew märchen. In rendering the fact, which was scientific in relation to Ra and Shu at sunrise, without due knowledge, the Hebrew writer has apparently made Jehovah swallow Moses bodily as a human being, although the statement is somewhat reticently made, in causing him to die like breath upon the mouth of the lord. This was the “burial of Moses”, and there need be no wonder that “no man knoweth of his sepulchre to this day”.When Moses passed away or was dislimned upon that mountain of the Abarim, his rôle as army leader of the Israelites was taken over by the young man Joshua, who answers perfectly to Shu when the part of Shu is carefully discriminated from that of Anhur. Anhur was the uplifter of the stellar heaven in various forms — his “upliftings” are mentioned in the texts — whereas Shu was the supporter of the sun-god in the solar mythos. In the first character he pushes up the heaven with his rod, as prototype of Moses with his rod. In the second he uplifts the solar disk upon the horizon as the servant and supporter of the great god Ra. Shu had been all that Joshua is going to be when he tells the children of Israel to “put away the gods which your fathers served beyond the river and in Egypt. But as for me and my house, we will serve the Lord” — the Lord being Ihuh, one with the Egyptian Huhi, the new god Atum-Ra. When Shu becomes the leader in his name of Shu-si-Ra there is a river to be crossed. “I am Shu”, he says, “the image of Ra”, “sitting in the inside of his father’s sacred eye”, or the solar disk. [Page 684] “I am the chosen of millions coming out of the lower heaven. When my name is spelt on the bank of the river, then it is dried up”. This in the Hebrew account is Joshua coming to the river Jordan. After the death of Moses “Ihuh spake unto Joshua the son of Nun, Moses’s minister, “ saying”, Arise; go over this Jordan, thou and all this people, unto the land which I do give them, even to the children of Israel” (Joshua. I. 2). The white bull was the bull of Shu, who was called the bull, the master of strength. And according to one of the Jewish märchen, at the conquest of Canaan Joshua rode upon a bull. When they came to the river “all Israel passed over on dry ground”. It is the same with Joshua at the river as with Shu, at whose name “spelt on the bank” the waters dried up for the passage. Shu is the opener of the gates for egress from Amenta on behalf of Ra and the glorified elect who made their exodus from the lower Egypt of Amenta pursued by the Apap-dragon and all the host of darkness. The Osiris thus addresses Shu: “O thou who leapest forth, conductor of the manes and glorified ones from the earth, let the fair path to the tuat (point of egress) be granted to me which is made on behalf of those who are in pain” (Rit., ch. LXIV) — that is, on behalf of the sufferers in the Egypt of the lower world. The earth here mentioned is Amenta, from which the manes and the glorified were conducted first by Anhur to the presence of the solar god upon the mount of glory, and afterwards by Shu on board the solar bark.Shu became the harbinger of Ra and leader in the coming forth from lower Egypt considered as an astronomical locality that was afterwards represented to be geographical in the Hebrew exodus. Thus, in the round of night and day Shu-Anhur enters the Amenta at evening to conduct the children of Ra up from the lower Egypt of the mythos. His alter ego, Shu, takes up the leadership upon the horizon east at dawn, to end the journey in the promised land or upper paradise of plenty and perpetual peace. The land of promise on the other side of Jordan is that paradise across the water which was on the summit of Mount Hetep at the pole, hence the circumpolar paradise of the heptanomis, or heaven in seven astronomes. Thus in the book of Joshua the promised land is mapped out and measured in accordance with the astronomical mythology of the heptanomis. When the racial names are added in place of the divine, the seven divisions are called the seven lands of “the Canaanite, the Hittite, and the Hivite, and the Perizzite, and the Girgashite, and the Amorite, and the Jebusite” (Joshua III. 10). The final heaven attributed to Atum-Ra, as an astronomical formation, was in twelve divisions. This formation had been repeated in the making of Amenta. The previous heaven, considered to be antediluvian, was in ten divisions. These were represented by the ten circles of Ra in the Ritual (ch. 18) and by the ten divine domains of the blessed in the paradise upon the summit of Mount Hetep (Rit. ch. 110). This celestial formation was also represented by the ten tribes that were lost upon the other side of the waters, and by the ten sons of Jacob who preceded the twelve sons of Israel. But the later formation was repeated when Moses set a boundary to the mount and erected twelve pillars, “according to the twelve tribes of Israel” (Ex. XXIV. 4). The same figure of formation is again repeated when Joshua is commanded to set up twelve stones in the midst of the waters, and also in the Gilgal-circle which became the lodging place (Joshua IV. 20) of the Israelites, who were continually on tramp in making the journey of the manes through the subterranean world, which was in twelve sections of space, with the twelve gates through which Ra passes with the blessed on his right hand and the damned upon his left, in accordance with the Egyptian rule of perspective (Book of Hades). In one form of the mythos, then, the Israelites divide the promised land into twelve lots among the twelve tribes. This is in accordance with the ground-plan of Amenta, in which twelve sections of space are shown to be successively enclosed as the possessions of the glorified elect, the chosen people who originate as the children of the sons of Ra, headed by the twelve who reap the harvest-field with Horus in the lower Egypt of Amenta. The gods of this nether earth in twelve divisions are twelve in number. The fields of divine