2 Voltaic
Electricity and Electrolysis
The
discovery of socalled contact electricity by Galvani (1780)
and Volta (1792) is so well known that we may pass by it
here. However interesting Galvani's experiments..." "...and
the resulting discussion about the origin of electric
charges may be, we are here more concerned with formulating
concepts and laws. Hence we shall recount only
the facts..."
Fig.81 Voltaic
cell
"...If
two different metals are dipped into a solution (Fig.
81),
say, copper and zinc into dilute sulphuric acid, the metals
manifest electric charges that have exactly the same
properties as frictional electricity. According to the
fundamental law of electricity, charges of both signs occurr
on the metals (poles) to the same amount. The system
composed of the solution and the metals, which is called a
voltaic element or cell, thus has the
power of separating the two kinds of electricity. Now, it is
remarkable that this power is apparently inexhaustible, for
if the poles are connected by a wire so that their charges
flow around and neutralize each other, as soon as the wire
is
/ Page157 /
again removed, the poles
are still charged. Thus the element continues to keep up the
supply of electricity as long as the wire connection is
maintained. Hence a continuous flow of electricity must be
taking place. How this is to be imagined in detail depends
on whether the onefluid or the twofluid theory is
accepted. In the former case only one current is present: in
the latter, two opposite currents, one of each fluid,
flow. Now, the
electric current manifests its existence by showing
very definite effects. Above all it heats the connecting
wire. Everyone knows this fact from the metallic filaments
in our electric bulbs. Thus the current continually produces
hear energy. From what does the voltaic element derive the
power of producing electricity continually and thereby
indirectly generating heat? According to the law of
conservation of energy, wherever one kind of energy appears
during a process, another kind of energy must disappear to
the same extent.
The source of energy is
the chemical process in the cell. One metal dissolves as
long as the current flows; at the same time a constituent of
the solution separates out on the other. Complicated
chemical processes may take place in the solution itself. We
have nothing to do with these but content ourselves with the
fact that the voltaic element is a means of generating
electricity in unlimited quantities and of producing
considerable electric currents.
We shall now have to
consider, however, the reverse process, in which the
electric current produces a chemical decomposition. For
example, if we allow the current between two indecomposable
wire leads (electrodes), say of platinum, to flow
through slightly acidified water, the latter resolves into
its components, hydrogen and oxygen, the hydrogen coming off
at the negative electrode (cathode), the oxygen at
the positive electrode (anode), The quantitative laws of
this process of "electrolysis," discovered by
Nicholson and Carlisle (1800) were found by Faraday (1832).
The farreaching consequences of Faraday's researches for
the knowledge of the structure of matter are well known; it
is not the consequences themselves that lead us to discuss
these researches but the fact that Faraday's laws furnished
the means of measuring electric currents accurately, and
hence allowed the structure of electromagnetic theory to be
completed.
/ Page 158 /
This experiment of
electrolytic dissociation can be carried out not only with a
voltaic current, but just as well with a discharge current,
which occurs when oppositely charged metallic bodies are
connected by a wire. Care must be taken that the quantities
of electricity that are discharged are sufficiently great.
We have apparatus for storing electricity, socalled
condensers , whose action depends on the induction
principle, and which give such powerful discharges that
measurable amounts are decomposed in the electrolytic cell.
The amount of the charge that flows may be measured
by the methods of electrostatics discussed above. Now
Faraday discovered the law that twice the charge produces
twice the dissociation, three times the charge three times
the dissociation  in short that the amount m of
dissociated substance (or of one of the products of
dissociation) is proportional to the quantity e of
electricity that has passed through the cell:
Cm= e.
The constant C depends on the nature of the substances and
of the chemical process.
A second law of Faraday regulates
this dependence. It is known that chemical elements combine
in perfectly definite proportions to form compounds. The
quantity of an element that combines with 1 gm. of the
lightest element, hydrogen, is called its equivalent
weight. For example, in water (H 2 O)
8gm.
of oxygen (O) are combined with
1
gm. of hydrogen (H), hence oxygen has the equivalent weight
8gm.
Now Faraday's law states that the same quantity of
electricity that seperates out
1
gm. of hydrogen is able to separate out
1
gm. of hydrogen is able to separate out an equivalent weight
of every other element, for example,
8
gm. of oxygen.
Hence the constant
C need only be known for hydrogen, and then we get
it for every other substance by dividing this value by the
equivalent weight for the substance."
The scribe noted the appearance of Ra and the
eight.
