15. The Contraction Hypothesis

     Michelson and Morley concluded from their experiment that the ether is carried along completely by the moving earth, as is main-tained in the elastic theory of Stokes and in the electromagnetic theory of Hertz. But this conclusion contradicts the numerous experiments which prove partial convection. Michelson then investigated whether it was possible to establish a difference in the velocity of light at different heights above the earth's surface, but without a positive result. He concluded from this that the motion of the ether that is carried along by the earth must extend to very great heights above the eart's surface. Thus, then, the ether would be  

/ Page 219  /  

influenced by a moving body at considerable distances. But this is in fact not the case, for Oliver Lodge showed (1892) that the velocity of light in the neighborhood of rapidly moving bodies is not influen-ced in the slightest, not even when the light passes through a b electric or magnetic field, carried along by the body. But all these efforts seem superfluous, for even if they led to an unobjection-able explanation of Michelson's experiment, the rest of electrodyna-mics and optics of moving bodies which speaks in favour of partial convection would remain unexplained.                          
      We see now Lorentz's theory of electrons placed in a very difficult position by Michelson and Morley's experiment. The doctrine of the stationary ether seems to demand that an ether wind exist on the earth, and hence stands in contradiction to the results of Michelson and Morley's experiment. The fact that it did not at once succumb to this challenge proves the inherant strength of the theory, a strength deriving from the consistency and completeness of its physical picture of the world. Finally, it overcame even this difficulty to a certain extent, although by a a very strange hypothesis, which was proposed by Fitzgerald (
1892) and at once taken up and elaborated by Lorentz.
    Let us recall the reflections on which Michelson and Morley's experiment were based. We found that the time taken by a light ray to travel to and fro along a distance  l differs according to whether the ray travels parallel or perpendicular to the earth's motion. In the former case          
1 = 2l     1  ,                          
                                                                c   1
- 2
in the second,
2 = 2l       1      .                          
                                                                c    / 1
- 2

If we now assume that the arm of the interferometer which is directed parallel to the direction of the earth's motion is shortened in the ratio  
/  1- 2 : 1,  the time t1 would become reduced in the same ratio, namely,                                        t1 =  21 / 1- 2  = 21     1   .                                                 c(1- 2        c  / 1- 2

Thus we should have t1 =t2.      

/ Page 220  /  

This suggests the following general hypothesis, the crudeness and boldness of which is startling indeed:
Everybody which has the velocity v with respect to the ether contracts in the direction of motion by the fraction
                    .       .                        .       .                                            
/  1- 2         =          / 1 -  v2 .      
                                                   /          c
     Michelson and Morley's experiment must actually, then, give a negative result, since for both positions of the interferometer  t
1 = t2. Furthermore - and this is the important point - such a contraction could not be ascertained by any means on earth, for every earthly measuring rod would be contracted in just the same way. An observer who was at rest in the ether outside the earth would, it is true, observe the contraction. The whole earth would be flattened in the direction of motion and likewise all things on it.
     The contraction hypothesis seems so remarkable
- indeed, almost absurd - because the contraction is not a consequence of any forces but appears only as a companion circumstance to motion. Lorentz, however, did not allow this objection to keep him from absorbing this hypothesis into his theory, particularly as new experiments con-firmed that no second-order
effect of the earth's motion through the ether could be detected.
     We cannot desc
ribe all these experiments or even outline them. They are partly optical and concern the events involved in re-flection and refraction, double refraction, rotation of the plane of polarization, and so forth; and they are partly electromagnetic and concern induction phenomena, the distribution of the current in wires and the like. The improved technique of physics allows us nowadays to establsh unambiguously the existence or
absence of second-order effects in these phenomena. A particularly note-worthy experiment is that of Trouton and Noble (
1903), which was intended to detect a torsional force which should occur in a suspended plate condenser in consequence of the ether wind.
     These experiments produced without exception a negative result. There could no longer be any doubt that a motion of translation through the ether cannot be detected by an observer sharing in the motion. Thus the principle of relativity which holds for mechanics is also valid for all electromagnetic phenomena.  