harvest are twelve, the harvesters are twelve. The bearers of the measuring cord are twelve. The lots are also twelve. All being in accordance with the heaven that was mapped out in twelve domains. Thus the land of promise in the solar mythos was the terrestrial paradise of legendary lore. This was the land mapped out in twelve divisions where the type of plenty is the harvest-field of Amenta, and the cultivators are the twelve with Horus as the children of Ra. They formed the twelve colonies altogether under the suzerainty of local gods, and were the prototypes of the twelve tribes called the children of Israel. In the second stage the promised land is that more ancient circumpolar paradise upon Mount Hetep first mapped out in seven divisions, where the water-plants (aarru) supplied a primeval natural type of plenty. Both forms of the double paradise have been reproduced as Hebrew, one in the book of Exodus, the other in the book of Joshua. The land that was to be inherited by the children of Israel is also described as a form of the celestial heptanomis which preceded the heaven in twelve divisions. Mount Pisgah represents the mountain of Amenta, the summit of which reached up to the sky (Rit., ch. CXLIX). This was the top of attainment for Moses, whose journey here comes to an end midway. But from this point the second upper land of promise might be seen. This is the circumpolar paradise or the celestial city in seven divisions, and in attaining this upon the stellar mount of glory Joshua brings the mythical exodus to its own proper ending.Hence the men who were prospecting on behalf of Joshua “went and passed through the land, and described it by cities into seven portions in a book” (Joshua XVIII. 9).The promise made to Moses (Ex. III. 17) was that the Lord would lead the children of Israel “up out of the affliction of Egypt unto the land of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite and the Jebusite; unto a land flowing with milk and honey”. The Girgashite is omitted from this list of names. But when Joshua had crossed the Jordan “he came unto Jericho”, and the men of Jericho who fought against Israel are said to be the Amorite, the Perizzite, the Canaanite, the Hittite, the Girgashite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite. Thus Jericho in itself becomes a form of the heptanomis in which the tribes and totems are but seven in number, corresponding to “the seven portions in a book”. This may account for seven priests encompassing the city seven times upon the seventh day, blowing seven times on seven trumpets of rams-horns in order that the city walls might fall down flat. Here let it be remembered that in the astronomical mythology the localities are primarily celestial (Joshua XXIV. 11). The descriptions point to the heaven thus taken by storm as being a form of the celestial heptanomis or upper Egypt of the seven astronomes — the upper paradise that was indefinitely more ancient than the twelve divisions of the solar heaven established by Ra in his first sovereignty, who is Atum-Huhi, the Hebrew Ihuh. In short, the siege of Jericho as a subject of the astronomical mythology is identical with the siege of seven-circled Troy.In various survivals of the self-same mythos there is a Delilah who betrays the city when it is besieged, and who becomes the consort or the ally of the captor. This in the Greek version is Helen of Troy. We learn from Plutarch that in the wars of Sut and Horus, Ta-Urt (Greek Thauris), the concubine of Sut, deserted and came over to the side of Horus, and was pursued by a serpent (of Isis and Osiris, 19). Ta-Urt was the Great Mother in the constellation of the Great Bear, the old harlot of the heptanomis who deserted Sut and joined herself to the solar Sebek-Horus as “the great mother of him who was married to his mother”. Rahab the harlot, who dwelt on the top of the wall in Jericho, the city of the seven tribes, is another survival of the pre-monogamous Great Mother, the whore of later language. Rahab in the Psalms and the book of Job is the crocodile, a symbol, a nickname for Egypt. In Assyrian, rahâbu is a monster of the waters=the crocodile. The crocodile was a type of the old Great Mother Apt or Ta-Urt, not only in lower Egypt (Kheb), but in the upper Egypt where the waters were celestial; and Apt the goddess passes into Hathor as the amorous queen (Ps. LXXXVII. 4, LXXXIX. 10; Job XXVI. 12). The scarlet signal placed in the window by Rahab is of the true typhonian colour, the proper hue of the red dragon or hippopotamus — that is, of the old harlot sitting on the waters of heaven (Rev. XVII. 15).
 In conclusion, the children of Israel, under Moses, travel through Amenta. They take possession of a land divided into twelve domains, which the Egyptian manes had already cultivated in the nether earth as a map of heaven in twelve divisions. Under Joshua they cross the water to take possession of the ancient heptanomis which had been configurated by the Egyptians as the upper circumpolar paradise. They are led to this land flowing with milk and honey by the hornet=the Kamite wasp or bee. This was the heaven mapped out of old by the Egyptians as the pastures of the seven cows who provided milky abundance in the Sekhet-Hetep, or the evergreen meadows of divine Aarru. And it is the Great Mother, whether in her stellar or lunar character as Apt or Hathor in the mount, who plays the part of traitress and surrenders the city to the solar god.The paradise looked up to by the most primitive races was a heaven of perpetual plenty. That type was preserved by the Egyptians in the fields of celestial food upon Mount Hetep, but, as before said, there was no unearned increment to be derived from these elysian fields. “I am master there”, says the beatified spirit who has attained his allotment and built his homestead. “I am in glory there; I eat there; I plant and I reap there; I plough there; I take my fill of love”. “I net the ducks and I eat the