Page 159
(47)
(48)
...Thus electrolytic dissociation furnishes us with a very
convenient measurement of the quantity of electricity
e
That has passed through the cell during a discharge. We need
only determine the mass m of a product of
decomposition that has the equivalent weight..." "...and
then we get the desired quantity of electricity from
equation (48). It is of course a matter of indifference
whether this electricity is obtained from the discharge of
charged conductors (condensers) or whether it comes from a
voltaic cell. In the latter case the electricity flows
continuously with constant strength; this means that the
charge = J x t passes through any crosssection of
the conducting circuit and hence also through the
decomposing cell in the time t Here the
quantity
(49)
is called the intensity of current or current strength, for
it measures how much electrical charge flows through the
crosssection of the conductor per unit time.
Page 160
1 + 6 =
7
3. Resistance and
Heat of Current
We must next consider the
process of conduction or current itself. It has been
customery to compare the electric current with the flowing
of water in a pipe and to apply the concepts there valid to
the electrical process. If water is to flow in a tube there
must be some driving force If it flows from a higher vessel
through an inclined tube to a lower vessel, gravitation is
the driving force (Fig. 82 ) This is greater, the higher the
upper surface of the water
Fig 82 The current strength of the water is proportional
to the potential difference V and therefore to the
difference h in height of the two levels.
is above the lower. But the velocity of the current of
water, or its current strength, depends not only on the
forces exerted by gravitation but also on the resistance
that the water experiences in the conducting tube. If this
is long and narrow, the amount of water passing through per
unit of time is less than in the case of a short wide tube.
The currant strength J is thus proportional to the
difference V of potential energy that drives the water
(which is proportional to the difference in height
h of the two levels;"
"...and inversely proportional to the resistance W.
We set
/ Page 161
/
J = V or JW
=V, (50)
In which the unit of resistance chosen is that which allows
one unit of current to flow when the difference of level is
one unit of height.
G.S. Ohm (1826) applied precisely
the same ideas to the electric current. The difference of
level that effects the flow corresponds to the electric
force. We define the sign of the current as positive in the
direction from the positive to the negative pole. For a
definite piece of wire of length l we must set
V=El, where E is the field strength, which
is regarded constant along the wire. For if the same
electric field acts over a greater length of wire, it
furnishes a ber impulse to the flowing electricity. The
force V is also called the electromotive force
(difference of potential or level) It is, moreover,
identical with the concept of electric potential which we
mentioned above (p.154).
Since the current strength
J and the electrical intensity of field E,
hence also the potential difference or electromotive force
V = El, are measurable quantities, the
proportionality between J and V expressed
in Ohm's may be tested experimentally
The resistance W depends
on the material and the form of the conducting wire; the
longer and thinner it is the greater is W. If l
is the length of the wire and f the size of
the crosssection then W is directly proportional
to l, and inversely proportional to f.
(51)
where the factor of
proportionality..." "...depends only on the
material of the wire and is called the
conductivity..."
Page 162
1 + 6 + 2 =
9
(52)
"... In this form Ohm's law is left only one constant whose
value depends on the conducting material, namely, the
conductivity, but in no other way depending on the form and
size of the conducting body (wire).
In the case of insulators..." "= 0.
But ideal insulators do not exist. Very small traces of
conductivity are always present except in a complete
vacuum. There is an unbroken sequence leading from bad
conductors (such as porcelain or amber) to the metals, which
have enormously high conductivity.
We have already pointed
out that the current heats the conducting wire. The
quantitative law of this phenomenon was found by Joule
(1841). It is clearly a special case of the law of
conservation of energy, in which electric energy becomes
transformed into heat. Joule's law states that the heat
developed per unit of time by the current J in
traversing the potential difference V is
Q =
JV, (53)
Where Q is to be measured not in calories but in mechanical
units of work. We shall make no further use of this formula,
and state it here merely for the sake of completeness.
By this time both the Zed Aliz Zed and far yonder
scribes's Z's, were about ready to abandon their
gyroscopes
Page
162 1
x 6 x 2 =
12 1
+ 2 =
3
1 + 6 +
2 =
9
4
Electromagnetism
Up to the early
nineteenth century, electricity and magnetism were regarded
as two regions of phenomena which was similar in some
respects but quite separate and independent. A bridge was
eagerly sought between the two regions, but for a long time
without success. At last Oersted (1820) discovered that the
magnetic needle is deflected by voltaic currents. In the
same year Biot and Savart discovered the quantitive law of
this phenomenon, which Laplace formulated in terms of action
at a distance. This law is very important for us, for the
reason that in it there occurs a constant peculiar to
electromagnetism and of the nature of a velocity, which
showed itself later to be identical with the velocity of
light.
Biot and Savart established that the
current flowing in a straight wire neither attracts nor
repels a magnetic pole, but strives to
drive
/ Page
163 1
x 6 x 3 = 18 1 + 8 =
9 /
it around in a circle
about the wire (Fig. 83), so that the positive pole moves in
the sense of a right handed screw turned from below
(contrary to the hands of a watch) about the positive
direction of the current."
