/  1- 2.
    Now, this mathematical theorem leads, if we assume that all physical forces are ultimately electrical in origin or that they at least follow the same laws of equilibrium in uniformly moving systems, to an explanation of Fitzgerald's contraction. The difficulty of regarding all forces as electrical is due to the circumstance that they lead, in accordance with old and well known theorems deriving from Gauss and Green, to charges being in equilibrium but never in stable equilibrium. The forces which bind the atoms to form molecules and the latter together to form solid bodies cannot, therefore, simply be electrical. The necessity for assuming nonelectric forces emerges most clearly if we inquire into the dynamical constitution of an individual electron. This is supposed to be an accumulation of negative charge which we must assume to be of a finite amount, for, as we have seen (p.211), the energy of a spherically shaped charge or radius a is equal to  1  e2 , and it becomes infinitely great                                                                                                                                                 a
if a is set equal to zero. But the component parts of the electron strive to separate, since similar charges repel. Consequently,
there must be a new force which keeps them together. In Abraham's theory of the electron it is assumed that an electron is a rigid sphere, that is, that the nonelectric forces are to be so great that they admit of no defor-mation whatsoever. But it is, of course, possible to make other assumptions.
     Now, it suggested itself to Lorentz that the electron also experiences the contraction    .          .                                                                                                                                                
/  1- 2.
We have already stated (p. 213) that a much simpler formula results for the mass of the electron than that arising from Abraham's hypothesis. But, in addition to  

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electromagnetic energy, Lorentz's electrons have also an energy of deformation of foreign origin, which is wanting in the rigid electron of Abraham.
     Lorentz next investigated the question whether the contraction hypothesis is sufficient for deriving the principle of relativity. After laborious calculations he established that this was not the case, but he also found (
1899) what assumption had to be added in order that all electromagnetic phenomena in moving systems occur just as in the resting ether. His result is at least as remarkable as the contrac-tion hypothesis. It is: A new time measure must be used in a system which is moving uniformly. He called this time, which differs from system to system, "local time"  The contraction hypothesis may clearly be expressed thus: The measure of length in moving systems is different from that in the ether. Both hypothesis together state that space  and time must be measured differently in moving systems and in the resting ether. Lorentz enunciated the laws according to which the measured quantities in various systema may be transformed into one another, and he proved that these transformations leave the field equations of the electron theory unchanged. This is the mathe-matical content of his discovery. Larmor (1900) and Poincare (1905) arrived at similar results about the same time.* We shall examine these transformation formulae presently from Einstein's point of view, and so we shall not enter into them here. But we shall consider what consequence the new turn in Lorentz's theory had for the idea of the ether.
     In the new theory of Lorentz the principle of relativity holds in conformity with the results of experiment, for all electrodynamic events. Thus, an observer percieves the same phenomena in his system no matter whether it is at rest in the ether or moving uniformly and rectilinearly. He has no means at all of distinguishing the one from the other. For even the motion of other bodies in the world, which are moving independently of him, always informs him only of relative motion with respect to them and never of absolute motion with respect to the ether. Thus he can assert that he himself is at  
* It is interesting historically that the formula of transformation to a moving system, which we nowadays call Lorentz's transformation (see V1, 2, P.236 formula (70a)), was set up by Voigt as early as 1877 in an investigation which was still founded on the elastic theory of light.  