dainties”. “I am united there to the god Hetep”, the good Osiris, as the deity of plenty and of peace (ch. 110, Renouf). The Aarru was their oasis in the desert, well watered, with the sand turned into soil for seed by ceaseless human labour, and transferred into the nether earth or into the upper paradise. But in transmogrifying Kamite mythology into the Semite history, a remarkable omission has been made by the inspired writers of God’s Word. In the Egyptian original the elect people are chosen as the cultivators of the Aarru fields, which are measured out and the allotments made for the express purpose of cultivation. “Holiness to you, cultivators”, says the god Ra. The Egyptians in their lower paradise of plenty reaped the produce of their labours, but they had to earn it individually first. In the Jewish version of the Aarru it is a land flowing with milk and honey, corn, oil, and wine. But there is no demand for work, no thought of cultivation, or of earning an eternal living. On attaining this land of promise they were to enter into an inheritance prepared by the labours of others, with no need to become the cultivators on their own account; and this position of the chosen people as non-cultivators of the soil has been religiously preserved by the non-agricultural Jews for this world and by the Christians for the world to come. Also the Jews have been and are to-day the victims of their misappropriated mythos. The mount was a stone of stumbling in their path, the rock on which they split. Their racial and religious origins are still at war in every meeting of the Zionists. The Zion of the visionaries is based on a celestial foundation. It is Jerusalem the golden; Jerusalem above, not to be confounded with a sacred site in Palestine. In the remotest parts of Africa the Jews would be much nearer “home” than in the Zion localized in Palestine which represented the eternal city on high, according to the Egyptian eschatology. The ideal of the racial Jews is a paradise on earth, whereas the religious ideal was the city in the heavens figured ages earlier on the summit of the mount, which was Hetep, the mount of peace, in Egyptian, and in Hebrew it was Mount Salem, or the later Jerusalem.THE SEED OF YSIRAAL.Only one mention of the people of Israel occurs by name on all the monuments of Egypt. This was discovered a few years since by Professor Petrie on a stele erected by the King Merenptah II. Not that there is any possibility of identifying these with the Israelites of the biblical exodus. The “people of Ysiraal” on the monument belong to those who were amongst the confederated Nine Bows, the marauders, North Africans, the Kheta, the Canaanites, the Northern Syrians, and others with whom they are classed. “Every one that was a marauder hath been subdued by the King Merenptah, who gives life like the sun-god every day”. This inscription gives an account of the Libyan campaign, and concludes with the following description of the triumph of King Merenptah: “Chiefs bend down, saying, Peace to thee; not one of the Nine Bows raises his head. Vanquished are the Tahennu (North Africans); the Khita (Hittites) are quieted; ravaged is Pa-kanana (Kanun) with all violence; taken is Askadni (Askelon?); seized is Kazmel; Yenu (Yanoh) of the Syrians is made as though it had not existed; the people of Ysiraal is spoiledit hath no seed (left); Syria has become as widows of Egypt; all lands together are in peace (Petrie, Contemp. Review, May, 1896). The people of Ysiraal (Israel) are here included, together with the Syrians, and amongst the confederated ”Nine Bows” who made continual incursions into Egypt as invaders and marauders, and who are spoken of as having been exterminated. Hence it is said, “The people of Ysiraal is spoiled; it hath no seed”. But there is nothing whatever in the inscription of King Merenptah corresponding to or corroborative of the biblical story of the Israelites in the land of Egypt or their exodus into the land of Canaan. The campaign against the Libyan confederacy had been undertaken by Merenptah, who, according to the inscription, was born as the destined means of revenging the invasion of Egypt by the Nine Bow barbarians. In proclaiming the triumph of the monarch the inscription says, “Every one that was a marauder hath been subdued by the King Merenptah”. The people of Ysiraal in this inscription are identified by the Pharaoh with the nomads of the Edomite Shasu or shepherds, and are classed by him with the confederate marauders who invaded Egypt with the Libu, and were defeated with huge slaughter at the battle of Procepis (Pa-ar-shep, which is also recorded on the monuments. They were a tribe or totemic community of cattle-keepers, one of “the tribes of the Shasu from the land of Aduma” who went down into Egypt in search of grazing ground to find sustenance for their herds in the eastern region of the Delta. At this very time, when the people of Ysiraal and their seed were being “wiped out” or annihilated as the Israelites in Syria, there was an exodus of the Edomite Shasu which has been pressed into the service of false theory on behalf of biblical “history”. These tribes had considered the eastern region of the Delta, as far as Zoan, to be their own possession, until they were driven out by Seti I. Now they bestirred themselves anew, under Meneptah II (Merenptah), but “in a manner alike peaceful and loyal”. “As faithful subjects of Egypt, they asked for a passage through the border fortress of Khetam in the land of Thuku (Heb. Succoth), in order that they might find sustenance for themselves and their herds in the rich pasture-lands of the lake districts about the city of Pa-Tum (Pithom)” (Brugsch, Egypt under the Pharaohs, Eng. tr., one vol., p. 317). An Egyptian official makes the following report on the subject. He says: “Another matter for the satisfaction of my master’s heart: we have carried into effect the passage of the tribes of the Shasu from the land of Aduma (Edom) from the fortress (Khetam) of Merenptah-Hetephima, which is situated in Thuku (Succoth), to the lakes of the city Pa-Tum, of Merenptah-Hetephima, which are situated in the land of Thuku, in order to feed themselves and to feed their herds on the possessions of Pharaoh, who is there a beneficent sun for all peoples. In the year 8 . . . Sut, I caused them to be conducted (according to the list of the days on which the fortress was opened for their passage)”. (Brugsch, citing Pap. Anastasi; 6). Merenptah also had his royal seat in the city of Ramses. Here we meet with the field of Zoan and the store-cities of Pithom and Ramses which have been imported into the second book of Moses, and futile efforts have been made to show that this record corroborated the biblical version of the exodus. But in this exodus we find the Shasu or shepherds are peaceful and loyal people, faithful subjects of the Pharaoh, who are politely conducted from the land of Edom through the fortress (Khetam) to the lake-country of Succoth (or Thuku), the first encampment assigned to the Israelites, where they would find abundance of food and fodder for themselves and their flocks and herds instead of wandering in the wilderness for forty years, according to the other story. At the same time, or thereabouts, the people of Ysiraal in Syria were cut up root and branch by Merenptah. The passage through the land of Thuku, Hebrew Succoth, here described is apparently the route adopted by those who converted the “coming forth” from Amenta into the biblical exodus from Egypt, and it tends to affiliate the cattle-keepers in the land of Goshen to the nomadic tribes of the Edomite Shasu (Gen. XLVI. 32). But we shall not overtake the children of Israel as an ethnological entity on this line of route, nor as the people who perish by the million in the wilderness of sand that formed the land of graves in the desert domain of Sekari. For that we shall have to “turn back” and encamp before Pi-ha-hiroth, and pass through the mouth of the cleft into the wilderness of Amenta. But it is useless trying any further to confuse the Jewish exodus with the mythical “coming forth” from the lower Egypt of Amenta, with intent to reestablish a falsely-bottomed history. The eruption of the Libyans and their confederated invaders in the time of Merenptah is a matter of historic fact. That they were vanquished and driven back by Merenptah is equally historical. They at least made no triumphant exodus from Egypt as 600,000 fighting men, for they never got there, but were fatally defeated on the borders of the land. The only people, then, known by the name of Israel to the Egyptian monuments are the people of Ysiraal who had their very seed destroyed, as claimed by the Pharaoh beloved of Ptah. These can be identified as a North Syrian contingent of fighting men who had joined the Libyans, or the old confederation of the Nine Bows, in their attacks on Egypt, and were hunted back in wreck and ruin, if not entirely destroyed, by Merenptah, the so-called “Pharaoh of the exodus”. Thus, if these were the same people as those of the Hebrew exodus, the deliverance of the Israelites from Egypt would be turned into the deliverance of Egypt itself from the Libyan confederacy of raiding barbarians amongst whom the Israelites were a hardly distinguishable unit. What then was “the seed of Israel” as an ethnological entity in the eyes of Merenptah, or the writer of his inscription? They fought as mercenaries and marauders for the Libyan king, who had made war on Egypt collectively, and were driven backward all together in one common, overwhelming rout. They came and went, and left no record of their past. Israel in Syria was not Israel in Egypt. Israel in Egypt is not an ethnical entity, but the children of Ra in the lower Egypt of Amenta, who are entirely mythical.THE TITLE OF PHARAOH. By the bye, so far as hitherto known, the name of “Pharaoh” is only found in Hebrew. Some Egyptologists derive it from Par-ao, the great house. The present writer is of opinion that this title of the Ra was more probably derived from Paru the lion than from Para the house. The Pharaoh personated the lion, or the lion-god, and sometimes wore the lion’s tail as the emblem of royalty. Then he was Paru as the lion and the hak as ruler. Thus the king as lion-ruler would be the Paruhak=Pharaoh. Moreover, and this seems conclusive, the lion-god is addressed as the god Paru (Rit., ch. 162), and the full spelling of the name (Paruhak) is extant in the Ritual. In an address to Sekhet (ch. 164) the goddess is called the divine mother of Parhakasa, who is the royal wife of Paruhak-Khepera, the king as lion-ruler or Pharaoh. Probably the Paruhak originated with Kheper-Ptah and his consort Sekhet, who were the parents of the lion-god Atum-Ra, and therefore of Ihuh in Israel. The chapter in which the lion-ruler appears as the Paruhak is one of the most ancient in the Ritual. It is said to have been written partly if not entirely in the language of the blacks (the Nahsi) and the Antiu of Nubia (ch. 164), which takes us beyond Egypt as now known to the country of Sut-Nahsi, whence the Egyptians came in their course of descent from the equatorial regions where they had dwelt in a land of equal day and night, the prototype of their double earth and of time in Amenta. We find from chapter 162 that this lion of the double force, the Paruhak, is invoked as the protector of his people. His whip is used against their enemies. He is saluted as the lion of the double power who answers prayer and comes to those that call upon him and invoke him as the “protector of the wretched against the oppressor” (Rit., 162). These were the names in Amenta. A corroboration of this origin of the Pharaonic name may be found in Ezekiel (XXXII. 2): "Son of man, take up a lamentation for the Pharaoh king of Egypt, and say unto him, Thou was likened unto a young lion of the nations”. Which he was as the lion-ruler Paruhak.