That's odd said the odd ones, at odds over whether the
watch was showing the right time, or had it now taken a turn
for the hearse. To which the scribe responded would you
believe, by writing the words Spirit and Spiral.
"The quantitative law can be brought into the simplest form
by supposing the conducting wire to be divided into a number
of short pieces of length l and writing down the
effects of these current elements, from which the whole
current is obtained by summation. We shall state the lae of
a current element only for the special case in which the
magnetic pole lies in the plane that passes through the
middle part of the element and is perpendicular"
Fig 83
The magnetic field H surrounding a current
J. Fig. 84
The direction of H is perpendicular to the
directions
of
J and the radius vector r
"to its direction (Fig 84). Then the force that acts on the
magnet pole of unit strength, i.e., the magnetic intensity
of field H in this plane is perpendicular to the
line connecting the pole with the midpoint of the current
element, and is directly proportional to the current
intensity J and to its lengthl, and inversely proportional
to the square of the distance r:"
cH= J1
. (54)
r2
"Outwardly this formula has again a similarity to Newton'
law of attraction or Coulomb's law of electrostatics and
magnetostatics, but the electromagnetic force has
nevertheless a totally different
/ Page 164 /
character. For it does
not act in the direction of the connecting line but
perpendicular to it. The three directions J,r H
are perpendicular to each other in pairs. From
this we see that electrodynamic effects are intimately
connected with the structure of Euclidean space; in a
certain sense they furnish us with a natural rectilinear
coordinate system..."
The factor of proportionality
c introduced in formula
(54)
is completely determined since the distance r, the
current strength J and the magnetic field H are
measurable quantities. It clearly denotes the strength of
that current which, flowing through a peiece of conducter of
unit length, produces a unit of magnetic field at a unit
distance. It is customary and often convenient to choose in
place of the unit of current that we have introduced
(namely, the quantity of static electricity that flows
through the crosssection per unit of time and is called the
electrostatic unit), this current of strength c (in
electrostatic measure) as the unit of current; it is then
called the electromagnetic unit of current. Its use has an
advantage in that
Jl
Hr2 ,
Equation (54) assumes the simple form H= r2 or J
= l so that
measurement of the strength of a current is reduced to that
of two lengths and of a magnetic field. Most practical
instruments for measuring currents depend on the deflection
of magnets by currents, or the converse, and hence give the
current strength in electromagnetic measure.
To express this in terms of the electrostatic measure of
current first introduced the constant c must be
known; for this, however, only one measurement is
necessary.
Before we speak of the experimental
determination of the quantity c, we shall get an
insight into its nature by means of a simple dimensional
consideration. According to (54) it is defined by c
= J l .
Hr
2
Page 165
"But we know that the
electric charge e and the magnetic strength of pole
p have the same dimensions because Coulomb's law for
electric and magnetic force is exactly the same.
Hence..."
"...c has the dimensions of a velocity.
The first exact measurement of c was
carried out by Weber and Kohlrausch (1856). These
experiments belong to the most memorable achievements of
precise physical measurement not only on account of their
difficulty but also on account of the farreaching
consequences of the result. For the value obtained
for c was
3
x 10 10 cm. / sec., which is exactly the
velocity of light.
This equality could not
be accidental. Numerous thinkers, including Weber himself
and many other mathematicians and physicists, felt the
close relationship that the number c =
3
x 10 10 cm./sec established between two great
realms of science, and they sought to discover the bridge
that ought to connect electromagnetism and optics. This was
accomplished by Maxwell after Faraday's wonderful and
ingenious method of experimenting had brought to light new
facts and new views..."
This has arrived said Zed Aliz, its for inclusion afore
even the even deadline.
The Expanding
Universe
Sir Arthur Eddington 1932
Page
113
"...and since the velocity of light c is
300,000
km per sec.,..."
9^{th} line down of main text.
Writ the scribe, counting on it
Cassell's English
Dictionary 1974
Page 69
"Augean
(aw je an )
[L. Augeas, Gr. Augeias],
a.Pertaining to Augeas (mythic king of Elis, whose
stable, containing
3000
oxen, had not
been cleaned
Page
70 /
out for
thirty
years, till
Hercules, by turning the river Alpheus through it, did so in
a day) ;..."
At this most critical moment in the now of our
passing. The Zed AlizZed took time out to address yon
companies goodly mix of striven souls. And in manner gentle,
this incantation sold .Dearest of dear friends, all iz one
and one iz all, the GOD of the THAT, iz the GOD of MIND,
THAT MIND hath always sparkling point with thee.THAT mind of
thine, and THAT sparkle point of the THAT, iz the number
NINE,and
its dynastic progeny.
NINE
iz the number of the THAT. Listen to the call of
thy GOD
'3000
Oxen x
thirty
years'
90000
' thirty
years'
30 x
360 10800
Ra + the eight gods