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rest in the ether, and no one can contradict him. It is true that a second observer on another body moving relative to the first can assert the same with equal right. There is no empirical and no theoretical means of deciding whether one or the other of them is right.       Consequently, we arrive at the same position with respect to the ether as the principle of relativity of classical mechanics did with respect to the absolute space of Newton (III,6, p.69). In the latter case it had to be admitted that it is meaningless to regard a definite place in absolute space as something real in the sense of physics. For there is no physical means of fixing a place in absolute space or of finding it a second time. In precisely the same way we must now admit that a definite position in the ether is nothing real in the physical sense, and for this reason the ether itself loses the character of a substance. Indeed, we may say: If each of two observers who are moving relative to each other can assert with equal right that he is at rest in the ether, there can be no ether.
     Thus, the extreme development of the ether theory leads to its dissolution as a fundamental concept. But it has required a great effort to admit the failure of the ether idea. Even Lorentz, whose ingenious suggestions and laborious efforts led the ether theory to this crisis, hesitated for a long time before taking this step. The reason is this: The ether was conceived for the express purpose of being a carrier of light vibrations, or, more generally, of the electro-magnetic forces in empty spaces.  
Vibrations without something which vibrates seemed to be unthinkable. On the other hand, the assertion that in empty space there are observable vibrations goes beyond all possible experience. Light or electromagnetic forces are never observable except in connection with bodies. Empty space free of all matter is no object at all. All that we can ascertain is that an action starts from one material body and arrives at another material body some time later. What occurs in the inter-val is purely hypothetical, or, more precisely, a matter of suitable assumption. Theorists may use their own judgment to attribute properties to the vacuum, with the one restriction that these serve to correlate changes of material things.
    This view is a step in the direction of higher abstraction, releasing us from ideas that previously were considered to be necessary  

/  Page 224  /

components of our thinking. At the same time, it is an approach to the ideal of allowing only that which is directly given by experience to be valid as a constructive part of the physical world, all superfluous pictures and analogies originating from more primitive and unrefined experience being eliminated.
      From now on ether as a substance vanishes from theory. In its place we have the electromagnetic field as a mathematical device for conveniently describing processes in matter and their relationships.
There remains the task of building up a description of the physical world afresh on these more abstract but empirically sound founda-tions. As mentioned already, Lorentz and Poincare have succeeded in doing this by careful analysis of the properties of Maxwell's equations. They were indeed in possession of a great deal of mathematical theory. Lorentz, however, was so attached to his assumption of an ether absolutely at rest that he did not aknowledge the physical significance of the equivalence of the infinite numbers of systems of reference which he had proved. He continued to believe that one of them represented the ether at rest.  Poincare went a step further. It was quite clear to him that Lorentz's viewpoint was not tenable and that the mathematical equivalence of systems of reference meant the validity of the principle of relativity. He also was quite clear about the consequence of his theory. What he missed was a simple physical - or should we say philosophical -point, which would make the theory of relativity independent of its derivation from Maxwell's equations, even though by rather tedious calculations.      This important step was to come from Einstein. He noticed that to overcome the difficulties met in relativistic considerations one had to go back to the fundamental concepts of space and time. He found that in the current concepts there was an assumption not based on facts and succeeded in rebuilding the theory by eliminating this preconceived notion.

* Einstein in later years proposed calling empty space  equipped with gravi-tational and electromagnetic the "ether," whereby, however this word is not to denote a substance with its traditional attributes. Thus, in the "ether,"there are to be no determinable points, and it is meaningless to speak of motion relative to the "ether." Such use of the word "ether" is of course admissible, and when once it has been sanctioned by usage in this way, probably quite convenient.  

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Chapter VI

1. The Concept of Simultaneity

     The difficulties which had to be overcome by applying the prin-ciple of relativity to electrodynamical events consisted of bringing into harmony the following two apparently inconsistent statements:
1.  According to classical mechanics the velocity of any motion has different values for two observers moving relative to each other.
2. Experiment informs us that the velocity of light is independent of the state of motion of the observer and has always the same value c.
     The older ether theory endeavoured to get rid of the contradiction between these two laws by dividing the velocity of light into two components: (a) the velocity of the luminiferous ether, and (b) the velocity of light with respect to the ether. Of these two (a) can be appropriately described with the help of convection coefficients. This theory, however, was successful in
eliminating the contradiction only with regard to quantities of the first order. To maintain the law of constancy of the propagation of light, Lorentz's theory had to introduce a special measure of length and time for everymoving system. The compatibility of the statements (1) and (2) then appears as produced by a "physical illusion."
     In 1905 Einstein recognized that Lorentz contractions and local times were not mathematical devices and physical illusions but involved the very concepts of space and time.
     Of the two statements  (1) and (2) the first is purely theoretical and conceptual in character whereas the second is founded on fact.
     Now, since the second statement, that of the constancy of the velocity of light, must be regarded as being experimentally established  