/ Page 221  /

Lorentz next proceeded to bring this fact into harmony with his ether theory. To do this there seemed no other way than to assume the contraction hypothesis and to fuse it into the laws of the electron theory so as to form a consistent whole free from inner contradictions. He first observed that a system of electric charges which keep in equilibrium only through the action of their electrostatic forces con-tracts of itself as soon as it is set into motion; or, more accurately the electromagnetic forces that arise when the system is moving uni-formly change the configuration of equilibrium in such a way that every length is contracted in the direction of its motion by the factor       .          .                                                                                                                                   /  1- 2.
    Now, this mathematical theorem leads, if we assume that all physical forces are ultimately electrical in origin or that they at least follow the same laws of equilibrium in uniformly moving systems, to an explanation of Fitzgerald's contraction. The difficulty of regarding all forces as electrical is due to the circumstance that they lead, in accordance with old and well known theorems deriving from Gauss and Green, to charges being in equilibrium but never in stable equilibrium. The forces which bind the atoms to form molecules and the latter together to form solid bodies cannot, therefore, simply be electrical. The necessity for assuming nonelectric forces emerges most clearly if we inquire into the dynamical constitution of an individual electron. This is supposed to be an accumulation of negative charge which we must assume to be of a finite amount, for, as we have seen (p.211), the energy of a spherically shaped charge or radius a is equal to  1  e2 , and it becomes infinitely great                                                                                                                                                 a
if a is set equal to zero. But the component parts of the electron strive to separate, since similar charges repel. Consequently,
there must be a new force which keeps them together. In Abraham's theory of the electron it is assumed that an electron is a rigid sphere, that is, that the nonelectric forces are to be so great that they admit of no defor-mation whatsoever. But it is, of course, possible to make other assumptions.
     Now, it suggested itself to Lorentz that the electron also experiences the contraction    .          .                                                                                                                                                
/  1- 2.
We have already stated (p. 213) that a much simpler formula results for the mass of the electron than that arising from Abraham's hypothesis. But, in addition to  

Page222  /

electromagnetic energy, Lorentz's electrons have also an energy of deformation of foreign origin, which is wanting in the rigid electron of Abraham.
     Lorentz next investigated the question whether the contraction hypothesis is sufficient for deriving the principle of relativity. After laborious calculations he established that this was not the case, but he also found (
1899) what assumption had to be added in order that all electromagnetic phenomena in moving systems occur just as in the resting ether. His result is at least as remarkable as the contrac-tion hypothesis. It is: A new time measure must be used in a system which is moving uniformly. He called this time, which differs from system to system, "local time"  The contraction hypothesis may clearly be expressed thus: The measure of length in moving systems is different from that in the ether. Both hypothesis together state that space  and time must be measured differently in moving systems and in the resting ether. Lorentz enunciated the laws according to which the measured quantities in various systema may be transformed into one another, and he proved that these transformations leave the field equations of the electron theory unchanged. This is the mathe-matical content of his discovery. Larmor (1900) and Poincare (1905) arrived at similar results about the same time.* We shall examine these transformation formulae presently from Einstein's point of view, and so we shall not enter into them here. But we shall consider what consequence the new turn in Lorentz's theory had for the idea of the ether.
     In the new theory of Lorentz the principle of relativity holds in conformity with the results of experiment, for all electrodynamic events. Thus, an observer percieves the same phenomena in his system no matter whether it is at rest in the ether or moving uniformly and rectilinearly. He has no means at all of distinguishing the one from the other. For even the motion of other bodies in the world, which are moving independently of him, always informs him only of relative motion with respect to them and never of absolute motion with respect to the ether. Thus he can assert that he himself is at  
* It is interesting historically that the formula of transformation to a moving system, which we nowadays call Lorentz's transformation (see V1, 2, P.236 formula (70a)), was set up by Voigt as early as 1877 in an investigation which was still founded on the elastic theory of light.  