 

 

6
AMENTA
-
-
-
-
A
1
1
1
-
M+E
18
9
9
-
N+T+A
35
8
8
6
AMENTA
54
18
18
-
-
5+4
1+8
1+8
6
AMENTA
9
9
9

 

 

6
AMENTA
-
-
-
-
A+M+E+N
33
15
6
-
T+A
21
3
3
6
AMENTA
54
18
9
-
-
5+4
1+8
-
6
AMENTA
9
9
9

 

 

6
AMENTA
-
-
-
-
N+A+M+E
33
15
6
-
A+T
21
3
3
6
AMENTA
54
18
9
-
-
5+4
1+8
-
6
AMENTA
9
9
9

 

 

6
AMENTA
-
-
-
-
A+M
14
5
5
-
A+T+E+N
40
13
4
6
AMENTA
54
18
9
-
-
5+4
1+8
-
6
AMENTA
9
9
9

 

 

6
AMENTA
-
-
-
-
A
1
1
1
-
T+E+N
39
12
3
-
A+M
14
5
5
6
AMENTA
54
18
9
-
-
5+4
1+8
-
6
AMENTA
9
9
9

 

 

I AM A TEN I A TEN AM I

NETERS ENTERS AMENTA ENTERS NETERS

 

 

WE ARE THE DEAD SHORT TIME AGO WE LIVED FELT DAWN SAW SUNSET GLOW

LOVED AND WERE LOVED

AND NOW

?

 

 

10
ISIS OSIRIS
-
-
-
1
I
9
9
9
1
S
19
10
1
1
I
9
9
9
3
S+O+S
53
26
8
1
I
9
9
9
1
R
18
9
9
1
I
9
9
9
1
S
19
10
1
10
OSIRIS ISIS
-
-
-

 

 

10
ISIS OSIRIS
-
-
-