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with certainty, nothing remains but to give up the first law and hence the ideas about space and time as hitherto accepted. Thus there must be an error in these ideas, or at least a fallacy, due to a con-fusion of habits of thought with logical consistency, a tendency we all realize to be an obstacle to progress.
At this particular time Einz, said Zed Aliz Zed, az always thinking numbers, and, awkward as it may seem,we must if only for a short time,forego continuance of this moment of the benediction, bidding kind farewell to wah brother Born, a parting of such sweet sorrow. After which, said Alizzed we must make a not so abrupt detour, over the hills and far away. That way, we maintain an arrow straight, crows line flight of the humble bumble thee, in pursuit of our holy quest of the THAT.

Victoria Glendinning
1995 Edition

Page 24

"... ' Think of the language of the liturgy,' he told me.
God is almighty, all-powerful, invisible. God is power, is creation and destruction, is energy, is the divine spark, is the Light.              of the World. To be without God is to be in outer darkness. Lighten our darkness we beseech Thee, O Lord
                                                             God is electricity . Electricity is God.'
'But that is a metaphor,' I said. 'You might as well say, God is water. Perhaps all religions and all sciences and systems are metaphors for something that we cannot know. So we choose the one that makes sense to us.'
     You are right. Plato said that God was a geometer. Isaac Newton imagined a clockwork universe. The metaphors are ways of getting nearer truths that we can know if we apply our brains. If human brains can encompass geometry, mathematics, and so on, then God if he is anything is a geometer and a mathematician and everything else besides. At the very least. Because he made their brains too. But our insulation in self makes us imagine an identity for Him. What if he isn't a he but the thing itself? The unseen force. Not a musician, but music. Not the all-powerful, but the power."

Then the Zed Aliz Zed, the silence is golden, humble savant of the THAT, spawned, then spanned the circle of truth, that iz in truth a circle, a  front to back,back to front circle of living energy.Turning it inside out with such dexterity, az would, in magnificent repea, have had to be seen to be believed.Then at the very, moment of stop, using the majestic trick of the Magi's stick, Alizzed occasioned numerical metamorphosis to'ards   the first two letters of the words
refraction and re-flection. These when transposed into the magikalalphabet became numerically charged, azin for example
the god -
RE, azin RE- religion.
Relativity even writ the scribe, agog, and magog, at the not so sudden turn of prevents.
R     E
18    5
18 x 5

Then with no further explanation forthcoming  the far yonder scribe, thinking it right to do so, left it at that.
Rather, would have left it at that, had not the following, az out thin air arrived. The scribe, having thanked the happy return of another good brother, writ, you can't keep a good man down, and without further ado, asserted the insertions of the good and learned, returned brothers. Az per AlizZed said

Einstein's Theory Of Relativity
Max Born

Page 220

"We cannot describe all these experiments or even outline them. They are partly optical and concern the events involved in re-flection and refraction, double refraction, rotation of the plane of polarization, and so forth;"