/ Page 223  /

rest in the ether, and no one can contradict him. It is true that a second observer on another body moving relative to the first can assert the same with equal right. There is no empirical and no theoretical means of deciding whether one or the other of them is right.       Consequently, we arrive at the same position with respect to the ether as the principle of relativity of classical mechanics did with respect to the absolute space of Newton (III,6, p.69). In the latter case it had to be admitted that it is meaningless to regard a definite place in absolute space as something real in the sense of physics. For there is no physical means of fixing a place in absolute space or of finding it a second time. In precisely the same way we must now admit that a definite position in the ether is nothing real in the physical sense, and for this reason the ether itself loses the character of a substance. Indeed, we may say: If each of two observers who are moving relative to each other can assert with equal right that he is at rest in the ether, there can be no ether.
     Thus, the extreme development of the ether theory leads to its dissolution as a fundamental concept. But it has required a great effort to admit the failure of the ether idea. Even Lorentz, whose ingenious suggestions and laborious efforts led the ether theory to this crisis, hesitated for a long time before taking this step. The reason is this: The ether was conceived for the express purpose of being a carrier of light vibrations, or, more generally, of the electro-magnetic forces in empty spaces.  
Vibrations without something which vibrates seemed to be unthinkable. On the other hand, the assertion that in empty space there are observable vibrations goes beyond all possible experience. Light or electromagnetic forces are never observable except in connection with bodies. Empty space free of all matter is no object at all. All that we can ascertain is that an action starts from one material body and arrives at another material body some time later. What occurs in the inter-val is purely hypothetical, or, more precisely, a matter of suitable assumption. Theorists may use their own judgment to attribute properties to the vacuum, with the one restriction that these serve to correlate changes of material things.
    This view is a step in the direction of higher abstraction, releasing us from ideas that previously were considered to be necessary  

/   Page 224  /

components of our thinking. At the same time, it is an approach to the ideal of allowing only that which is directly given by experience to be valid as a constructive part of the physical world, all superfluous pictures and analogies originating from more primitive and unrefined experience being eliminated.
      From now on ether as a substance vanishes from theory. In its place we have the electromagnetic field as a mathematical device for conveniently describing processes in matter and their relationships.
There remains the task of building up a description of the physical world afresh on these more abstract but empirically sound founda-tions. As mentioned already, Lorentz and Poincare have succeeded in doing this by careful analysis of the properties of Maxwell's equations. They were indeed in possession of a great deal of mathematical theory. Lorentz, however, was so attached to his assumption of an ether absolutely at rest that he did not aknowledge the physical significance of the equivalence of the infinite numbers of systems of reference which he had proved. He continued to believe that one of them represented the ether at rest.  Poincare went a step further. It was quite clear to him that Lorentz's viewpoint was not tenable and that the mathematical equivalence of systems of reference meant the validity of the principle of relativity. He also was quite clear about the consequence of his theory. What he missed was a simple physical - or should we say philosophical -point, which would make the theory of relativity independent of its derivation from Maxwell's equations, even though by rather tedious calculations.      This important step was to come from Einstein. He noticed that to overcome the difficulties met in relativistic considerations one had to go back to the fundamental concepts of space and time. He found that in the current concepts there was an assumption not based on facts and succeeded in rebuilding the theory by eliminating this preconceived notion.

* Einstein in later years proposed calling empty space  equipped with gravi-tational and electromagnetic the "ether," whereby, however this word is not to denote a substance with its traditional attributes. Thus, in the "ether,"there are to be no determinable points, and it is meaningless to speak of motion relative to the "ether." Such use of the word "ether" is of course admissible, and when once it has been sanctioned by usage in this way, probably quite convenient.  /


Page 225  2 + 2 + 5 = 9   /

Chapter VI 

1. The Concept of Simultaneity

     The difficulties which had to be overcome by applying the prin-ciple of relativity to electrodynamical events consisted of bringing into harmony the following two apparently inconsistent statements:

1.  According to classical mechanics the velocity of any motion has different values for two observers moving relative to each other.
2. Experiment informs us that the velocity of light is independent of the state of motion of the observer and has always the same value c.
     The older ether theory endeavoured to get rid of the contradiction between these two laws by dividing the velocity of light into two components: (a) the velocity of the luminiferous ether, and (b) the velocity of light with respect to the ether. Of these two (a) can be appropriately described with the help of convection coefficients. This theory, however, was successful in
eliminating the contradiction only with regard to quantities of the first order. To maintain the law of constancy of the propagation of light, Lorentz's theory had to introduce a special measure of length and time for everymoving system. The compatibility of the statements (1) and (2) then appears as produced by a "physical illusion."
     In 1905 Einstein recognized that Lorentz contractions and local times were not mathematical devices and physical illusions but involved the very concepts of space and time.
     Of the two statements  (1) and (2) the first is purely theoretical and conceptual in character whereas the second is founded on fact.
     Now, since the second statement, that of the constancy of the velocity of light, must be regarded as being experimentally established  

/ Page 226   /

with certainty, nothing remains but to give up the first law and hence the ideas about space and time as hitherto accepted. Thus there must be an error in these ideas, or at least a fallacy, due to a con-fusion of habits of thought with logical consistency, a tendency we all realize to be an obstacle to progress.
At this particular time Einz, said Zed Aliz Zed, az always thinking numbers, and, awkward as it may seem,we must if only for a short time,forego continuance of this moment of the benediction, bidding kind farewell to wah brother Born, a parting of such sweet sorrow. After which, said Alizzed we must make a not so abrupt detour, over the hills and far away. That way, we maintain an arrow straight, crows line flight of the humble bumble thee, in pursuit of our holy quest of the THAT.

Victoria Glendinning
1995 Edition

Page 24

"... ' Think of the language of the liturgy,' he told me.
God is almighty, all-powerful, invisible. God is power, is creation and destruction, is energy, is the divine spark, is the Light. of the World. To be without God is to be in outer darkness. Lighten our darkness we beseech Thee, O Lord
                                                             God is electricity . Electricity is God.'
'But that is a metaphor,' I said. 'You might as well say, God is water. Perhaps all religions and all sciences and systems are metaphors for something that we cannot know. So we choose the one that makes sense to us.'
     You are right. Plato said that God was a geometer. Isaac Newton imagined a clockwork universe. The metaphors are ways of getting nearer truths that we can know if we apply our brains. If human brains can encompass geometry, mathematics, and so on, then God if he is anything is a geometer and a mathematician and everything else besides. At the very least. Because he made their brains too. But our insulation in self makes us imagine an identity for Him. What if he isn't a he but the thing itself? The unseen force. Not a musician, but music. Not the all-powerful, but the power."

Then the Zed Aliz Zed, the silence is golden, humble savant of the THAT, spawned, then spanned the circle of truth, that iz in truth a circle, a  front to back,back to front circle of living energy.Turning it inside out with such dexterity, az would, in magnificent repea, have had to be seen to be believed.Then at the very, moment of stop, using the majestic trick of the Magi's stick, Alizzed occasioned numerical metamorphosis to'ards   the first two letters of the words
refraction and re-flection. These when transposed into the magikalalphabet became numerically charged, azin for example
the god -
RE, azin RE- religion.
Relativity even writ the scribe, agog, and magog, at the not so sudden turn of prevents.
R     E
18    5
18 x 5
Then with no further explanation forthcoming  the far yonder scribe, thinking it right to do so, left it at that.
Rather, would have left it at that, had not the following, az out thin air arrived. The scribe, having thanked the happy return of another good brother, writ, you can't keep a good man down, and without further ado, asserted the insertions of the good and learned, returned brothers. Az per AlizZed said

Einstein's Theory Of Relativity
Max Born

Page 220

"We cannot describe all these experiments or even outline them. They are partly optical and concern the events involved in re-flection and refraction, double refraction, rotation of the plane of polarization, and so forth;"

The Death Of Forever
Darryl Reanney
1991 Edition

Page 101

11th L / D      
" A more significant insight can be gained by monitoring b
rain activity through a device called an electroencephalogram (EEC). Eec data show fundamental differences in patterns of brain activity between sleeping and waking, i.e. between night and day. At night, when we sleep, the EECrecords a regular rhythmic sequence of brain waves of relatively low frequency. These are called delta waves. Delta waves occur much of the time in infants, who spend long periods asleep. During deep sleep, the brain generates a higher frequency pattern which is associated with a rapid twitching of the eyes (hence the term REM sleep or rapid eye improvement sleep). Significantly, ultrasound imaging techniques show that such REM activity occurs constantly in  unborn babies. Is this because the foetal brain is initially attuned only to its primal darkness, its original dreaming state, and only slowly learns to adjust to the activating effects of sunlight?
       When we are fully awake, brain waves take a different and more complex form. Simplistically, when we are awake but relaxed the EECrecords a slow, regular pattern called an alpha wave. When we become excited or alert, the pattern changes
again into a more complicated sequence of small, rapidly fluctuating waves called a beta wave pattern.
      The brain, then, reveals through its electrical activity, several quite different states which are bly correlated with night and day. The basis of our consciousness is cyclic and repetative. After ten years of life, a child has experienced about
3650 day/night cycles. Its psychology has been totally and irreverseibly structured in terms of this periodicity; it accepts unconsciously, instinctively, that light follows dark."
At just this point Alizzed had yon scribe a calculation render, well you know TheZed Aliz Zed.
3 x 6 x 5 =
     "This periodic and reiterative structure of consciousness is en-coded in our very speech. The latin prefix '
re' usually has the sense  

/ Page 102  /  

of 'again'. Can it be coincidence that the words we use to describe our fundamental myths and activities are not things we do but things we do again?
reproduction                      redemption    
representation                    reincarnation
recognition                         rebirth
Even the word
re-ligion may fit this pattern: one of its possible meanings is 'bind (join) again'. In the Christian tradition, we are told that Christ 'rose again from the dead', despite the fact that the resurrection of his body was supposedly an unique, once-off affair. Taken together, these facts tell us something quite fundamen-tal - that there is a natural and inevitable association between the concept of an afterlife and the enduring legacy of cyclic time. Far from being an innovation or an invention, the religious idea of rebirth, of life (light) after death (dark), is an expression of one of the oldest aspects of life on earth."
"... circadian rhythmns (from Latin circa meaning about, die meaning day)..."  
Page 105

"The intimate relationship between the basic day/night brain cycle and the saga of death and rebirth in ancient Egypt is powerfully shown in the union of Osiris, Lord of the Dead, with Re, the sun God. One can see the link clearly in the reconstructed burial ritual of Tutankhamun. After the young King's body had been mummified and encased in its golden shell, ceremony focused on resurrection - the rebirth of the dead God.      Rather than recount this ceremony, which was exceedingly complex, Iwill quote passages from the elegant description by Egyptologist Christine Desroches- Noblecourt which clearly show how deeply the day/night cycle shaped the Egyptian concept of rebirth after death. Thus:

     At the end of his arduous search for survival, the dead Osiris
     would appear
in the aspect of the rising sun, Re
     the g
raves of the masters of Thebes repeated the dramatic story
of the sun's gestation and its rebirth at the fifth hour
                    emulating the sun, the king was to d
raw from the world of the              dead renewed strength for his morning rebirth

re remained the last act of the drama rebirth. The room the
     excavators called the annexe was enti
rely dedicated to this, and     its door, which faces East, suggests that it was deliberately
    oriented in this direction to favour the pharaoh's rising
    after his transformation Osiris the King was to spring from the
    horizon as
Re, star of day
    What could be clearer?
    Experts on religion may object that the Pharaohs were 'God-Kings' hence the mode of their burial is not  representative of the common faith of ancient Egypt. This may be true as regards the grandeur of the burial ceremonies, but the indestructable link between Egyptian belief in an afterlife and the image of the sun goes back to the roots of Egyptian life. Listen to this hymn to the sun God Re by an unknown Egyptian simply code-named N:
                     O all you gods of the soul-mansion who judge sky and earth in
                      the balance, who give food and provisions: O Tatenen, Unique
                     One, creator of mankind; O Southern, Northern, Western and
                      Eastern Enneads, give praise to Re, Lord of the Sky, the Sover-    /
Page 106 /     eign who made the Gods. Worship him in his goodly shape when
                      he appears in the Day-Bark