The Death Of Forever
Darryl Reanney
1991 Edition

Page 101

11th L / D      

" A more significant insight can be gained by monitoring brain activity through a device called an electroencephalogram (EEC). Eec data show fundamental differences in patterns of brain activity between sleeping and waking, i.e. between night and day. At night, when we sleep, the EECrecords a regular rhythmic sequence of brain waves of relatively low frequency. These are called delta waves. Delta waves occur much of the time in infants, who spend long periods asleep. During deep sleep, the brain generates a higher frequency pattern which is associated with a rapid twitching of the eyes (hence the term REM sleep or rapid eye improvement sleep). Significantly, ultrasound imaging techniques show that such REM activity occurs constantly in  unborn babies. Is this because the foetal brain is initially attuned only to its primal darkness, its original dreaming state, and only slowly learns to adjust to the activating effects of sunlight?
       When we are fully awake, brain waves take a different and more complex form. Simplistically, when we are awake but relaxed the EECrecords a slow, regular pattern called an alpha wave. When we become excited or alert, the pattern changes
again into a more complicated sequence of small, rapidly fluctuating waves called a beta wave pattern.
      The brain, then, reveals through its electrical activity, several quite different states which are bly correlated with night and day. The basis of our consciousness is cyclic and repetative. After ten years of life, a child has experienced about
3650 day/night cycles. Its psychology has been totally and irreverseibly structured in terms of this periodicity; it accepts unconsciously, instinctively, that light follows dark."

At just this point Alizzed had yon scribe a calculation render, well you know TheZed Aliz Zed.
3 x 6 x 5 =
     "This periodic and reiterative structure of consciousness is en-coded in our very speech. The latin prefix '
re' usually has the sense   /
Page 102  /  of 'again'. Can it be coincidence that the words we use to describe our fundamental myths and activities are not things we do but things we do again?
reproduction                      redemption    
representation                    reincarnation
recognition                         rebirth

Even the word
re-ligion may fit this pattern: one of its possible meanings is 'bind (join) again'. In the Christian tradition, we are told that Christ 'rose again from the dead', despite the fact that the resurrection of his body was supposedly an unique, once-off affair. Taken together, these facts tell us something quite fundamen-tal - that there is a natural and inevitable association between the concept of an afterlife and the enduring legacy of cyclic time. Far from being an innovation or an invention, the religious idea of rebirth, of life (light) after death (dark), is an expression of one of the oldest aspects of life on earth."
"... circadian rhythmns (from Latin circa meaning about, die meaning day)..."  
Page 105 "The intimate
relationship between the basic day/night brain cycle and the saga of death and rebirth in ancient Egypt is powerfully shown in the union of Osiris, Lord of the Dead, with Re, the sun God. One can see the link clearly in the reconstructed burial ritual of Tutankhamun. After the young King's body had been mummified and encased in its golden shell, ceremony focused on resurrection - the rebirth of the dead God.      Rather than recount this ceremony, which was exceedingly complex, Iwill quote passages from the elegant description by Egyptologist Christine Desroches- Noblecourt which clearly show how deeply the day/night cycle shaped the Egyptian concept of rebirth after death. Thus:



     At the end of his arduous search for survival, the dead Osiris
     would appear
in the aspect of the rising sun, Re
     the g
raves of the masters of Thebes repeated the dramatic story
of the sun's gestation and its rebirth at the fifth hour
                    emulating the sun, the king was to d
raw from the world of the              dead renewed strength for his morning rebirth

re remained the last act of the drama rebirth. The room the
     excavators called the annexe was enti
rely dedicated to this, and     its door, which faces East, suggests that it was deliberately
    oriented in this direction to favour the pharaoh's rising
    after his transformation Osiris the King was to spring from the
    horizon as
Re, star of day
    What could be clearer?
    Experts on religion may object that the Pharaohs were 'God-Kings' hence the mode of their burial is not  representative of the common faith of ancient Egypt. This may be true as regards the grandeur of the burial ceremonies, but the indestructable link between Egyptian belief in an afterlife and the image of the sun goes back to the roots of Egyptian life. Listen to this hymn to the sun God Re by an unknown Egyptian simply code-named N:
                     O all you gods of the soul-mansion who judge sky and earth in
                      the balance, who give food and provisions: O Tatenen, Unique
                     One, creator of mankind; O Southern, Northern, Western and
                      Eastern Enneads, give praise to Re, Lord of the Sky, the Sover-    

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                      eign who made the Gods. Worship him in his goodly shape when
                      he appears in the Day-Bark