          Another time out said Zed Aliz to nobody in particular.nobody in particular listened intently az the Alizzed did chant,
                                           an I can an incantaion make, followed by the  throwing of a casting of numbers
                                               The scribe noting the here, and how we fell positions, acted accordingly.                                                                          
THE BOOK OF THE DEAD                                                                                   E.A.Wallis Budge
Chap.cxxxi.5]                                                    OF LIVING NIGH UNTO RA

"Chapter CXXXI
[From the Papyrus of Nu (Brit. Mus. No. 10,477 sheets 17 and 18).]
Vignette: This Chapter is without vignette, both in the Papyrus of Nu and in the Saite Recension (see Lepsius, op cit., BL.54)
RA.1 The overseer of the house of the
                 overseer of the seal, Nu, triumphant, saith: -
                 "I am that god
Ra who shineth in the night. Every
                  "(2) being who followeth in his train shall have life in

                 " the following of the god Thoth, and he shall give
                 "unto him the risings of Horus in the darkness. The
                 "heart of Osiris Nu, the overseer of the house of the
                 "overseer of the seal, triumphant, is glad (3) because
                 " he is one of those beings, and his enemies have been
                  "destroyed by the divine princes. Iam a follower of
Ra, and [I have] received his iron weapon. (4) I
                  "have come unto thee, O my father
Ra, and I have
                  "advanced to the god Shuu I have cried unto the
                  "mighty goddess, I have equipped the god Hu,(5) and
                   "I alone have removed the Nebt god from the path of
Ra. I, am a Khu and I have come to the divine
                 / "prince at the bounds of the horizon I have met  
Page 398  /  "(6) and I have received the mighty goddess. I have
                     "raised up thy soul in the following of thy strength,

                    "and my soul [liveth] through thy victory and thy
                    "mighty power; it is I who give commands (7) in
                    "speech to
Ra in heaven. Homage to thee, O great
                    "god in the east of heaven, let me embark in thy boat,
Ra, let me open myself out in the form of a divine
                    "hawk, (8) let me give my commands in words, let me
                    "do battle in my Sekhem (?), let me be master under
                    "my vine. Let me embark in thy boat, O
Ra, in
                    "peace, (9) and let me sail in peace to the beautiful
                    "Amentet. Let the god Tem speak unto me, [saying],
                    "Wouldst [thou] enter therein?' The lady, the
                    "goddess Mehen, is a million of years, yea, two million  
                    "years in (10) duration, and dwelleth in the house of
                    "Urt and Nif-urt [and in] the Lake of a million years;
                    "the whole company of the gods move about among
                    "those who are at the side of him who is the lord of
                    "divisions of places (?). And I say, 'On every road
                    "and among (11) these millions of years is
Ra the lord,
                    "and his path is in the fire; and they go round about
                    "behind him, and they go round about behind him.' "
Pages 397 /398 .  


RA  occurs  x  1
Ra   occurs  x  8
R  - 18TH  Letter of the Alphabet   A  -  1ST  Az and when ,add to reduce, reduce to deduce,
       1 + 8
          9 + A
             10 x 9
                 9 + 0
R  -  A
18 +  1    =      
19     1 + 9 = 10 x 9 = 90   9 plus an absence = NINE
18 x  9    =    
162      1 + 6 + 2 = 9
A  x  9    =        
R  + A x  9 =
171     1 + 7 + 1 = 9
R = Eighteenth letter of Alphabet    18
- 26 = 8 x the 9 in 18 = 72   7 + 2 = 9
But, but, but, didnt stammer the scribe, writing stammeringly.  No ifs or buts said Zed Aliz, thou art not a dolly sisyphean, thou art a patent pattern finder and yours is not to reason why, yours is but to see and try.
So the scribe did
Eighteen contains 8 letters x 9 =